Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: S. Karger (Firm), Karger

Journal description

This journal covers the most active and promising areas of current research in gynecology and obstetrics. Invited, well-referenced reviews by noted experts keep readers in touch with the general framework and direction of international study. Original papers report selected experimental and clinical investigations in all fields related to gynecology, obstetrics and reproduction. Short communications are published to allow immediate discussion of new data. The international and interdisciplinary character of this periodical provides an avenue to less accessible sources and to worldwide research for investigators and practitioners

Current impact factor: 1.70

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.696
2013 Impact Factor 1.251
2012 Impact Factor 1.103
2011 Impact Factor 1.276
2010 Impact Factor 1.031
2009 Impact Factor 1.045
2008 Impact Factor 1.417
2007 Impact Factor 1.157
2006 Impact Factor 0.874
2005 Impact Factor 0.81
2004 Impact Factor 0.867
2003 Impact Factor 0.812
2002 Impact Factor 0.728
2001 Impact Factor 0.884
2000 Impact Factor 0.662
1999 Impact Factor 0.465
1998 Impact Factor 0.431
1997 Impact Factor 0.432
1996 Impact Factor 0.557
1995 Impact Factor 0.64
1994 Impact Factor 0.45
1993 Impact Factor 0.35
1992 Impact Factor 0.398

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.53
Cited half-life 9.10
Immediacy index 0.21
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.39
Website Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation website
Other titles Gynecologic and obstetric investigation (Online), Gynecol obstet invest
ISSN 1423-002X
OCLC 44723324
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's server or institutional server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: This study aimed to clarify the genetic and epigenetic features of recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) in Japanese patients. Methods: Four Japanese isolated RHM cases were analyzed using whole-exome sequencing. Villi from RHMs were collected by laser microdissection for genotyping and DNA methylation assay of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PEG3 and H19 DMRs were used to confirm the parental origin of the variants. Results: A novel homozygous nonsense mutation in NLRP7 (c.584G>A; p.W195X) was identified in 1 patient. Genotyping of one of her molar tissue revealed that it was biparental but not androgenetic in origin. Despite the fact that the RHM is biparental, maternally methylated DMRs of PEG3, SNRPN and PEG10 showed complete loss of DNA methylation. A paternally methylated DMR of H19 retained normal methylation. Conclusions: This is the first Japanese case of RHM with a novel homozygous nonsense NLRP7 mutation and a specific loss of maternal DNA methylation of DMRs. Notably, the mutation was identified in an isolated case of an ethnic background that has not previously been studied in this context. Our data underscore the involvement of NLRP7 in RHM pathophysiology and confirm that DNA methylation of specific regions is critical.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000441780
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the possibility of less radical surgery for early-stage invasive uterine cervical cancer without compromising the oncological outcome. Methods: The analysis was performed on 175 patients with invasive uterine cervical cancer in FIGO stage IA2-IIB, all of whom underwent primary radical hysterectomy. Relationship of tumor size with the incidence of pathologic parametrial involvement and the pelvic lymph node metastasis were investigated. Results: Fifty-one patients had tumor size ≤2 cm and 124 had tumor size >2 cm. Patients with tumor size ≤2 cm had a significantly lower incidence of parametrial invasion (p < 0.0001), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.0001), lymph vascular space involvement (p < 0.0001) and recurrence (p = 0.0002) than patients with tumor size >2 cm. Five-year relapse-free survival rate was 98 and 73%, respectively (p = 0.0004). Conclusion: It is suggested that less radical surgery may be appropriate for some cases with tumor size <2 cm.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000439528
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Backgrounds/aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rectal and intrauterine anesthesia during vaginoscopic hysteroscopy. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to rectal indomethacin, intrauterine lidocaine and placebo groups. Patients with conditions that could cause or contribute to pelvic pain were excluded. Pain was evaluated with Visual Analog Scale, when the cervical canal was passed, while within the cavity and at 10 min after procedure. The Analog Pain Scale scores of the 3 groups were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance test. A value of p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: The study included a total of 206 patients. No difference was seen between the groups in respect of indication, age, gravid and duration of procedure. While the anesthesia was determined as superior to the placebo in reducing pain at all 3 stages (p < 0.05), intrauterine lidocaine was determined to be more effective than rectal indomethacin in reducing pain within the cavity and 10 min after the procedure (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Rectal or intrauterine anesthesia applied with the vaginoscopic technique is useful in hysteroscopy. However, intrauterine anesthesia is more effective in reducing pain.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000441787
