Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation (Gynecol Obstet Investig )

Publisher: S. Karger (Firm), Karger

Description

This journal covers the most active and promising areas of current research in gynecology and obstetrics. Invited, well-referenced reviews by noted experts keep readers in touch with the general framework and direction of international study. Original papers report selected experimental and clinical investigations in all fields related to gynecology, obstetrics and reproduction. Short communications are published to allow immediate discussion of new data. The international and interdisciplinary character of this periodical provides an avenue to less accessible sources and to worldwide research for investigators and practitioners

  • Impact factor
    1.10
  • 5-year impact
    1.15
  • Cited half-life
    10.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.17
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.34
  • Website
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation website
  • Other titles
    Gynecologic and obstetric investigation (Online), Gynecol obstet invest
  • ISSN
    1423-002X
  • OCLC
    44723324
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Karger

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's server or institutional server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women. Up to 50% of breast cancer cases occur in patients over the age of 65 years. Hormonal therapy as a single alternative treatment has been used in this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the oncological outcomes in breast cancer patients who received hormonal therapy alone as a primary treatment. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our database to find all patients with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 who were treated with hormonal therapy only at our center. The collected data included patients and tumor characteristics, type of drug administered, follow-up details and type of response obtained using RECIST criteria. Results: We included 44 breast cancer patients. The mean age was 83.5 ± 6.0 years. The majority of patients had tumors with less aggressive immunohistochemical characteristics and 100% of them presented positive estrogen receptors. The pharmacological treatment included exemestane, anastrozole, tamoxifen, letrozole and fulvestrant. The effectiveness rate was 60%, evaluated according to tumor reduction or no progression. Conclusion: The efficacy of hormonal therapy in older patients is reasonably high to justify its use in selected patients. Therefore, it is a sensible alternative for patients who refuse or are unfit for surgery.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To explore whether the transfer of very poor quality (VPQ) embryos is associated with an increase in congenital malformations or perinatal problems. Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, 74 children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) resulting exclusively from the transfer of VPQ embryos were compared with 1,507 children born after the transfer of top morphological quality (TQ) embryos over the same period of time in the same centers. Results: The prevalence of birth defects in children resulting from VPQ embryos was 1.35% (1/74), similar to the 1.72% (26/1,507) when only TQ embryos were transferred; the rate of chromosomal abnormalities detected was also similar (0.0 vs. 0.4%), as was perinatal mortality. After correcting for multiplicity (higher in the TQ group), the aforementioned parameters remained similar in the two groups. Conclusion: Congenital malformations and perinatal complications do not seem to be more common in children born after transfer of VPQ embryos in IVF/ICSI cycles. Given our preliminary data, which need to be confirmed in much larger studies, when only VPQ embryos are available for transfer in IVF/ICSI cycles, we do not believe that they should be discarded with the intention of avoiding birth defects or perinatal complications. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The transmembrane protein dystroglycan (DG) is known to anchor the cell membrane to the extracellular matrix, and is susceptible to cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in DG abundance in fetal membranes (FM) occur late in gestation, with spontaneous rupture of membranes (SROM), and during labor. Methods: FM were collected from a prospective cohort consisting of four groups of patients (term labor, term unlabored, preterm labor, and preterm unlabored). FM were subjected to immunohistochemical staining using antibodies specific for α- and β-DG subunits, and staining intensity was graded by a blinded pathologist. Results: α- and β-DG staining was significantly decreased at term and after SROM (p < 0.05), but not in the presence of labor. Conclusions: Decreased DG intensity was seen in FM of patients at term and with SROM, but no change was observed with labor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To evaluate the feasibility of conization without a prior punch biopsy for patients with abnormal cytology. Methods: A retrospective review was performed for 700 patients who underwent conization at a single institution from January 2003 to August 2012. Each of these patients was assigned to one of two groups, either the 'see-and-treat' group or the 'three-step' group, depending on whether the patient had undergone a