Intervirology (Intervirology)

Publisher: S. Karger (Firm), Karger

Journal description

As its title suggests, ëIntervirologyí covers progress in both basic and clinical virus research, and aims to provide a forum of exchange among the various disciplines within virology. Issues publishing original papers alternate with thematic issues, focusing on one clearly defined topic of basic or medical virology. This thematic concentration serves to make timely reviews, research reports and controversy easily accessible to both specialists in the field and those who want to keep track of the latest developments outside their own area of interest. The scope encompasses work on the molecular biology of animal viruses, including genome organization and regulation, and the structure and function of viral proteins. The pathogenesis, immunology, diagnosis and prophylaxis of viral diseases are discussed, with attention also given to virus-like agents such as prions and viroids.

Current impact factor: 1.68

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.683
2013 Impact Factor 1.773
2012 Impact Factor 1.889
2011 Impact Factor 2.337
2010 Impact Factor 1.756
2009 Impact Factor 1.106
2008 Impact Factor 1.418
2007 Impact Factor 1.827
2006 Impact Factor 1.448
2005 Impact Factor 1.776
2004 Impact Factor 1.219
2003 Impact Factor 1.45
2002 Impact Factor 1.441
2001 Impact Factor 1.871
2000 Impact Factor 0.955
1999 Impact Factor 1.215
1998 Impact Factor 1.186
1997 Impact Factor 0.787
1996 Impact Factor 1.054
1995 Impact Factor 1.26
1994 Impact Factor 0.788
1993 Impact Factor 1.189
1992 Impact Factor 1.667

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.79
Cited half-life 8.90
Immediacy index 0.27
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.51
Website Intervirology website
Other titles Intervirology (Online)
ISSN 1423-0100
OCLC 44724243
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's server or institutional server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: Of the 35 million human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients worldwide, 10-40% are coinfected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Compared to HCV-monoinfected patients, those coinfected experience decreased spontaneous HCV clearance, accelerated liver fibrosis, and a decreased response to anti-HCV therapy. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of treating acute HCV in HIV-positive patients with peginterferon and ribavirin combination therapy. Methods: Two authors independently searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (2014) for English articles, and reviewed bibliographies and abstracts from major liver and HIV conferences (2011-2013). Original studies featuring at least 10 treatment-naive, HIV-positive adults infected with acute HCV and treated with peginterferon and ribavirin were included. Analyses were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q test (p < 0.05) and the I2 statistic (>50%). Results: From 12 studies (450 patients), the pooled sustained virological response (SVR) was 71.4% (95% CI 64.7-77.4; Q statistic = 22.20, p = 0.023, I2 = 50.44). The rapid virological response (RVR; 7 studies, 196 patients) was 47.4% (95% CI 40.6-54.7), and the early virological response (EVR; 9 studies, 283 patients) was 82.8% (95% CI 67.0-92.0). The probability of an SVR was 93.1% (95% CI 84.9-97.0) in those who obtained an RVR (6 studies, 82 patients) and 85.9% (95% CI 78.7-91.0) if an EVR (7 studies, 168 patients) was reached. Conclusion: Peginterferon with ribavirin is an effective option for treating acute HCV in HIV-positive patients, especially if they achieve an RVR or an EVR.
