Intervirology (Intervirology)

Publisher: S. Karger (Firm), Karger

Journal description

As its title suggests, ëIntervirologyí covers progress in both basic and clinical virus research, and aims to provide a forum of exchange among the various disciplines within virology. Issues publishing original papers alternate with thematic issues, focusing on one clearly defined topic of basic or medical virology. This thematic concentration serves to make timely reviews, research reports and controversy easily accessible to both specialists in the field and those who want to keep track of the latest developments outside their own area of interest. The scope encompasses work on the molecular biology of animal viruses, including genome organization and regulation, and the structure and function of viral proteins. The pathogenesis, immunology, diagnosis and prophylaxis of viral diseases are discussed, with attention also given to virus-like agents such as prions and viroids.

Current impact factor: 1.77

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.773
2012 Impact Factor 1.889
2011 Impact Factor 2.337
2010 Impact Factor 1.756
2009 Impact Factor 1.106
2008 Impact Factor 1.418
2007 Impact Factor 1.827
2006 Impact Factor 1.448
2005 Impact Factor 1.776
2004 Impact Factor 1.219
2003 Impact Factor 1.45
2002 Impact Factor 1.441
2001 Impact Factor 1.871
2000 Impact Factor 0.955
1999 Impact Factor 1.215
1998 Impact Factor 1.186
1997 Impact Factor 0.787
1996 Impact Factor 1.054
1995 Impact Factor 1.26
1994 Impact Factor 0.788
1993 Impact Factor 1.189
1992 Impact Factor 1.667

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.59
Cited half-life 8.20
Immediacy index 0.99
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.46
Website Intervirology website
Other titles Intervirology (Online)
ISSN 1423-0100
OCLC 44724243
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's server or institutional server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) requires protein biosynthesis machinery to generate progeny. There is evidence that RSV might alter some translation components since stress granules are formed in their host cells. Consistent with these observations, we found that RSV induces dephosphorylation of 4EBP1 (eIF4E-binding protein), an important cellular translation factor. Our results show no correlation between the 4EBP1 dephosphorylation time and the decrease in the global rate of protein synthesis. Interestingly, treatment with rapamycin stimulates virus generation. The results suggest that RSV is a virus that still contains unknown mechanisms involved in the translation of their mRNAs through the alteration or modification of some translation factors, such as 4EBP1, possibly to favor its replicative cycle. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 08/2015; 58(4):205-208. DOI:10.1159/000435774
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    ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome-like disease with high mortality rates have frequently occurred in Pelodiscus sinensis farms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogen through challenge infection assays and partial sequencing of the genome of the pathogen. A 453-bp amplicon was obtained by random PCR using the nucleic acid extracted from the tissue homogenate filtrate and showed 32% identity at the amino acid level with the replicase polyprotein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by Blastx. Multiple alignments indicated the putative protein sequence has some similarities to the replicase polyprotein of Arteriviridae, and the phylogenetic tree showed it was closely related to equine arteritis virus. This sequence was found in the lung of the diseased P. sinensis by in situ hybridization. Dot blot hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the lung had the highest content of virus. The peak replication of P. sinensis hemorrhagic syndrome virus (TSHSV) in the lung occurred 4 days after infection. The ribonucleic nature of the viral genome was confirmed by RNase A or DNase I treatments. We named the virus TSHSV in this study as P. sinensis is also known as Trionyx sinensis. These results provide a fundamental basis for further understanding the biology and the molecular mechanisms of TSHSV. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 08/2015; 58(4):197-204. DOI:10.1159/000437354