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: Patterns of metastasis and clinical behavior of mucinous ovarian cancers are poorly understood because of their rarity. Methods: A retrospective review of records of women identified with pure mucinous invasive ovarian/tubal/peritoneal cancer during 1992-2012 at one institution. Survival differences were compared using Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank tests. Results: Among 42 women with mucinous adenocarcinomas, the median age was 55 (range 33-83 years). Most cancers were well differentiated (n = 26, 68%) and in stage I/II (n = 31, 74%). One of 27 women with sampled nodes had nodal metastasis; one additional woman had recurrence in a pelvic node. Most had no visible residual tumor after initial surgery, but of 10 women with stage III/IV cancer and documented residual, 8 had >2 cm residual. Except for 1 woman alive with disease at last follow-up, all who had a recurrence died of the disease. Five-year survival was 83% for stage I/II cases but 29% among stage III/IV cases. Stage was a strong predictor of survival (hazard ratio of death among women with stage III/IV cancer 7.73, 95% CI 2.33-25.66, p < 0.001 vs. women with stage I/II cancer). Conclusion: Mucinous ovarian cancers have a distinct biology, such that lymphadenectomy for staging is unnecessary and metastatic cancers have poor prognosis.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000441791
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to present the validation and optimization process for a new innovative medical device to create a standardized episiotomy. Design: We performed a preclinical validation study. Setting: This study was performed at the University hospital. Sample: Animal, cadaver. Methods: Together with technical engineers, we designed a new medical device that involves a knife and cuts back from buttock toward introitus, in contrast to the conventional episiotomy. We optimized the design and its performance in consecutive animal and cadaver studies. Main outcome measures: Ability to perform a standardized incision, ease of use. Results: After multiple adjustments, based on the results of multiple animal and cadaver studies, a medical device was developed to perform a standardized clean-cut episiotomy of 4-6 cm length. Conclusion: We have shown that optimizing the technical performance and safety of an innovative device in animals, prior to opposing patients to its potential hazards, is feasible. Our design optimizing study can be used as a model for the pre-clinical validation of future innovative medical devices.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000440976
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to ensure safe magnetic resonance-guided, high-intensity focused, ultrasound ablation of uterine leiomyomas, the ultrasound beam path should be free of intervening scar and bowel. Pre-treatment MRI of a 9-cm long and 7.7-cm wide leiomyomatous uterus in a 39-year-old woman with menorrhagia and abdominopelvic pain initially demonstrated a focused ultrasound treatment path without a bowel between the uterus and the abdominal wall. On the day of ablation, however, multiple loops of bowel were observed in the ultrasound beam path by MRI. Uterine repositioning was accomplished with a 76-mm donut vaginal pessary, which anteverted the fundus and successfully displaced the bowel. A vaginal pessary may aid in repositioning an axial or retroverted uterus to enable ablation of uterine leiomyomas.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000441782

  • Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000441790
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the correlation of hyaluronic acid binding assay (HBA) with conventional semen parameters, lipid peroxidation (LPO), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA fragmentation (DF), DNA maturity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level in human spermatozoa. Methods: The semen samples were obtained from 98 patients. The seminal plasma was separated for the study of LPO, and the pellet was employed for evaluation of intracellular ROS, DF, nuclear maturity (sperm chromatin structure assay) and MMP through flowcytometry. Results: The correlation and strength of HBA with respect to the studied parameters were estimated by the Pearson coefficient and multiple liner regression tests. While HBA indicated a positive correlation with progressive motility (β-coefficients = 0.449, p < 0.05) and normal morphology (β-coefficients = 2.722, p < 0.01), it had only negative relationship with DNA integrity (high DNA stain ability; β-coefficients = -0.517, p < 0.05). HBA also did not show any important correlation with other conventional and intracellular sperm parameters. Conclusions: The HBA is sensitive to morphological integrity, high progressive motility and nuclear maturation. Nonetheless, HBA is not a reliable test for prediction of sperm intracellular ROS, DF and MMP risks and healthy spermatozoa selection.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000439530