    Intervirology 09/2015; 58(4):242-249. DOI:10.1159/000437427
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To characterize the lytic coliphage vB_EcoM_JS09 (phage JS09) isolated from sewage samples of a swine farm in Jiangsu Province, China, which infects antibiotic-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Methods and results: Transmission electron microscopy revealed that phage JS09 has an isometric icosahedral head (76 nm in diameter) and a long contractile tail (140 nm in length) and features a T-even morphology. Its latent period was 30 min and the average burst size was 79 phage particles per infected cell. It attached to the host cells within 9 min. JS09 could infect 16 clinically isolated APEC and ETEC strains and the laboratory-engineered E. coli K and B strains. Ten of the clinical isolates of E. coli were resistant to antibiotics. At a multiplicity of infection of 10, 3, 1, or 0.3, the phage caused rapid cell lysis within 2 h, resulting in 5- to 10-fold reductions in cell concentration. Sequencing of the JS09 genome revealed a 169.148-kb linear but circularly permuted and terminally redundant dsDNA with 37.98% G+C content. Two hundred seventy-three open reading frames were predicted to be coding sequences, 135 of which were functionally defined and organized in a modular format which includes modules for DNA replication, DNA packaging, structural proteins, and host cell lysis proteins. Phage JS09 is assigned to the Caudovirales order (Myoviridae phage family), and it is considered a T4-like phage based on its morphological, genomic, and growth characteristics. JS09 gp37, a receptor-binding protein (RBP) important for host cell infection, shares little homology with other RBP in the NCBI database, which suggests that the variable regions in gp37 determine the unique host range of phage JS09. Protein sequence comparisons cluster the putative 'RBP' of JS09 much more closely with those of Yersinia phage phiD1, phage TuIa, and phage TuIb. Conclusions: A novel lytic coliphage named JS09 was isolated from sewage samples of a swine farm in Jiangsu Province, China. It could infect antibiotic-resistant APEC and ETEC. The morphological, genomic, and growth characteristics of JS09 were studied, and this will be helpful for phage therapy in controlling diseases caused by APEC and ETEC. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 09/2015; 58(4):218-231. DOI:10.1159/000437426
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the immune reactivity of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) against HCV immune positive and negative sera. Two published HVR1 consensus nucleotide sequences (Italian and Chinese) were synthesized, and with both of them, a splicing by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing were performed. From the corresponding amino acid sequences, 3 Italian and 1 Chinese HVR1 peptides were selected for synthesis. The 4 peptides (MB1-MB4; GenBank No.: HQ846888-HQ846891) were used to screen 47 and 31 HCV (type 4) immune positive and negative sera, respectively, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 3 Italian HVR1 peptides (MB1, MB2, MB3) showed reactivities of 83, 68 and 76.6%, respectively, while the Chinese HVR1 peptide (MB4) showed a reactivity of 80.8%. Our results supported that the HVR1 is an attractive target for a peptide-based vaccine as it contains neutralizing epitopes, and all of the HCV patients' sera used in this study have anti-HVR1 antibodies. Interestingly, the amino acid sequence of peptide MB1 has a close sequence similarity with the published mimotope R9, and it shows a high ELISA reactivity. So, MB1 could be tested in combination with other HCV-related peptides as a supplemental assay for HCV diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 09/2015; 58(4):232-241. DOI:10.1159/000437385
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) requires protein biosynthesis machinery to generate progeny. There is evidence that RSV might alter some translation components since stress granules are formed in their host cells. Consistent with these observations, we found that RSV induces dephosphorylation of 4EBP1 (eIF4E-binding protein), an important cellular translation factor. Our results show no correlation between the 4EBP1 dephosphorylation time and the decrease in the global rate of protein synthesis. Interestingly, treatment with rapamycin stimulates virus generation. The results suggest that RSV is a virus that still contains unknown mechanisms involved in the translation of their mRNAs through the alteration or modification of some translation factors, such as 4EBP1, possibly to favor its replicative cycle. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 08/2015; 58(4):205-208. DOI:10.1159/000435774