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    ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and is the most damaging disease of livestock worldwide, leading to great economic losses. The aim of this research was the inactivation of FMDV type O/IRN/1/2007 to produce a gamma ray-irradiated (GRI) vaccine in order to immunize mice and guinea pigs. In this research, the Iranian isolated FMDV type O/IRN/1/2007 was irradiated by gamma ray to prepare an inactivated whole virus antigen and formulated as a GRI vaccine with unaltered antigenic characteristics. Immune responses against this vaccine were evaluated on mice and guinea pigs. The comparison of the immune responses between the GRI vaccine and conventional vaccine did not show any significant difference in neutralizing antibody titer, memory spleen T lymphocytes or IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2 and IL-10 concentrations (p > 0.05). In contrast, there were significant differences in all of the evaluated immune factors between the two vaccinated groups of mice and negative control mice (p < 0.05). The protective dose 50 for the conventional and GRI vaccines obtained were 6.28 and 7.07, respectively, which indicated the high potency of both vaccines. GRI vaccine is suitable for both routine vaccination and control of FMDV in emergency outbreaks. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 07/2015; 58(3):190-196. DOI:10.1159/000433538
  • Intervirology 06/2015; 58(3):181-183. DOI:10.1159/000431041
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of the phylogeny and diversity of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) genotype ON1 that occurred during its early evolution (within the first 3.5 years since the detection of the first ON1 strains). ON1 strains have a 72-nucleotide-long in-frame duplication within the second hypervariable domain of the glycoprotein gene (HVR2). All available HVR2 sequences of strains belonging to the ON1 genotype published prior to June 20, 2014 were collected. Multiple sequence alignments, phylogeny, phylogeography, sequence clustering and putative protein analyses were performed. The worldwide spread and diversification of ON1 strains are presented. Only in a minority of ON1 strains do the two replicas remain identical, and various ON1 strains possess common differences between the first and the second copy (segments A and B). Mutations of the progenitor sequence were more frequent in segment B, a higher overall diversity on the protein level and more putative glycosylation sites exist in segment B, and, unlike in segment A, positive selection acts on that protein region. The fast spread of the novel HRSV genotype ON1 has been accompanied by its rapid concurrent diversification. Differences in variability of the two replicas within HVR2 were detected, with C-terminal replica being more variable. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 06/2015; 58(3):172-180. DOI:10.1159/000382018
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of IL28B polymorphism in occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and whether IL28B genetic variants are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell responses. The rs12979860 IL28B genotype was determined in 34 OBI blood donors, 22 spontaneous HBV resolvers, 36 inactive HBV carriers and 25 seronegative donors. T-cell responses to HBV recombinant proteins were assessed by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The frequency of the IL28B CC genotype among OBI patients was similar to that of inactive carriers [41 vs. 39%, respectively, p = 0.961; odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-2.86; p = 0.845]. The IL28B CC genotype was found more frequently in spontaneous resolvers, although the differences were not significant (45 vs. 39%, spontaneous resolvers and inactive carriers, respectively; p = 0.828; OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 0.45-3.83; p = 0.622). HBV-specific T-cell responses were detected in OBIs, and significantly stronger T-cell responses towards hepatitis B envelope antigen were observed in those with the IL28B CC genotype. In spontaneous resolvers and inactive carriers, IL28B CC did not correlate with the magnitude of T-cell responses. In OBI donors, IL28B CC correlates with the intensity of HBV-specific T-cell responses. In this study, IL28B CC is not statistically associated with OBI or with HBV clearance, but a larger number of cases is needed before completely ruling out its role in HBV infection. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 05/2015; 58(3):160-165. DOI:10.1159/000430444
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate tropism prediction performances of three algorithms [geno2pheno false-positive rate 10% (G2P10), position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) and a combination of the 11/25 and net charge rules] and to investigate the viral and host factors potentially involved in the X4 or R5 prediction in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) patients. Viral tropism was determined in 179 HIV-1-infected patients eligible for CCR5 antagonist therapy. HIV-1 RNA or DNA was extracted and amplified for env gp120 sequencing. In parallel, demographic, viral, immunological and clinical determinants were analyzed. According to the G2P10 algorithm, 48 patients harbored X4 or X4R5 virus. The tropism prediction was concordant for 87.7 and 88.2% of samples when comparing G2P10 with PSSM or with a combination of the 11/25 and net charge rules, respectively. X4 prediction was significantly associated with more than 35 amino acids in the V3 domain (p < 0.0001) and loss of an N-linked glycosylation site (p < 0.0001). Of the factors studied, only the nadir CD4 T-cell count was significantly associated with X4 tropism (p = 0.01). We determined that the X4 virus detection is closely linked to the nadir CD4 T-cell count below 100 cells/mm(3) that must be taken into account when considering a CCR5 antagonist therapy switch. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 05/2015; 58(3):155-159. DOI:10.1159/000398798