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: To analyze the detailed clinical course of infertile patients with uterine fibroids and to identify optimal and personalized treatment based on the patient or fibroid characteristics. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a case series was performed on 176 infertile patients with fibroids. The patients were classified into different groups according to different treatments (conservative infertility treatment, myomectomy and non-myomectomy surgery). Patient or fibroid characteristics for different groups were analyzed for a possible correlation with the reproductive outcome. Results: The cumulative pregnancy rates by conservative treatment plateaued in 1 year. Myomectomy improved the reproductive outcome in patients who did not conceive with conservative infertility treatments. The most important determinant of the reproductive outcome in patients by conservative treatment prior to surgery was a past patient history of pregnancy. The most important determinant of the reproductive outcome after myomectomy was patient age. Conclusion: Myomectomy should be considered when infertile patients with fibroids do not conceive within 1 year of conservative infertility treatments. The most important determinant of reproductive outcome after myomectomy is patient age. Therefore, for patients younger than 40, the treatment schedule should be carefully considered so that the patients can sufficiently benefit from myomectomy and assisted reproductive technology.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000441788
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Pretreatment prognostic information is lacking for patients with cervical cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB1 disease. Thus, we attempted to identify a high-risk subgroup among them prior to treatment. Methods: Cervical cancer FIGO stage IB1 patients who had received curative treatment with various modalities in our institute between January 2004 and December 2010 were enrolled. Pretreatment clinical parameters including age, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag), carcinoembryonic antigen, hemoglobin (Hb) level, platelet count, histological type, and treatment modality were analyzed for treatment outcomes. Results: One hundred ninety-seven patients were included with a median follow-up of 66 months (range 6-119 months). In Cox regression analysis, only SCC histology (HR 0.457, 95% CI 0.241-0.967, p = 0.017) was an independent factor predicting better disease-free survival (DFS). Among SCC histology, patients with an Hb level less than 12 g/dl and a SCC-Ag level more than 3 ng/ml had worse treatment outcomes. The 5-year DFS rates were 89.2, 69.3, and 44.4% for the patients at low-risk (SCC, Hb >12 g/dl, SCC-Ag ≤3 ng/ml), intermediate-risk (non-SCC), and high-risk (SCC, Hb ≤12 g/dl, SCC-Ag >3 ng/ml), respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Non-SCC and SCC histology with both anemia and high pretreatment SCC-Ag level were associated with recurrence. Further validation studies are warranted for clarification.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000441784
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Backgrounds: What is not clear as yet is not only the etiology, but also the management of osseous metaplasia. We describe an infertile patient with osseous metaplasia and subsequent pregnancy after treatment and review the literature from infertility perspective. Method: We presented a 30-year-old woman with 8 years of secondary infertility who conceived spontaneously after removal of osseous tissue by operative hysteroscopy (HS) following one failed in vitro fertilization cycle. The current literature regarding the osseous metaplasia and fertility potential after removal of osseous tissue was also systematically reviewed in which 21 reports (n = 64 women) were eligible. Results: The available data suggest that restoration of endometrial cavity with HS or curettage provides a spontaneous pregnancy rate of 54.2% within 12 months. Conclusion: According to the available data, irrespective from the duration of subfertility, spontaneous pregnancy should be expected for at least 1 year following the 'complete' restoration of endometrial cavity. In that context, further infertility treatments such as assisted reproduction cycles should be postponed, unless there is another reason for infertility.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; 80(4). DOI:10.1159/000439529
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: To determine and compare the effectiveness, peri- and postoperative outcomes of mid-urethral sling (MUS) operations for urinary incontinence, using 2 different patient positions during surgery. Methods: In this study, 146 patients underwent MUS surgery in a urogynecology clinic. Of them, 72 patients underwent the intraoperative surgical procedure of reverse trendelenburg patient positioning for tape adjustment (group 1) and the remaining 74 patients had the routine surgical procedure of MUS surgery (group 2). The primary outcome was the evaluation of postoperative urine leaks, using the stress test, and secondary outcomes were quality of life, using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF, Turkish version) and complication rates. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic variables between the 2 groups. The overall cure rates for incontinence in the lithotomy position was 97.22 and 85.13% for groups 1 and 2, respectively, in which group 1 had a statistically significant decrease in urine leak postoperatively (p < 0.05; OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.78-22.14). The postoperative ICQ-SF scores showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (p = 0.19). Conclusion: Applying a 45-degree reverse trendelenburg position for tape adjusting during MUS operation results in a greater objective cure rate compared with the typical dorsolithotomy position; however, there was no difference in the subjective outcome.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000441620