punch biopsy before conization or not. The final histologic results of two groups were compared. Results: The overtreatment risk was higher in the 'see-and-treat' group in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) cytology (64.7% in the 'see-and-treat' group vs. 36.5% in the 'three-step' group; p = 0.001). There was no significant statistical difference in the rate of cervical dysplasia or invasive carcinoma in patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cytology between groups (91.8% in the 'see-and-treat' group vs. 93.5% in the 'three-step' group; p = 0.793). Conclusion: The patients with HSIL on cytology can be managed by a 'see-and-treat' strategy with a low risk of overtreatment. On the other hand, the 'three-step' management is more appropriate in patients with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Normal fetal development requires adequate folate levels during pregnancy. Although folate metabolic enzymes have important roles in the maintenance of normal fetal development, the location of folate metabolic enzymes, methionine synthase (MTR) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), has not been previously examined. Methods: We investigated the expression of MTR and MTHFR in human term placenta obtained from normal and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) patients. Results: MTR is expressed in the villous syncytiotrophoblast and MTHFR is expressed in the extravillous trophoblast. There was no difference in the quantity and location of these enzymes between control and PIH patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that MTR in the villous trophoblast participates in the metabolism of homocysteine by using folate, and MTHFR in the extravillous trophoblast is associated with extratrophoblast invasion. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hyperfibrinogenaemia and thrombocytosis, which usually occur in cancer patients, have been shown to contribute to cancer cell growth, progression, and metastasis. The aims of the present study were to assess the prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma fibrinogen and platelet levels in early-stage cervical cancer patients. Methods: The present study was a retrospective analysis of 220 cervical cancer patients with stage I-IIA disease. The pretreatment plasma fibrinogen and platelet levels were investigated along with clinicopathological findings and survival data. Results: The incidences of hyperfibrinogenaemia and thrombocytosis were 11.8 and 25.5%, respectively. Elevated fibrinogen levels were associated with advanced tumour stage, older age, large tumour size, deep stromal invasion, and tumour recurrence, whereas higher platelet levels correlated significantly with advanced tumour stage, large tumour size, and tumour recurrence. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that hyperfibrinogenaemia and thrombocytosis were significantly associated with shorter disease-free and overall survival. Furthermore, patients with hyperfibrinogenaemia and thrombocytosis may suffer from a higher risk of recurrence. Multivariate survival analyses showed that fibrinogen levels, but not platelet levels, were an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in early-stage patients. Conclusion: Hyperfibrinogenaemia and thrombocytosis may be valuable biomarkers for predicting recurrence in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To explore the knowledge and prevalence of menopausal symptoms as well as the use and attitude toward hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in Chinese women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2011 and April 2012 in Shanghai, China. The structured questionnaire addressing sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and prevalence of menopausal symptoms, and knowledge and attitude towards HRT and its use were investigated. Results: 3,619 women aged 40-65 years were included in the analysis. The majority of the women had knowledge of menopause. Symptoms were prevalent in 16.1% of premenopausal women and in 49.3% of peri-, post- and surgical-menopausal women. Back and joint pain, sleeplessness, fatigue and sweating/hot flushes were frequently reported. HRT awareness among women was 3.5% and was related to menopausal, working and marital status; 75 (2.1%) women had used or were using HRT, of which 57.3% used HRT with a doctor's prescription and 29.3% experienced side effects from the use of HRT. Conclusion: Most Chinese women had knowledge of menopause and thought menopausal symptoms should not be treated. The awareness of HRT was poor and influenced by menopausal, working and marital status. Chinese health care providers have to assume responsibility for educating women about menopause and HRT use. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We reported pregnancy outcomes after kidney transplantation in a single transplant center. Methods: We reviewed the perinatal outcomes of female kidney transplant patients of reproductive age (18-40 years) from 1987 to 2011. Results: A total of 246 patients were reviewed. Of these, 43 women registered a pregnancy following kidney transplantation. The mean patient age was 31.3 ± 4.2 years (range 24-40). The mean transplant-conception interval was 35.9 ± 12.6 months (range 24-120); 9 patients had a cadaveric allograft. The human leukocyte antigen match was ≥3/6 for 34 patients. The rate of live births was 29/43 (67.4%), miscarriage 10/43 (23.2%), preterm delivery 7/29 (24.1%), preeclampsia 5/29 (17.2%), and intrauterine growth retardation 2/29 (6.9%). Overall, 3/29 patients (10.3%) received a blood transfusion during pregnancy due to persistent symptomatic anemia, despite iron replacement and erythropoietin therapy; 24 patients (82%) had a cesarean section delivery; 3 patients had kidney rejection during pregnancy, with 2 occurring during the 6th postpartum month. Conclusion: Pregnancy should be considered a high risk in renal transplant recipients, necessitating close follow-up. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To evaluate the effects of combined treatment approaches on endometriosis-associated infertility in different stages of endometriosis using laparoscopy, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (GnRHa) therapy and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on 179 women with surgically confirmed endometriosis. Patients were divided into subgroups: group 1 (stage I-II, n = 121) and group 2 (stage III-IV, n = 58). Patients eligible for IVF, who were found to have adenomyosis or moderate to severe endometriosis, were also given postoperative GnRHa. Pregnancy and delivery rates were cumulatively calculated during 5 years according to the severity of the disease. Results: The overall pregnancy, delivery and miscarriage rates were 66.5, 56.4 and 15.1%, respectively, for all patients following spontaneous and assisted conception. There were no significant differences in reproductive outcomes between the study groups. The pregnancy and delivery rates were also comparable within group 1 between the patients with and without GnRHa treatment. Conclusion: Pregnancy and delivery rates at different stages of endometriosis were not affected by the different approaches used for infertility treatment, with >60 and >50% of patients having conceived and delivered a baby, respectively, in both groups. The usefulness of GnRHa treatment for endometriosis patients with minimal to mild forms is questionable and deserves further studies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the accuracy of frozen pathological analysis in patients preoperatively diagnosed with endometrial atypical complex hyperplasia (ACH) and to develop a model predicting the probability of the presence of endometrial carcinoma in ACH. Methods: Patients (n = 128) who underwent total hysterectomies because of diagnoses of ACH were evaluated at four tertiary centers. Results: Diagnoses made using frozen sections and permanent sections were in good agreement (ĸ = 0.61, p < 0.0001). A useful scoring system combining weighted risk factors derived from a regression model is as follows: (2 × age ≥50 years) + (3 × BMI ≥30) + (2 × menopausal status) + (2 × diabetes comorbidity) + (3 × endometrial thickness >12 mm). The AUC of this score was 0.793, and the score afforded 80.9% sensitivity, 70.3% specificity, a 75.3% positive predictive value, and a 76.4% negative predictive value, when a score of 5 was used as a cutoff. Conclusions: Patients with ACH should be evaluated by gynecological oncologists and intraoperative frozen section analysis should be performed by pathologists specializing in the evaluation of gynecological malignancies, because ACH is closely associated with endometrial cancer (EC). Our novel preoperative scoring system may aid in the detection of patients at increased risk of EC and thus guide general gynecologists. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The control of labor pain and the prevention of suffering are major concerns of clinicians and their patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of music on labor pain and anxiety, maternal hemodynamics, fetal-neonatal parameters and postpartum analgesic requirement in primiparous women. Methods: Overall, 156 primiparous women who expected vaginal delivery were recruited and randomly assigned to a music group (n = 77) or a control group (n = 79). Women in the music group listened to music during labor. Pain intensity and anxiety level were measured using a visual analogue scale (0-10 cm). The two groups were compared in terms of pain severity, anxiety level, maternal hemodynamics, fetal-neonatal parameters and postpartum analgesic requirement. Results: Mothers in the music therapy group had a lower level of pain and anxiety compared with those in the control group at all stages of labor (p < 0.001). A significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of maternal hemodynamics and fetal heart rate after intervention (p < 0.01). Postpartum analgesic requirement significantly decreased in the music therapy group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Listening to music during labor has a positive impact on labor pain and anxiety, maternal-fetal parameters and analgesic requirement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is no current consensus on the best treatment modality for cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) with favorable reproductive and pregnancy outcome. We treated 3 cases of symptomatic CSP with fetal cardiac activity. The first case underwent laparoscopic repair at 6 weeks' gestational age of unruptured CSP. The second patient underwent laparoscopic repair due to massive vaginal bleeding after suction curettage. Both patients conceived naturally 6 months later and underwent repeated cesarean section at term. These were successful live births although the second patient was treated with uterine artery embolization for postpartum hemorrhage. The last patient underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy due to ruptured CSP and delivered a preterm baby. Earlier surgical treatment of CSP is indicated for a subsequent successful pregnancy and live birth. The laparoscopic approach might be advisable prior to uterine rupture. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fetal thymus transverse diameter (FTTD) in predicting fetal infection in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and compare its accuracy with cord blood tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Methods: Forty consecutive pregnancies complicated with PPROM between 26(1/7) and 36(6/7) gestational weeks were evaluated prospectively. Serial fetal ultrasonography follow-ups with 3-day intervals were performed beginning on the admission day. The FTTD was recorded on every ultrasonographic examination. Cord blood TNF-α and IL-6 values were measured after delivery. Results: FTTD was decreased below 5% according to nomograms compared to the initial measurement in 45% of all PPROM cases. Decreased FTTD had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 73%, positive predictive value of 55%, and negative predictive value of 100% in predicting early neonatal sepsis. Cord blood TNF-α had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 90%, whereas IL-6 had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 63.3% in predicting early neonatal sepsis. Conclusions: Assessment of the decrease in FTTD by serial ultrasonographic examinations is a promising 'prenatal' method for the early detection of early neonatal sepsis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To observe the expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in human ectocervical-vaginal epithelial cells (hECEs). Methods: The study included 75 females who underwent hysterectomy for benign pelvic lesions. They were divided into three groups according to menstrual states: 28 cases in the normal menstrual group, 24 cases in the perimenopausal group, and 23 cases in the postmenopausal group. Specimens were obtained from the posterior vaginal wall. AQP2 mRNA and protein expression were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Estrogen (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and plasma osmolality were assayed by blood routine test. Linear regression analysis was used for data analysis. Results: AQP2 mRNA and protein expression were detected in all hECE tissues. AQP2 mRNA and protein expression in the normal menstrual group were significantly higher than those in the peri- and menopausal groups (p < 0.05). AQP2 mRNA was negatively correlated with FSH level (R = -0.537, p < 0.05), age (R = -0.508, p < 0.05) and plasma osmolality (R = -0.214, p < 0.05), but positively correlated with E2 (R = 0.511, p < 0.05). AQP2 protein expression was negatively correlated with FSH (R = -0.419, p < 0.05) and age (R = -0.034, p < 0.05), but positively correlated with E2 (R = 0.367, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The downregulation of AQP2 might be a causative factor for decreased vaginal secretions during the menopausal period. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Escobar syndrome is characterized with multiple pterygia or webs of the skin and multiple congenital anomalies. We present a 15-year-old patient with Escobar syndrome who complained of persistent blunt abdominal pain for 1 year. Preoperative evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of imperforate hymen, and the patient underwent hymenectomy under intravenous sedation. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and her complaints resolved completely. After a 3-month follow-up, she reported having normal menstrual bleeding intervals each month without any complications. Patients with Escobar syndrome may suffer from abdominal pain due to imperforate hymen. Careful evaluation of these patients must include a complete gynaecological assessment and, if indicated, surgical treatment must be performed without delay. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: To examine the relationship of the amniotic fluid index (AFI) and single deepest pocket (SDP) with an AFV as modelled by Brace or Magann. Methods: AFI and SDP were evaluated for their correlation with an actual AFV using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: 482 AFI and 468 SDP pregnancies were evaluated. There was a significant association between the AFI and SDP and an actual AFV (p < 0.0001). The AFI range of 5.1-20 was better correlated than 5.1-24 for normal AFVs Brace (κ = 0.175) and Magann (κ = 0.356) versus 5.1-24 (κ = 0.150 and κ = 0.319), respectively. The agreement level t for the AFI (κ = 0.175) and SDP (κ = 0.126) using Brace was slight and for the AFI (κ = 0.356) and SDP (κ = 0.295) using Magann was fair. Conclusions: Both the AFI and SDP were correlated with actual AFV using both models. AFI of 5.1-20 better categorizes normal volumes. Although the Magann model correlates AFI/SDP and AFV better, the superiority is minimal. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive neuromuscular disease caused by mutation in the DMD gene. A 38-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with her son who was diagnosed with DMD. Multiplex PCR failed to detect DMD mutations in the affected child. The female carrier underwent preimplantation genetic diagnosis by linkage analysis and gender determination. Eight embryos were biopsied after in vitro fertilization. Two healthy embryos determined both as females (E1 and E3) were transferred. Although the paternal allele was absent in E3, it was considered to be a result of allele dropout for the STR-49 marker. Surprisingly, a female and a male baby were delivered at 38 gestational weeks, suggesting that E3 was a male embryo with the allele dropout occurring at the SRY gene. Exon 2 duplication was detected in the DMD patient and the carrier mother using next-generation sequencing and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Next, we verified the duplication of exon 2 by real-time PCR, using a special primer at 3' of intron 1, very close to exon 2. Finally, we confirmed that both newborns inherited the normal allele, using quantitative real-time PCR and linkage analysis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Few studies have evaluated approaches to improve patient follow-up in screening programs within resource-limited areas. This study investigated the patterns of return among women presenting for results from a cervical cancer screening program implemented in a resource-poor region to highlight areas for future research and potential interventions. Methods: In the development of a cervical cancer screening program in rural Haiti, women aged 18-45 years were recruited from local churches to undergo cervical cancer screening and follow-up for results. A dot plot was used to analyze the distribution of women returning during the results phase compared to the random return rates based on the screening phase. Results: Of the 250 women tested, 121 (48%) returned for follow-up. On the 2 result days with the most returnees, 46 and 63% of the women had been tested during only 3 of the 11 testing days which themselves accounted for 41% of the total number of women who returned. The highest volume return days, a Monday and a Friday, gave results to women tested on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, and on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday, respectively. The 2 result days with the lowest return numbers had 80% (8/10) of those who returned coming as the only returnee from their day of testing. Conclusion: Result days corresponding with the highest return rates had increased clustering of women from the screening phase, and the result days with fewer women returning had less clustering. These findings are among the first to implicate the importance of defining these patterns of return and the potential for recruitment techniques that exploit such groupings, potentially described by social connections, in limited-resource settings to improve follow-up for screening programs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The progression of the cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) is associated with many cofactors, and nutritional aspects are gradually assuming an important role in understanding the physiopathogenesis. Objective: To assess the serum levels of retinol in women from a poor region of Brazil with a histological diagnosis of cervical high-grade SIL (HSIL). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 62 women aged 14-48 years who had a cervical biopsy and were treated at the Federal University of Ceara in Fortaleza, Brazil. Serum retinol levels were measured in peripheral blood by a spectrophotometry technique. Values were categorized as subnormal (<20 µg/dl) or normal (≥20 µg/dl). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between serum levels of retinol and HSIL for a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Twenty-six out of 62 women (42%) had a negative histopathological result for SIL and 36 (58%) were diagnosed with SIL (20 low SIL and 16 high SIL). The level of retinol was more frequently low in women with HSIL, but there was no statistical significance [p = 0.409, OR: 2.26 (0.33-15.59)]. Conclusion: There was no association between high SIL and low levels of retinol in peripheral blood. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To establish leukocyte count and differential percentiles in healthy singleton term laboring women during spontaneous normal vaginal labor following an uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: An analysis of the records of all women (n = 762) who delivered at our delivery ward during a 2-month period was performed. After exclusion for cesarean delivery, induction of labor, pregnancy complications, preterm labor, multiple pregnancy, fever on admission, and lack of full blood count on admission, 365 parturient women during the 1st stage of labor were included in the final analysis. The total and differential leukocyte counts were determined by standard procedure by an automated cell counter. Results: The leukocyte count range on admission to the delivery ward during the 1st stage of labor in healthy parturient women was between 4.4 × and 21.7 × 10(3)/µl and the 99th percentile limit was 20.06 × 10(3)/µl. The total leukocyte count was not influenced by cervical dilatation, ruptured membranes, or the presence and regularity of uterine contractions. Conclusion: An observed leukocyte count within the 99th percentile limit (20.06 × 10(3)/µl) in an otherwise normal parturient woman is reassuring in the absence of other clinical evidence. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 08/2014;