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the study were (1) to characterize the genetic variability of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype 16 in the E6 region when this genotype is present in multiple infection samples, (2) to assess the prevalence of variants in our region and (3) to analyze the relationship between variants, patients' ages and pathology. The Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control Department analyzed samples which were positive for genotype 16 and other genotypes from 2007 to 2013. Variants were assigned to European, Euro-German, Asian, Asian-American or African lineage by sequence analysis. The relationship among variants, age and different types of lesion was studied. In HPV-16 sequence analysis, the European variant was detected in 85.10% of samples, the Asian-American in 7.80%, the African in 4.25% and the Euro-German in 2.83% of specimens. Sequence genetic variability showed 16 nucleotide substitutions. Moreover, non-European variants were mainly found in old women and in isolates from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions since European variants were mainly detected in negative cytologies. Multiple infections may take effect on nucleotide substitution and the appearance of recombinant samples. Single gene analysis makes it impossible to detect recombination which has a great influence on drug response and vaccine strategies. Thus, E6 gene analysis would be enough to identify HPV-16 intratypic variants but not to confirm the results. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 05/2015; 58(3):143-148. DOI:10.1159/000381745
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    ABSTRACT: Ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV), a novel hepatitis E-like virus, has been identified in ferrets in the Netherlands, Japan, and the US. To determine whether ferret HEV transmits to other animals, we inoculated laboratory rats (Wistar), nude rats (Long-Evans-rnu/rnu), and cynomolgus monkeys with ferret HEV (F4351) by intravenous injection. None of the animals demonstrated a positive sign for virus replication, indicating that rats and monkeys are not susceptible to ferret HEV. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 04/2015; 58(3):139-142. DOI:10.1159/000373891
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is widely distributed and constitutes the main cause of congenital infections worldwide. CMV transmission during pregnancy represents one of the major impacts of this virus on public health. This study aimed at assessing glycoprotein B (gB) CMV genotypes in Mexican children and pregnant women, since there is limited information regarding CMV genomic diversity in Mexico. We analyzed CMV strains detected in Mexican children (n = 38) and women (n = 38) between 2001 and 2012. A fragment of the gB gene was amplified and sequenced, and genotypes were defined based on prototype sequences. The gB1 genotype was detected more frequently in children (68.4%) compared to women (31.6%; p = 0.0028), while genotype 2 was more common in women (65.8%) compared to children (26.3%, p = 0.0012). Genotype 3 was uncommon in both groups (5.3 and 2.6%). Nucleotide sequences exhibited a high degree of similarity to prototype strains. However, we identified 17 distinct sequences that resulted in changes in the encoded amino acid sequence in four strains. gB1 and gB2 are the most common strains associated with CMV infection in Mexican children and women. In addition, we found that the frequency for each genotype differed amongst them, possibly due to variability in transmission or reactivation dynamics. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 04/2015; 58(2):115-21. DOI:10.1159/000373922