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the host transcription factor E2F-1 and/or any mechanisms that may support viral entry and its effect on the HSV-1 production in anti-CD3-activated Jurkat cells. The expressions of ICP4, HVEM and E2F-1 were studied using reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. HSV-1 production was determined by plaque titration assay and HSV-1 DNA load was quantified by real-time PCR. The viral uptake was observed by electron microscopy. In anti-CD3-activated Jurkat cells, there was a significant increase in the HSV-1 production. The expression of ICP4 mRNA after HSV-1 infection occurred 2 h prior to the synthesis of the ICP4 protein, which was significantly higher in activated than nonactivated T cells. There were no significant differences in the expressions of E2F-1 mRNA. The HVEM expression was positively correlated with the HSV-1 DNA in the activated T cells. From the electron micrograph, the formations of filopodia were observed only in HSV-1-infected, activated cells. High expressions of viral receptor protein and filopodia formations are the key factors that enhance the HSV-1 entry into activated T lymphocytes, resulting in an increased production of the virus. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 08/2015; 58(4):209-217. DOI:10.1159/000437264
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    ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome-like disease with high mortality rates have frequently occurred in Pelodiscus sinensis farms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogen through challenge infection assays and partial sequencing of the genome of the pathogen. A 453-bp amplicon was obtained by random PCR using the nucleic acid extracted from the tissue homogenate filtrate and showed 32% identity at the amino acid level with the replicase polyprotein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by Blastx. Multiple alignments indicated the putative protein sequence has some similarities to the replicase polyprotein of Arteriviridae, and the phylogenetic tree showed it was closely related to equine arteritis virus. This sequence was found in the lung of the diseased P. sinensis by in situ hybridization. Dot blot hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the lung had the highest content of virus. The peak replication of P. sinensis hemorrhagic syndrome virus (TSHSV) in the lung occurred 4 days after infection. The ribonucleic nature of the viral genome was confirmed by RNase A or DNase I treatments. We named the virus TSHSV in this study as P. sinensis is also known as Trionyx sinensis. These results provide a fundamental basis for further understanding the biology and the molecular mechanisms of TSHSV. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 08/2015; 58(4):197-204. DOI:10.1159/000437354
  • Intervirology 06/2015; 58(3):181-183. DOI:10.1159/000431041
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of the phylogeny and diversity of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) genotype ON1 that occurred during its early evolution (within the first 3.5 years since the detection of the first ON1 strains). ON1 strains have a 72-nucleotide-long in-frame duplication within the second hypervariable domain of the glycoprotein gene (HVR2). All available HVR2 sequences of strains belonging to the ON1 genotype published prior to June 20, 2014 were collected. Multiple sequence alignments, phylogeny, phylogeography, sequence clustering and putative protein analyses were performed. The worldwide spread and diversification of ON1 strains are presented. Only in a minority of ON1 strains do the two replicas remain identical, and various ON1 strains possess common differences between the first and the second copy (segments A and B). Mutations of the progenitor sequence were more frequent in segment B, a higher overall diversity on the protein level and more putative glycosylation sites exist in segment B, and, unlike in segment A, positive selection acts on that protein region. The fast spread of the novel HRSV genotype ON1 has been accompanied by its rapid concurrent diversification. Differences in variability of the two replicas within HVR2 were detected, with C-terminal replica being more variable. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 06/2015; 58(3):172-180. DOI:10.1159/000382018
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of IL28B polymorphism in occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and whether IL28B genetic variants are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell responses. The rs12979860 IL28B genotype was determined in 34 OBI blood donors, 22 spontaneous HBV resolvers, 36 inactive HBV carriers and 25 seronegative donors. T-cell responses to HBV recombinant proteins were assessed by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The frequency of the IL28B CC genotype among OBI patients was similar to that of inactive carriers [41 vs. 39%, respectively, p = 0.961; odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-2.86; p = 0.845]. The IL28B CC genotype was found more frequently in spontaneous resolvers, although the differences were not significant (45 vs. 39%, spontaneous resolvers and inactive carriers, respectively; p = 0.828; OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 0.45-3.83; p = 0.622). HBV-specific T-cell responses were detected in OBIs, and significantly stronger T-cell responses towards hepatitis B envelope antigen were observed in those with the IL28B CC genotype. In spontaneous resolvers and inactive carriers, IL28B CC did not correlate with the magnitude of T-cell responses. In OBI donors, IL28B CC correlates with the intensity of HBV-specific T-cell responses. In this study, IL28B CC is not statistically associated with OBI or with HBV clearance, but a larger number of cases is needed before completely ruling out its role in HBV infection. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 05/2015; 58(3):160-165. DOI:10.1159/000430444
