Xenotransplantation (Xenotransplantation )

Publisher: International Xenotransplantation Association, Blackwell Publishing


Xenotransplantation which is published quarterly will provide its readership with rapid communication of new findings in the field of organ and tissue transplantation across species barriers. Unsolicited contributions of full length and brief communications dealing with both basic and applied studies in this field will be considered for publication pending scientific review to assure high quality. In addition review articles of timely subjects will be solicited by the editors.

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Publications in this journal

  • Jochen Sautermeister
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    ABSTRACT: Current medical research in the area of xenotransplantation is driven by the aim to save human lives and to improve the quality of life of those suffering from organ insufficiencies. This study reflects the therapeutic intent of xenotransplantation from a theological-ethical perspective. Regarding statements of Christian communities, the analysis focuses mainly on catholic documents. This study takes into account the document on Prospects for Xenotransplantation by the Pontifical Academy for Life as well as a position paper on xenotransplantation released as a collaboration between the German Bishops Conference (Catholic) and the Evangelical Church in Germany (Protestant). Documents of other Christian denominations will be discussed in a separate paper. Aspects concerning the areas of medicine, social ethics and animal ethics are considered as well as biographical, psychosocial, culture-bound and ideological preconditions of acceptability. These aspects also include consequences for the construction of personal identity. With regard to an anthropocentrism that is based theologically and relationally, xenotransplantation-in general-can be viewed as a permissible form of therapy, given that the principles of biomedical ethics will be observed and that animals are treated with respect. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. Some of these microorganisms may induce a zoonosis, that is an infectious disease induced by microorganisms transmitted from another species. With exception of the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are integrated in the genome of all pigs, the transmission of all other microorganisms can be prevented by specified or designated pathogen-free (spf or dpf, respectively) production of the animals. However, it is becoming clear in the last years that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the viruses which are difficult to eliminate. It is important to note that there are differences between HEV of genotypes (gt) 1 and gt2 on one hand and HEV of gt3 and gt4 on the other. HEV gt1 and gt2 are human viruses, and they induce hepatitis and in the worst case fatal infections in pregnant women. In contrast, HEV gt3 and gt4 are viruses of pigs, and they may infect humans, induce commonly only mild diseases, if any, and are harmless for pregnant women. The goal of this review was to evaluate the risk posed by HEV gt3 and gt4 for xenotransplantation and to indicate ways of their elimination from pigs in order to prevent transmission to the human recipient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine neonatal islet-like cell clusters (NICC) are being considered as a source of β-cell replacement. However, the lag time to full function due to hormonal immaturity remains a problem. This study aimed to determine whether time in culture was important for NICC function in vivo. Neonatal islet-like cell clusters were isolated from piglets aged between 1 and 3 days, and cultured for up to 27 days post-isolation. Each week, NICC number, viability, and function were determined. Neonatal islet-like cell clusters cultured for 12, 19, and 27 days achieved normal blood glucose levels at 46 days (85% of animals), 32 days (100% of animals), and 35 days (81% of animals), respectively. By comparison, standard 6-day culture took a mean of 63 days to achieve normoglycemia in 35% of animals. Longer time in culture resulted in a significant loss of islet equivalent over time. However, insulin gene expression levels were significantly higher at days 12, 19, 27 compared to day 6. Glucagon gene expression was highest at day 12, and significantly higher than day 6 at all time points. Bcl-2 gene expression increased over time, and tissue factor (TF) gene expression was highest on day 6 and then decreased over the remaining time points. Culture of NICC for 12 days provides the best balance in vivo functional outcome for transplantation, shown by better reversal of diabetes, and higher levels of gene expression for insulin, glucagon and Bcl-2 and lower levels of TF expression with acceptable NICC number loss in terms of time and expense. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Xenotransplantation is a potential answer to the current organ shortage, but the risk of infections related to overimmunosuppression is an important parameter that may predict the recipient's long-term survival. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in xenotransplanted and immunosuppressed primates is a well-known cause of disease particularly affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and a zoonotic concern.Methods Post-mortem sera and tissues from 45 immunosuppressed and xenografted Macaca fascicularis were evaluated for CMV using antisera specific for the immediate early 1 (IE1), anti-RhCMV, and QPCR for virus.ResultsSerological analysis showed 100% positivity for the presence of CMV antibodies following the application of a specific test designed for RhCMV. Five of 45 primates showed typical lesions of CMV infection in the GI tract, including neutrophilic enteritis and inclusion bodies. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of recipient's CMV in the tissues with CMV histopathology. Porcine CMV from the donor animals was not found in any of the CMV-specific IHC-positive recipients.Conclusion The presence of active CMV infection in animals intended for xenograft experiments can lead to severe gastrointestinal lesions that could impact the overall aims of the study. In such cases, the animals should be investigated using appropriate (non-human primate-specific) diagnostic tools prior to use and treated aggressively with state-of-the-art antiviral therapy.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Xenotransplantation of porcine organs, tissues, and cells inherits a risk for xenozoonotic infections. Viable tissues and cells intended for transplantation have to be considered as potentially contaminated non-sterile products. The demands on microbial testing, based on the regulatory requirements, are often challenging due to a restricted shelf life or the complexity of the product itself. In Europe, the regulatory framework for xenogeneic cell therapy is based on the advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) regulation (2007), the EMA CHMP Guideline on xenogeneic cell-based medicinal products (2009), as well as the WHO and Council of Europe recommendations. In the USA, FDA guidance for industry (2003) regulates the use of xenotransplants. To comply with the regulations, validated test methods need to be established that reveal the microbial status of a transplant within its given shelf life, complemented by strictly defined action alert limits and supported by breeding in specific pathogen-free (SPF) facilities. In this review, we focus on assays for the detection of the porcine endogenous retroviruses PERV-A/-B/-C, which exhibit highly polymorphic proviral loci in pig genomes. PERVs are transmitted vertically and cannot be completely eliminated by breeding or gene knock out technology. PERVs entail a public health concern that will persist even if no evidence of PERV infection of xenotransplant recipients in vivo has been revealed yet. Nevertheless, infectious risks must be minimized by full assessment of pigs as donors by combining different molecular screening assays for sensitive and specific detection as well as a functional analysis of the infectivity of PERV including an adequate monitoring of recipients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Xenotransplantation 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Background To understand humoral responses elicited after xenotransplantation, we compared the induction of anti-non-Gal antibodies vs. anti-Gal antibodies in non-human primates (NHPs) after intraportal porcine islet transplantation (PITX).Methods Anti-Gal and anti-non-Gal IgGs were analyzed in serial plasma samples of NHP recipients after PITX by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using synthetic Gal and by flow cytometry using α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) porcine endothelial cells, respectively. Anti-non-Gal IgG was detected in some recipients after PITX. The specificity of anti-non-Gal IgG was investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis of the protein extract from GTKO porcine endothelial cells, Western blot analysis of recipient pre- and post-PITX plasma, and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, revealing albumin, a non-glycosylated protein in the serum supplement of the islets solution, as a putative antigen for anti-non-Gal IgG. The binding of IgG antibodies to human albumin (HA), bovine albumin (BA), porcine albumin (PA), and Gal was compared by ELISA in pre- and post-PITX plasma samples of 30 NHP recipients subjected to intraportal PITX, which were grouped according to the use of CD40-CD154 blockade and sirolimus.ResultsOne of the immunoblot-matched spots was identified as BA by mass spectrometry. By ELISA, the plasma used in the immunoblot analysis revealed strong IgG binding to BA and PA, but not to HA. Anti-PA, anti-BA, and anti-Gal antibodies in NHP recipients 1 month after PITX were detected in 5 (100%), 3 (60%), and 5 (100%), respectively, of the 5 recipients receiving various immunosuppression (IS) without CD40-CD154 blockade (group I) and in 0 (0%), 0 (0%), and 4 (16%), respectively, of the 25 recipients receiving IS with CD40-CD154 blockade and sirolimus (group II). This finding revealed significant differences between the groups (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0011 and P = 0.0013, respectively). Interestingly, among 15 recipients achieving graft survival longer than 1 month in group II, anti-PA IgG was detected in only 1 recipient (6.7%) 180 days after PITX. However, an increase in anti-Gal IgG was detected in 7 recipients (46.7%) despite maintenance IS with anti-CD154 and sirolimus. This result indicates that anti-Gal IgG is more frequently induced than anti-PA IgG (P = 0.0352). Moreover, induction IS with anti-CD154 and sirolimus suppressed anti-Gal IgG, but not anti-PA and anti-BA IgG, responses in sensitized recipients given a repeat transplantation.Conclusions In NHP recipients of PITX, anti-PA and anti-BA IgG antibodies are elicited by porcine serum included as a supplement in porcine islet preparation. IS including CD40-CD154 blockade and sirolimus suppresses these antibody responses in naïve recipients, but not in sensitized recipients. The elicitation of anti-xenogenic albumin antibodies, a humoral response to a model protein antigen, is distinct from that of anti-Gal antibodies, a response to carbohydrate antigen.
