Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation (Gynecol Obstet Investig )

Publisher: S. Karger (Firm), Karger

Description

This journal covers the most active and promising areas of current research in gynecology and obstetrics. Invited, well-referenced reviews by noted experts keep readers in touch with the general framework and direction of international study. Original papers report selected experimental and clinical investigations in all fields related to gynecology, obstetrics and reproduction. Short communications are published to allow immediate discussion of new data. The international and interdisciplinary character of this periodical provides an avenue to less accessible sources and to worldwide research for investigators and practitioners

  • Impact factor
    1.10
  • 5-year impact
    1.15
  • Cited half-life
    10.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.17
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.34
  • Website
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation website
  • Other titles
    Gynecologic and obstetric investigation (Online), Gynecol obstet invest
  • ISSN
    1423-002X
  • OCLC
    44723324
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Karger

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author or institutional server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used, unless Authors Choice fee is paid
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) in pregnant women with preeclampsia (PE). Methods: 52 pregnant women with PE who were admitted for delivery were enrolled in the study, while 30 normal pregnant inpatients were chosen as controls. Blood lipid and serum ABCA1 concentrations were assayed by enzymatic analysis and ELISA, respectively, and the expression of the ABCA1 gene and its encoded protein were detected and quantified by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: In the study group, blood lipid levels were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.01), while the ABCA1 gene and its encoded protein expression in both serum and placental tissue were lower than that of controls. These differences were highly correlated with disease severity (p < 0.05). In PE patients, serum ABCA1 concentration was positively correlated with ABCA1 protein expression in placental tissue (r = 0.384, p < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein level (r = 0.318, p < 0.05), but negatively correlated with low-density lipoprotein level (r = -0.279, p < 0.05). Conclusion: In PE women, expression of ABCA1 was decreased, suggesting that ABCA1 may play an important role in onset of PE by altering blood lipid metabolism. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Leukocytes and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are often used to detect infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and screening validity of leukocytes and CRP levels as well as body temperature >38° C to predict infections after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Methods: The study included 287 patients suffering from genital prolapse higher than POP-Q I. In addition to the sacrocolpopexy, a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy was performed in cases of preexisting uterus (n = 171). Leukocytes and CRP levels were analyzed preoperatively and 4 days after surgery. Early and late onset of infections was documented. Results: Urinary tract infection was identified as the most frequent early postoperative complication (11.4%). Early wound infections were found in 2.8% of the patients (8/287). Late onset of infections was found in 1% of patients (3/287). Areas under ROC curves were low for both leukocytes (0.52, 95% CI: 0.37-0.66) and CRP levels (0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.77). Conclusion: Our findings question the benefit of routine determination of leukocytes and CRP levels 4 days after surgery. The sensitivity and specificity of leukocytes and CRP levels are probably more significant after normalization of the initial tissue response (days 8-10). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Preeclampsia (PE) is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy that is associated with a high rate of maternal and perinatal morbidity and/or mortality worldwide. If untreated, it can progress to eclampsia, which can result in the death of the mother, the fetus or both. The etiology of PE is still uncertain; however, recently the role of the immune system has gained in importance. The role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a cytokine involved in inflammation processes, has been widely investigated in obstetric disorders. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of TNF-α gene G308A (rs1800629) polymorphism on disease risk, renal function, microvascular permeability, endothelial cell dysfunction and organ involvement in women with PE. Methods: Initially, 102 3rd-trimester pregnant women (preeclamptic cases and healthy controls) with singleton pregnancy were invited for participation, of which 76 were genotyped for TNF-α G308A polymorphism and evaluated for plasma levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), fibronectin and TNF-α, which were tested for correlations with the profile of PE. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals obtained from unconditional logistic regression were used to test the association between the TNF-α polymorphism and PE risk. For continuous variables, we applied Student's t test and, for categorical variables, the Pearson χ(2) or Fisher's exact test. The two-way ANOVA test with Bonferroni correction was used in multivariate analyses. Results: The A allele was more frequent in cases than controls (22.4 vs. 13.2%), which increased disease risk (OR = 2.73). Maternal serum levels of TNF-α, sVCAM-1 and fibronectin were significantly increased in cases (855.8 ± 385.1 pg/ml, 1,243 ± 671 ng/ml, 0.308 ± 0.231 g/l, respectively) compared to controls (301.1 ± 156.1 pg/ml, 651 ± 250 ng/ml, 0.218 ± 0.101 g/l, respectively; p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.031, respectively), and these levels showed an increasing trend with the mutant allele genotype. Moderate and severe proteinuria was higher in rs1800629 allele A subjects compared to G/G carriers (53.8 vs. 14.3% (p < 0.05) and 13.0 vs. 4.7% (p < 0.01), respectively). The adverse effect of rs1800629 allele A on renal function was confirmed by increased plasma creatine levels, urinary protein excretion and lower tubular resorption rate in preeclamptic patients. Moreover, rs1800629 allele A preeclamptic carriers showed higher serum levels of fibronectin and sVCAM-1 compared to G/G homozygotes. Conclusion: This study reveals a possible association between clinical and laboratory manifestations of PE and the TNF-α gene G308A (rs1800629) polymorphism. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol and a rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on pain relief during Pipelle endometrial biopsies in a placebo-controlled randomized study. Methods: One hundred and fifty-one women who had an indication for a Pipelle endometrial biopsy were randomized into three groups as follows: group 1, vaginal misoprostol; group 2, rectal NSAID, and group 3, control. After the procedure, the women were asked to record their pain severity on a visual analog scale. The secondary outcome of the study was patient acceptability, and vasovagal symptoms and analgesic requirements after the procedure were also recorded. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the patients. The primary study outcome was the comparison of the median visual analog scale pain scores of groups 1 and 2 versus group 3 (controls); no statistically significant differences were found (p = 0.502). In addition, the patient acceptability (Likert scale), vasovagal symptoms and analgesic requirements after the procedure were similar among the groups (p = 0.204, 1 and 0.546, respectively). Conclusion: Our study did not demonstrate a reduction in pain relief during Pipelle endometrial biopsies for patients receiving vaginal misoprostol or a rectal NSAID when compared to patients receiving placebo treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of renal function on bone mineral density (BMD) and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. We studied 252 postmenopausal women who visited a health promotion center for a medical checkup. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formula. Areal BMD measurements were performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and arterial stiffness was measured using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Results: The eGFR according to the CG formula was significantly correlated with age, BMI, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, baPWV, and BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip sites. However, the eGFR according to the MDRD formula was significantly correlated with age and baPWV but not with BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip sites. Decreased renal function (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) according to the CG formula) was independently associated with decreased BMD at the femoral neck site and with increased baPWV (>1,500 cm/s) after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women with decreased renal function are more likely to have a decreased BMD and greater arterial stiffness. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Precipitous delivery may lead to serious maternal and neonatal complications. Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is one of the causes of delayed postpartum hemorrhage. Here we describe 3 cases of UAP manifesting as delayed postpartum hemorrhage after precipitous delivery. The duration of the second stage of labor in cases 1, 2, and 3 was 15, 15, and 60 min, respectively. Excessive vaginal bleeding occurred 10, 9, and 31 days after delivery, respectively. Ultrasonogram and pelvic angiography revealed the UAP in each case and uterine artery embolization was performed. UAP may be a complication of precipitous delivery. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have an increased rate of subclinical inflammation, which plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator which belongs to the same family as the well-established cardiovascular biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). The present study was performed to investigate plasma PTX3 levels in patients with PCOS and to determine the relationship between PTX3 and other known cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: 40 patients with PCOS and 40 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The groups were divided into subgroups according to BMI. Insulin resistance indexes, lipid profile, CRP and PTX3 levels were analyzed. Results: There was no difference for insulin resistance indexes and lipid profile between the PCOS and control groups. CRP levels were significantly higher in obese PCOS and control subjects than in lean subjects, whereas no difference in PTX3 concentrations was observed between subgroups. Conclusion: PTX3 and CRP levels were similar in the PCOS group compared with the non-PCOS control group. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Although the association between inflammation and insulin resistance is well known, the data related to the role of inflammation in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of several inflammatory mediators with the glycemic status in pregnancy. Methods: Leukocyte count, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and interleukin-6 levels were measured in 70 patients with normal glucose tolerance, in 57 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and in 35 patients with GDM as determined based on 50-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 100-gram OGTT results. Results: A significant difference among the groups was seen only with regard to CRP and fibrinogen levels; however, no significant differences were observed after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). CRP was found to be strongly associated with current BMI in all three groups. Conclusion: Maternal serum levels of inflammatory mediators are not related to GDM at the time of the glucose challenge test in the late second or early third trimester. The significant difference in the levels of CRP in different strata of glycemic tolerance was not observed after adjustment for BMI. Adiposity may have a central role in GDM, causing an inflammatory response. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To evaluate the association between serum prolactin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women regarding the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Methods: Fifty-eight menopausal women were enrolled into the cross-sectional study. All participants had 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and carotid intima-media thickness measurement. Blood samples were obtained for prolactin, hs-CRP, lipid profile, fasting glucose, and insulin. Results: Among the participants, 67.24% had a FRS <10%, and 32.75% had a FRS ≥10%. Levels of prolactin and hs-CRP did not differ between the FRS groups. In the FRS <10% group, significantly higher levels of prolactin were found. Cases with hypertension have significantly higher levels of hs-CRP. Prolactin and hs-CRP were found to be associated with hypertension in the FRS <10% and ≥10% groups, respectively. Conclusions: Hypertensive postmenopausal women with low risk for cardiovascular diseases have increased levels of prolactin, suggesting a possible role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The correlation of hs-CRP with systolic blood pressure can be interpreted as a potential effect of hypertensive heart disease reflecting a state of high-risk milieu with elevated inflammatory markers. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this report is to describe ovarian paragonimiasis, a rare form of lung fluke infestation, mimicking ovarian cancer. Case: A 47-year-old Thai woman presented with a pelvic mass. Imaging suggested ovarian cancer with pulmonary and hepatic metastases. She was scheduled for complete surgical staging. However, a frozen section revealed Paragonimus eggs in the enlarged ovarian mass. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed instead of complete staging. All other lesions were also proven later to be Paragonimus infestation. Postoperative treatment with antiparasitic drugs resulted in dramatic improvement, with nearly complete resolution of all lesions at 4 months of follow-up. Conclusion: This is an unusual case of ovarian paragonimiasis mimicking ovarian cancer, which is instructive and informative for differential diagnoses of pelvic masses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Uterine leiomyoma (UL) is an estrogen-responsive benign tumor in the female reproductive system and the main risk of hysterectomy for women. However, gene polymorphism of estrogen-metabolizing enzymes may lead to the different susceptibility to UL. We detected 10 single mucleotide polymorphisms in three key estrogen metabolite enzymes (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1) in a Chinese Han population consisting of 800 patients and 800 healthy women from five different medical centers. The genetic polymorphism of rs3087869 (IVS1+2329C>T) (OR 3.200, 95% CI 1.614-6.345) and rs4680 (Val158Met) (OR 5.675, 95% CI 2.696-11.942) loci on COMT, rs1048943 (Ile462Val) (OR 4.629, 95% CI 2.216-9.672) and rs4646422 (Gly45Asp) (OR 3.240, 95% CI 1.624-6.461) loci on CYP1A1 and rs1065827 (Ala119Ser) (OR 5.635, 95% CI 2.990-10.619) locus on CYP1B1 were the risk factors to UL development and rs1056836 (Leu432Val) (OR 0.188, 95% CI 0.061-0.575) locus on CYB1B1 may be the protective factor to UL. The results provide a theoretical basis for genetic screening and early intervention to UL-susceptible populations. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence on fertility and pregnancy outcome in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients after a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or cold-knife conization (CKC). Methods: 269 patients with CIN-II-III who wanted to conceive were prospectively enrolled in this randomized clinical trial to receive either the LEEP or CKC procedure. Fertility, neonatal and maternal outcomes were observed and compared. Results: 244 evaluable patients were divided into two groups. There were 124 in the LEEP group and 120 in the CKC group. The preterm premature rupture of membranes (16 vs. 8%; p = 0.03), preterm delivery rate (11 vs. 5%; p = 0.04) and low birth weight infants rate (<2,500 g) (10 vs. 6%; p = 0.04) were higher in the CKC group than in the LEEP group, but there was no difference in mean birth weight, cesarean delivery, labor induction, or neonatal intensive care unit admission. There was no case of neonatal mortality. Conclusions: In a prospective evaluation the findings of this study demonstrate that LEEP is safer for future pregnancies when compared to CKC. LEEP should be an appropriate choice for patients with CIN who want to become pregnant later in life. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. The data on this syndrome in a Chinese community are limited. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken. Cluster-randomized sampling was used. Female residents of Chengdu aged between 12 and 44 were included according to the constituent ratio of the female population of Sichuan province. We used three diagnostic criteria to determine the prevalence: the National Institutes of Health diagnostic criteria of PCOS (NIH-1990), the revised Rotterdam diagnostic criteria of PCOS (Rott-2003), and the recommended diagnostic criteria of PCOS by the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006). Results: 1,645 participants were included. The prevalence of PCOS in women aged between 12 and 44 was 7.1, 11.2 and 7.4%, respectively, according to the three different criteria. After the onset of puberty, the prevalence of PCOS increased rapidly from 12 to 14 years of age, peaked between 15 and 24 and decreased gradually thereafter and reached its lowest point before menopause. Conclusions: The prevalence of PCOS in this study was in the PCOS prevalence range from existing studies. According to the trend of prevalence, PCOS might be a temporary condition. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) infection during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes, we present the clinical and laboratory findings and outcomes of 5 pregnant women with CCHF infection as well as fetal outcomes. We also reviewed previously reported cases with CCHF infection in pregnant women. All pregnant women with CCHF infection who had been hospitalized between August 2007 and September 2011 were included. The gestational ages at the time of CCHF infection were 8, 18, 20, 21 and 32 weeks. CCHF infection was acquired during the 1st trimester in only 1 case and resulted in spontaneous abortion. The other 4 pregnant women completely recovered, all reached a healthy full-term gestation and 4 term babies were born. All infants had normal birth weight and were found to be healthy on their first examination and follow-up. In the literature concerning CCHF infection in pregnancy, 8 published articles including case reports or case series and 1 poster presentation including 1 case could be accessed. In conclusion, there is a risk of vertical transmission of CCHF infection, and infections acquired early in gestation had a poor prognosis for the fetus. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the advantage of performing the dynamic cystoproctography (DCP) in patients planning for combined surgery due to urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Materials and Methods: We performed DCP on a total of 113 consecutive women with POP and compared the findings of the physical examination with POP quantification against those of DCP including squeezing, straining and evacuation phases, and analyzed the changes to the rates of surgical planning. For statistical analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of each test were performed. Results: DCP identified an additional 10 cases of cystocele, 32 cases of rectocele, 2 cases of enterocele, 4 cases of sigmoidocele, and 8 cases of rectal intussusception compared to those cases who were only included for a physical examination. The initial surgical plan was changed in a total of 24 cases (22.1%). The prevalence of bowel symptoms in the group in which the surgical plan changed was higher than in the group with no changes to the surgical plan (p = 0.023). Conclusions: DCP may be a more sensitive test for diagnosing POP compared to physical examination alone, and it is useful to patients with bowel symptoms by making surgical planning for combined surgery with stress urinary incontinence and POP. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lithopaidion, or stone child, is generally a single rare asymptomatic formation that evolves from an undiagnosed and untreated advanced abdominal pregnancy. The dead fetus is retained in the maternal abdominal cavity, which causes calcification. In this paper, we review the literature on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical features of lithopaidion and report a unique case of lithokelyphos in a patient with an ectopic fallopian pregnancy. We propose a model to unify the data. The new word 'lithopaidion' can be utilized instead of lithopedion. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Paracetamol clearance differs between pregnant and non-pregnant women and between women with or without specific oral contraceptives (OCs). However, an association between female sex hormones and paracetamol clearance has never been explored. Methods: In total, 49 women at delivery, 8 female control subjects without OC use, historical data of 14 women taking OCs, and 15 postpartum observations with and without OCs were pooled to explore covariates of paracetamol clearance. All received a single intravenous 2-gram paracetamol dose, and blood samples were collected up to 6 h after dosing. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify paracetamol. The area under the curve to time infinity (AUC0-∞) was determined and clearance (l/h·m(2)) was calculated by dose/ AUC0-∞. In addition, estradiol and progesterone were quantified by ELISA with electro-chemiluminescence. Results: Median paracetamol clearance at delivery was significantly higher when compared to postpartum or non-pregnant women (11.9 vs. 6.42 and 8.4 l/h·m(2), at least p < 0.05), while an association between paracetamol clearance and estradiol was observed (R = 0.494, p < 0.0001). In non-pregnant subjects, there was no impact of OC exposure on paracetamol clearance. Multiple regression revealed a linear association (Radj = 0.41, p < 0.001) between paracetamol clearance and weight (p = 0.0462) and estradiol (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Estradiol and weight in part explain the variation in paracetamol clearance in young women. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sclerostin (SOST), dickkopf (DKK), secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP) genes and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods: The SOST, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), sFRP1,sFRP2,sFRP3, sFRP4, sFRP5, DKK1, DKK2 and DKK3 polymorphisms were analyzed in 399 postmenopausal Korean women. Serum levels of bone turnover markers were measured, and BMDs at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were also examined. Results: No significant differences in adjusted BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were noted according to any single and combined polymorphisms measured in SOST, DKKs and sFRPs. However, osteoporosis at the femoral neck was 2.35 times more frequently observed in the AA genotype of the sFRP4 c.958C>A polymorphism compared to the non-AA genotype (95% CI 1.09-5.08, p = 0.03). Also, the CC genotype of the sFRP3 c.970C>G polymorphism had a higher rate of osteoporosis at the femoral neck compared to the GC genotype (OR 8.47, 95% CI 1.37-52.63, p = 0.049). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the sFRP3 c.970C>G and sFRP4 c.958C>A polymorphisms may be genetic factors associated with the prevalence of osteoporosis at the femoral neck in postmenopausal Korean women. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors make up about half of the variation in endometriosis. Nevertheless, the genetics of endometriosis remains complex and in part unsolved, but recently, based on the results of few genome-wide association studies, some genetic susceptibility loci have been identified as associated robustly with the disease, providing new insights into potential pathways leading to endometriosis. Here, we present the case of a familial cluster composed by 3 sisters and their mother, all affected by endometriosis. Very severe gynecological and obstetric complications caused by the invasiveness of the disease have been observed in all members of the single family. The entire family has been genotyped for 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified as associated with endometriosis. All the family members were homozygotes for the risk allele G for the rs1333049 variant in the CDKN2BAS locus. The genotype-phenotype association is just at the beginning of endometriosis research promising to face novel concepts for disease diagnosis and treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 03/2014;

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