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate tropism prediction performances of three algorithms [geno2pheno false-positive rate 10% (G2P10), position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) and a combination of the 11/25 and net charge rules] and to investigate the viral and host factors potentially involved in the X4 or R5 prediction in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) patients. Viral tropism was determined in 179 HIV-1-infected patients eligible for CCR5 antagonist therapy. HIV-1 RNA or DNA was extracted and amplified for env gp120 sequencing. In parallel, demographic, viral, immunological and clinical determinants were analyzed. According to the G2P10 algorithm, 48 patients harbored X4 or X4R5 virus. The tropism prediction was concordant for 87.7 and 88.2% of samples when comparing G2P10 with PSSM or with a combination of the 11/25 and net charge rules, respectively. X4 prediction was significantly associated with more than 35 amino acids in the V3 domain (p < 0.0001) and loss of an N-linked glycosylation site (p < 0.0001). Of the factors studied, only the nadir CD4 T-cell count was significantly associated with X4 tropism (p = 0.01). We determined that the X4 virus detection is closely linked to the nadir CD4 T-cell count below 100 cells/mm(3) that must be taken into account when considering a CCR5 antagonist therapy switch. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 05/2015; 58(3):155-159. DOI:10.1159/000398798
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the study were (1) to characterize the genetic variability of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype 16 in the E6 region when this genotype is present in multiple infection samples, (2) to assess the prevalence of variants in our region and (3) to analyze the relationship between variants, patients' ages and pathology. The Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control Department analyzed samples which were positive for genotype 16 and other genotypes from 2007 to 2013. Variants were assigned to European, Euro-German, Asian, Asian-American or African lineage by sequence analysis. The relationship among variants, age and different types of lesion was studied. In HPV-16 sequence analysis, the European variant was detected in 85.10% of samples, the Asian-American in 7.80%, the African in 4.25% and the Euro-German in 2.83% of specimens. Sequence genetic variability showed 16 nucleotide substitutions. Moreover, non-European variants were mainly found in old women and in isolates from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions since European variants were mainly detected in negative cytologies. Multiple infections may take effect on nucleotide substitution and the appearance of recombinant samples. Single gene analysis makes it impossible to detect recombination which has a great influence on drug response and vaccine strategies. Thus, E6 gene analysis would be enough to identify HPV-16 intratypic variants but not to confirm the results. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 05/2015; 58(3):143-148. DOI:10.1159/000381745
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    ABSTRACT: Ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV), a novel hepatitis E-like virus, has been identified in ferrets in the Netherlands, Japan, and the US. To determine whether ferret HEV transmits to other animals, we inoculated laboratory rats (Wistar), nude rats (Long-Evans-rnu/rnu), and cynomolgus monkeys with ferret HEV (F4351) by intravenous injection. None of the animals demonstrated a positive sign for virus replication, indicating that rats and monkeys are not susceptible to ferret HEV. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 04/2015; 58(3):139-142. DOI:10.1159/000373891