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    ABSTRACT: The spike (S) protein of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) may mediate infection by binding to a cellular neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This study aimed to identify the crucial domain of the S1 subunit of the S protein that interacts with NCAM. Three truncated segments (S1-291, S277-794 and S548-868) of the S gene of PHEV and the NCAM gene were cloned individually into the Escherichia coli expression vectors and yeast two-hybrid expression vectors. The interaction between S1-291, S277-794, S548-868 and NCAM were detected by a GST pull-down experiment and yeast two-hybrid assay. Three fusion proteins (S1-291, S277-794 and S548-868) were screened for their interactions with NCAM by protein-protein interaction assays. The results of these assays clarified that S277-794 interacted with NCAM, while S1-291 and S548-868 did not. A small fragment (258-amino-acid fragment, residues 291-548) on the PHEV S protein was posited to be the minimum number of amino acids necessary to interact with NCAM. This fragment may be the receptor-binding domain that mediates PHEV binding to NCAM. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 04/2015; 58(2):130-137. DOI:10.1159/000381060
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 infects several immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, which contributes in both to dissemination of HIV-1 infection and induction of antiviral immunity. These cells produce high amounts of type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines upon Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. During HIV-1 infection, an altered production of proinflammatory cytokines has been reported. However, the mechanisms underlying cytokine modulation have not been well described. Here, we evaluated the production of proinflammatory cytokines and activation of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs and monocytes costimulated in vitro with TLR agonists and HIV-1. Changes in cytokine expression by real-time PCR and activation of DCs and monocytes by flow cytometry were evaluated after costimulation with HIV-1 and TLR agonists. We observed an upregulation of TNF-α expression after TLR4 stimulation, but a downregulation of IL-6 when TLR2/TLR9 were stimulated. Interestingly, the expression of CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules in monocytes and DCs were significantly increased in cells challenged with HIV-1 and TLR2/TLR4/TLR9 agonists. This regulation of TNF-α and IL-6 production and changes in the expression of costimulatory molecules can be critical in the context of HIV-1 infection, by favoring the antigen-presenting cell activation through the stimulation of TLRs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 04/2015; 58(2):122-129. DOI:10.1159/000371765
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Lipolytic genes have been investigated in several viral genomes, and some of them show enzyme activity which can be used for various functions including the production of DNA replication metabolites, rescue from endosomes, and membrane fusion. Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) replicates in nearly the entire insect body, especially in the adipose tissue. One of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the AMEV genome, amv133, encodes a putative lipase enzyme. In this study, we therefore investigate the enzyme activity of amv133. Methods: amv133 was aligned with known lipase genes and their homologs in entomopoxviruses. Expressed proteins were partially purified and assayed for lipase, esterase and protease. Results: We found that amv133 contains all the domains required for a functional lipase enzyme and that it shows a significant similarity with homologs in other entomopoxviruses. Since there is a similarity of the catalytic triad between lipases and serine proteases, we also investigated the protease activity of amv133. Lipase, esterase and protease assays showed that amv133 encodes a functional esterase enzyme with protease activity. Conclusion: The current data show that amv133 is a conserved gene in all entomopoxvirus genomes sequenced so far and might contribute greatly to degrading the lipids or proteins and hence improve the virus infection. (c) 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 01/2015; 58(1):41-48. DOI:10.1159/000369018
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Adsorption and kinetic parameters, latent period, burst size and burst time, are characteristics of phage/host systems and can be affected by several environmental factors. As only few studies have focused on temperate dairy phages, we characterized these parameters on temperate Lactobacillus paracasei phages Φ iLp84 and Φ iLp1308, infective for probiotic strains. Methods: Phages were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and genomic DNA restriction. Adsorption under different environmental conditions, phage kinetics and efficiency of plating (EOP) were determined using the double-layer titration method. Results: Phages Φ iLp84 and Φ iLp1308 belong to the Siphoviridae family and have genome sizes of 38 and 34 kbp, respectively. Adsorption was affected by calcium concentration, pH, temperature and host viability, and reached a limit at very high multiplicity of infection. Latency, burst time and burst size were of 85 min, 131 min and 46 for Φ iLp84, and 51 min, 92 min and 28 for Φ iLp1308, respectively, at 37°C. A clear influence of temperature on phage kinetics was observed. Regarding EOP, Φ iLp84 produced plaques on only 1 out of 8 strains tested. Conclusion: Noticeable differences in adsorption, kinetics and EOP were found for two morphologically identical temperate L. paracasei phages of similar origin. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 01/2015; 58(1):49-56. DOI:10.1159/000369207