    Xenotransplantation 01/2015;
  • Xenotransplantation 01/2015; 22(1):80-83.
  • Xenotransplantation 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Xenotransplantation of porcine islets can reverse diabetes in non-human primates. The remaining hurdles for clinical application include safe and effective T-cell-directed immunosuppression, but protection against the innate immune system and coagulation dysfunction may be more difficult to achieve. Islet-targeted genetic manipulation of islet-source pigs represents a powerful tool to protect against graft loss. However, whether these genetic alterations would impair islet function is unknown.Methods On a background of α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO)/human (h)CD46, additional genes (hCD39, human tissue factor pathway inhibitor, porcine CTLA4-Ig) were inserted in different combinations under an insulin promoter to promote expression in islets (confirmed by immunofluorescence). Seven pigs were tested for baseline and glucose/arginine-challenged levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon.ResultsThis preliminary study did not show definite evidence of β-cell deficiencies, even when three transgenes were expressed under the insulin promoter. Of seven animals, all were normoglycemic at fasting, and five of seven had normal glucose disposal rates after challenge. All animals exhibited insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon responses to both glucose and arginine challenge; however, significant interindividual variation was observed.Conclusions Multiple islet-targeted transgenic expression was not associated with an overtly detrimental effect on islet function, suggesting that complex genetic constructs designed for islet protection warrants further testing in islet xenotransplantation models.
    Xenotransplantation 11/2014;
  • Xenotransplantation 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Human beings do not synthesize the glycolyl form of the sialic acid (Neu5Gc) and only express the acetylated form of the sugar, whereas a diet-based intake of Neu5Gc provokes a natural immunization and production of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in human serum. However, Neu5Gc is expressed on mammal glycoproteins and glycolipids in most organs and cells. We review here the relevance of Neu5Gc and anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in the context of xenotransplantation and the use of animal-derived molecules and products, as well as the possible consequences of a long-term exposure to anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in recipients of xenografts. In addition, the importance of an accurate estimation of the anti-Neu5Gc response following xenotransplantation and the future contribution of knockout animals mimicking the human situation are also assessed.
    Xenotransplantation 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Whole-organ engineering provides a new alternative source of donor organs for xenotransplantation. Utilization of decellularized whole-organ scaffolds, which can be created by detergent perfusion, is a strategy for tissue engineering. In this article, our aim is to scale up the decellularization process to human-sized liver and kidney to generate a decellularized matrix with optimal and stable characteristics on a clinically relevant scale.Methods Whole porcine liver and kidney were decellularized by perfusion using different detergents (1% SDS, 1% Triton X-100, 1% peracetic acid (PAA), and 1% NaDOC) via the portal vein and renal artery of the liver and kidney, respectively. After rinsing with PBS to remove the detergents, the obtained liver and kidney extracellular matrix (ECM) were processed for histology, residual cellular content analysis, and ECM components evaluation to investigate decellularization efficiency, xenoantigens removal, and ECM preservation.ResultsThe resulting liver and kidney scaffolds in the SDS-treated group showed the most efficient clearance of cellular components and xenoantigens, including DNA and protein, and preservation of the extracellular matrix composition. In comparison, cell debris was observed in the other decellularized groups that were generated using Triton X-100, PAA, and NaDOC. Special staining and immunochemistry of the porcine liver and kidney ECMs further confirmed the disrupted three-dimension ultrastructure of the ECM in the Triton X-100 and NaDOC groups. Additionally, Triton X-100 effectively eliminated the residual SDS in the SDS-treated group, which ensured the scaffolds were not cytotoxic to cells. Thus, we have developed an optimal method that can be scaled up for use with other solid whole organs.Conclusions Our SDS-perfusion protocol can be used for porcine liver and kidney decellularization to obtain organ scaffolds cleared of cellular material, xenoimmunogens, and preserved vital ECM components.