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: Ovarian torsion is a common cause of local ischemic damage, reduced follicular activity and infertility. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors with demonstrated cytoprotective properties; so we evaluated PRP efficacy in a rat ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. Methods: Sixty adult female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups of 8 animals each: Sham, Ischemia, I/R, Sham + PRP, I + PRP and I/R + PRP; and the remaining 12 used to prepare PRP. Ischemia groups were subjected to bilateral adnexal torsion for 3 h, while I/R and I/R + PRP groups received subsequent detorsion for 3 h. Intraperitoneal PRP was administered 30 min prior to ischemia (Ischemia + PRP) or reperfusion (I/R + PRP). Results: Total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and total ovarian histopathological scores were higher in Ischemia and I/R groups than in the Sham group (p < 0.05). PRP decreased mean TOS, OSI and histopathological scores in I + PRP and I/R + PRP groups compared to the corresponding Ischemia and I/R groups (p < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between total histopathological score and OSI (r = 0.877, p < 0.001). Peritoneal vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly higher in PRP-treated groups than corresponding untreated groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: PRP is effective for the prevention of ischemia and reperfusion damage in rat ovary.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 10/2015; DOI:10.1159/000440617
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: This study measured the serum levels of complement component (C)3a and C5a and the placental expressions of C3a receptor (R) and C5aR to determine a potential correlation with circulating angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor agonistic autoantibody (AT1-AA) in severe pre-eclampsia. Methods: A total of 118 women were recruited and divided into 2 groups: the control group (normotensive preterm pregnancies, n = 66) and severe pre-eclampsia group (n = 52). Levels of C3a, C5a and AT1-AA in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and C3aR and C5aR in placenta by Western blotting. Results: Levels of C3a, C5a and AT1-AA in serum from the severe pre-eclampsia group were significantly higher than in controls (p < 0.05). Placental expression of C3aR and C5aR in the pre-eclampsia group was lower than that in controls (p < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between levels of C3a, C5a and AT1-AA in serum from the pre-eclampsia group (p < 0.05). In contrast, there was no correlation between C3aR and C5aR in the placenta and AT1-AA in serum in the pre-eclampsia group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Increased C3a, C5a and AT1-AA in the serum provide indirect evidence that AT1-AA-mediated activation contributes to activate complement, which is a key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of severe pre-eclampsia.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 10/2015; DOI:10.1159/000440651
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: To determine whether a specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup is implicated in the pathogenesis of intrauterine adhesion (IUA). Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 486 women with (case group, n = 154) and without IUA (control group, n = 332) at the Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood, and the mtDNA haplogroups of Han women M, N and R were determined by sequencing hypervariable mtDNA segments and testing diagnostic polymorphisms in the mtDNA coding region. Results: Women with mtDNA haplogroup R had an independently increased genetic risk factor for IUA with an OR 1.77 (95% CI 1.16-2.70, p = 0.009) compared with women without. Moreover, repeated intrauterine surgery within 1 month and number of intrauterine operations were both significantly associated with IUA (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that mtDNA haplogroup R, one of the main mtDNA haplogroups in Han population, is a strong independent genetic risk factor for women with IUA.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 10/2015; DOI:10.1159/000439531