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is widely distributed and constitutes the main cause of congenital infections worldwide. CMV transmission during pregnancy represents one of the major impacts of this virus on public health. This study aimed at assessing glycoprotein B (gB) CMV genotypes in Mexican children and pregnant women, since there is limited information regarding CMV genomic diversity in Mexico. We analyzed CMV strains detected in Mexican children (n = 38) and women (n = 38) between 2001 and 2012. A fragment of the gB gene was amplified and sequenced, and genotypes were defined based on prototype sequences. The gB1 genotype was detected more frequently in children (68.4%) compared to women (31.6%; p = 0.0028), while genotype 2 was more common in women (65.8%) compared to children (26.3%, p = 0.0012). Genotype 3 was uncommon in both groups (5.3 and 2.6%). Nucleotide sequences exhibited a high degree of similarity to prototype strains. However, we identified 17 distinct sequences that resulted in changes in the encoded amino acid sequence in four strains. gB1 and gB2 are the most common strains associated with CMV infection in Mexican children and women. In addition, we found that the frequency for each genotype differed amongst them, possibly due to variability in transmission or reactivation dynamics. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 04/2015; 58(2):115-21. DOI:10.1159/000373922
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    ABSTRACT: The spike (S) protein of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) may mediate infection by binding to a cellular neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This study aimed to identify the crucial domain of the S1 subunit of the S protein that interacts with NCAM. Three truncated segments (S1-291, S277-794 and S548-868) of the S gene of PHEV and the NCAM gene were cloned individually into the Escherichia coli expression vectors and yeast two-hybrid expression vectors. The interaction between S1-291, S277-794, S548-868 and NCAM were detected by a GST pull-down experiment and yeast two-hybrid assay. Three fusion proteins (S1-291, S277-794 and S548-868) were screened for their interactions with NCAM by protein-protein interaction assays. The results of these assays clarified that S277-794 interacted with NCAM, while S1-291 and S548-868 did not. A small fragment (258-amino-acid fragment, residues 291-548) on the PHEV S protein was posited to be the minimum number of amino acids necessary to interact with NCAM. This fragment may be the receptor-binding domain that mediates PHEV binding to NCAM. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 04/2015; 58(2):130-137. DOI:10.1159/000381060
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 infects several immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, which contributes in both to dissemination of HIV-1 infection and induction of antiviral immunity. These cells produce high amounts of type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines upon Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. During HIV-1 infection, an altered production of proinflammatory cytokines has been reported. However, the mechanisms underlying cytokine modulation have not been well described. Here, we evaluated the production of proinflammatory cytokines and activation of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs and monocytes costimulated in vitro with TLR agonists and HIV-1. Changes in cytokine expression by real-time PCR and activation of DCs and monocytes by flow cytometry were evaluated after costimulation with HIV-1 and TLR agonists. We observed an upregulation of TNF-α expression after TLR4 stimulation, but a downregulation of IL-6 when TLR2/TLR9 were stimulated. Interestingly, the expression of CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules in monocytes and DCs were significantly increased in cells challenged with HIV-1 and TLR2/TLR4/TLR9 agonists. This regulation of TNF-α and IL-6 production and changes in the expression of costimulatory molecules can be critical in the context of HIV-1 infection, by favoring the antigen-presenting cell activation through the stimulation of TLRs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 04/2015; 58(2):122-129. DOI:10.1159/000371765
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Lipolytic genes have been investigated in several viral genomes, and some of them show enzyme activity which can be used for various functions including the production of DNA replication metabolites, rescue from endosomes, and membrane fusion. Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) replicates in nearly the entire insect body, especially in the adipose tissue. One of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the AMEV genome, amv133, encodes a putative lipase enzyme. In this study, we therefore investigate the enzyme activity of amv133. Methods: amv133 was aligned with known lipase genes and their homologs in entomopoxviruses. Expressed proteins were partially purified and assayed for lipase, esterase and protease. Results: We found that amv133 contains all the domains required for a functional lipase enzyme and that it shows a significant similarity with homologs in other entomopoxviruses. Since there is a similarity of the catalytic triad between lipases and serine proteases, we also investigated the protease activity of amv133. Lipase, esterase and protease assays showed that amv133 encodes a functional esterase enzyme with protease activity. Conclusion: The current data show that amv133 is a conserved gene in all entomopoxvirus genomes sequenced so far and might contribute greatly to degrading the lipids or proteins and hence improve the virus infection.
    Intervirology 01/2015; 58(1):41-48. DOI:10.1159/000369018