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Given the magnitude of the HIV epidemic infection, many viral and human factors were analyzed, and the most decisive was the variant CCR5-Δ32. The presence of a low HIV prevalence (1.8%) in Gabon in the 1990s, compared to neighboring countries, represents a paradox that led us to search for viral and human genetic variants in this country. In this study, only variants of coreceptors and chemokines were investigated. Methods: Variants of the coding region of the CCR5 gene were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and then variants of SDF1 and CCR2b were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Four rare variants of the CCR5 coreceptor were found, while CCR5-Δ32 and CCR5m303 variants were not found. No association with CCR2b-V64I (17%) and SDF1-3'A (2%) variants was determined in relation to HIV-1 infection in Gabonese patients. Conclusion: The paradox of HIV seroprevalence in Gabon, which ended in the 2000s, was not caused by human genetic variants but rather by environmental factors. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 01/2015; 58(1):22-26. DOI:10.1159/000369016
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Our goal was to systematically and quantitatively assess treatment response between Asian patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 6 (HCV-6) and hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) treated for 48 weeks with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Methods: We performed a literature search in MEDLINE and EMBASE for 'genotype 6' in August 2013. Additional abstracts from major international scientific conferences from 2012 to 2013 were reviewed. Studies included were original articles with ≥10 treatment-naïve Asian HCV-6 patients. Exclusion criteria were coinfections with hepatitis B virus, HIV and/or other liver diseases. Heterogeneity was defined as a Cochrane Q test with a p value of 0.10 and an I(2) statistic of >50%. Results of a random-effects model are reported. Results: A total of 1,046 (503 HCV-6; 543 HCV-1) patients from 12 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled sustained virologic response (SVR) rate was 80.2% (95% CI 74.3-85.0, Q statistic = 20.87, p < 0.035; I(2) = 47.3%) for HCV-6 and 62.5% (95% CI 41.9-79.4, Q statistic = 52.41, p < 0.001; I(2) = 92.37) for HCV-1 patients. HCV-6 patients had a significantly higher SVR rate compared to HCV-1 patients (odds ratio 2.73, 95% CI 1.69-4.41, p < 0.001). Approximately one fourth of patients without early virologic response (EVR) achieved SVR, regardless of genotype (HCV-1, n = 6/23; HCV-6, n = 4/21). Conclusions: Asian patients with HCV-6 can expect higher SVR rates (∼80%) than HCV-1 patients (∼63%). EVR as a stopping rule is less clear in Asian patients with HCV-6 and HCV-1. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 01/2015; 58(1):27-34. DOI:10.1159/000369097
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Interferon (IFN)-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is cost-effective and is associated with reduced risk of disease progression. We aimed to assess the incidence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to identify risk factors associated with disease progression. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 280 CHC patients who were registered at our hospital between 2001 and 2010. Results: About 80% of patients received antiviral treatment. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cirrhosis was significantly lower among patients who received antiviral therapy than among those who did not (8.3 vs. 44.0%; p = 0.001). Among them, patients with sustained virological response (SVR) had a significantly lower incidence of cirrhosis than those without SVR (0.6 vs. 33.9%; p < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards regression showed that SVR was the significant independent factor for reducing the risk of cirrhosis (hazard ratio, HR = 0.03; p = 0.034). The 10-year cumulative incidence of HCC was higher among patients who did not receive antiviral therapy than among those who did (43.9 vs. 6.1%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that underlying cirrhosis was the only independent risk factor associated with HCC development (HR = 7.70; p = 0.010). Conclusions: SVR secondary to IFN-based therapy could reduce cirrhosis development in CHC patients. Underlying cirrhosis was the strongest predictor of HCC development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 01/2015; 58(1):14-21. DOI:10.1159/000369206