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: This study aims to explore the independent predictors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed primigravid women with PCOS and classified them as those with and without GDM. Independent risk factors and model performance were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), respectively. Results: Maternal body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, insulin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) before pregnancy, gestation weight gain before 24 weeks and the incidence of family history of diabetes were different in the 2 groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that pre-pregnancy WHR, SHBG, HOMA-IR and gestation weight gain before 24 weeks were the independent predictors of GDM. ROC curve analysis confirmed that gestation weight gain before 24 weeks (AUC 0.767, 95% CI 0.688-0.841), pre-pregnant WHR (AUC 0.725, 95% CI 0.649-0.802), HOMA-IR (AUC 0.711, 95% CI 0.632-0.790) and SHBG levels (AUC 0.709, 95% CI 0.625-0.793) were the strong risk factors. Conclusions: In Chinese women with PCOS, factors of gestation weight gain before 24 weeks, pre-pregnant WHR, HOMA-IR and SHBG levels are strongly associated with subsequent development of GDM.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 10/2015; DOI:10.1159/000440618
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To study whether sonographic findings suggestive of ovarian stromal edema are associated with tissue ischemia in patients with adnexal torsion. Methods: A study of 79 patients with adnexal torsion was performed. Patients were divided into an ischemic group, in which the twisted adnexa were seen as blue or black, and a non-ischemic group, in which the adnexa retained normal color and appeared viable. Clinical and ultrasonographic findings, specifically the presence of ultrasonographic signs suggestive of ovarian stromal edema, were compared between the two groups. Results: Of the 79 patients with torsion, in 44 (55.7%) the adnexa appeared ischemic at surgery. The presence of ischemia was not associated with age, pregnancy, duration of pain, vomiting or findings at physical examination. There was no significant difference between the ischemic and the non-ischemic group in the proportion of patients with signs of ovarian stromal edema (59 vs. 40%, p = 0.11), in the proportion of patients with absent/diminished stromal Doppler flow (36 vs. 28%, p = 0.12%) or in the proportion of patients with both signs of stroma edema and absent/diminished stromal Doppler flow (20 vs. 12%, p = 0.36). Conclusion: Ultrasonographic signs of ovarian stromal edema do not assist in differentiating between ischemic and non-ischemic adnexal torsion. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2015; DOI:10.1159/000437422
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9), a recently characterized oncogene, may serve as a marker for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer. However, whether SPAG9 can be a prognostic marker of complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia (CAEH) or grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EA) treated with progestin is still unknown. Progestin therapy was performed in 27 women diagnosed with CAEH (19/27, CAEH group) or grade 1 EA (8/27, EA group). The expression of SPAG9 was measured in pre and post progestin-treated endometrial specimens by immunohistochemistry. The expression of SPAG9 was also examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot in Ishikawa cells and ECC-1 cells with or without progestin treatment. (1) CAEH showed a significantly better therapeutic efficacy than EA. (2) The expression of SPAG9 was lower in CAEH than in EA. (3) SPAG9 expression significantly declined in the endometrial tissues of women responding to progestin. (4) Significant downregulations of SPAG9 were validated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot both in Ishikawa cells and ECC-1 cells treated with progestin. SPAG9 may be associated with the efficacy of progestin treatment in CAEH and grade 1 EA. It may help to distinguish CAEH from grade 1 EA and serve as a new prognostic marker of CAEH or grade 1 EA treated with progestin. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2015; DOI:10.1159/000437015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze residual/recurrent disease and its risk factors as well as the appropriate frequency of follow-up cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) tests after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) for CIN2/3. We retrospectively analyzed 835 patients with CIN2/3 who were treated with LEEP. Post-LEEP follow-up was performed using liquid-based cytology tests or/and HPV DNA tests. Residual/recurrent disease was defined as biopsy-proven CIN2/3; cervical cancer and vulval intraepithelial neoplasia were not considered as residual/recurrent cases. CIN2/3 was detected in 19/835 (2.3%) patients during follow-up. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, post-treatment CIN2/3 was significantly more likely in cases of preoperative HPV-16 infection (OR 8.208, 95% CI 1.514-44.489), positive excision margins (OR 4.811, 95% CI 1.154-20.258), persistent HPV infection (OR 5.231, 95% CI 1.141-23.976) and abnormal liquid-based cytology tests at 3-month follow-up (OR 16.495, 95% CI 3.689-73.764). Some factors, such as HPV-16 infection, positive excision margins, persistent HPV infection and abnormal liquid-based cytology tests at 3-month follow-up, appeared to be strong risk factors for residual/recurrent CIN2/3 after LEEP. Therefore, patients who undergo LEEP for CIN and follow-up 3 months after LEEP should be assessed for these high-risk factors. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2015; DOI:10.1159/000437423