    Xenotransplantation 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pre-clinical demonstration of porcine islet graft function is necessary to support the clinical transplantation of pig islets. C-peptide concentration is an especially useful marker of insulin secretion, because its measurement is not confounded by the presence of exogenous insulin. To measure porcine C-peptide (PCP), researchers in the field exclusively used the Millipore (previously Linco Research) radioimmunoassay (RIA) until 2011, when Mercodia released an alternative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (At the end of 2013, the Millipore RIA was withdrawn from the market for commercial reasons.) In our current study, to directly compare these two assays, we performed validation studies on each. We also performed interlaboratory comparisons. Then, to determine the level of agreement between the assays, we analyzed the porcine serum C-peptide concentration measurement results obtained from each assay.Methods Using pre-established method validation acceptance criteria, we determined and evaluated the detection limit, sensitivity, precision, linearity, and recovery of the two commercially available PCP assays described above (ELISA and RIA). After validation requirements were met, we performed a method comparison by determining C-peptide concentration in 60 serum samples collected from 31 normal, healthy adult Landrace pigs in the fasting state; a subset underwent an intravenous glucose challenge test, to stimulate the typical physiologic range of C-peptide. All analyses were performed according to manufacturer instructions. To compare the assays, we used Deming regression analysis.ResultsBoth assays met acceptance criteria. The RIA had a sensitivity of 0.1 ng/ml; it was linear to 2.9 ng/ml. The ELISA had a detection limit of 0.03 ng/ml; it was linear to 1.2 ng/ml. Recovery ranged from 89 to 113% with both assays. The coefficient of variability was 8% in interlaboratory comparisons. Deming regression analysis directly comparing both assays revealed significant correlation between them (before log-transformation: R2 = 0.9803, P < 0.0001; after log-transformation: R2 = 0.9727, P < 0.0001). Measured C-peptide concentration was lower with the ELISA than with the RIA; individual measurements plotted against the averages of the pair demonstrated that the variability from the mean strongly depended on increasing concentration. To transform ELISA data, we used the standard regression equation y = 2.191x + 0.1119 and the log-transformed regression equation y = 0.8101x + 0.7502. Both the transformed and the log-transformed (exponential) values approximated the measured RIA levels with a high degree of accuracy in the concentration range of 0 to 1.0 ng/ml.Conclusions Porcine C-peptide concentration can be reliably measured in porcine serum samples with either assay (ELISA or RIA). However, the C-peptide results generated by these two assays are not equivalent. Therefore, assay bias must be considered before directly comparing pre-clinical studies that used either of these assays. We determined that harmonization between the assays is appropriate in a specific concentration range. Outside of that range, we do not know whether a linear correction function can be more broadly applied. The variation between the two assays may be related to calibration or reagent factors. To determine which assay is truly more accurate and to effectively compare interlaboratory results, we will need a traceable reference standard.
    Xenotransplantation 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Manipulating the pig genome to increase compatibility with human biology may facilitate the clinical application of xenotransplantation. Genetic modifications to pig cells have been made by sequential recombination in fetal fibroblasts and liver-derived cells followed by cross-breeding or somatic cell nuclear transfer. The generation of pigs for research or organ donation by these methods is slow, expensive and requires technical expertise. A novel system incorporating the bacterial nuclease Cas9 and single-guide RNA targeting a 20 nucleotide site within a gene can be expressed from a single plasmid leading to a double-strand break and gene disruption. Coexpression of multiple unique single-guide RNA can modify several genetic loci in a single step. We describe a process for increasing the efficiency of selecting cells with multiple genetic modifications.Methods We used the CRISPR/Cas system to target the GGTA1, CMAH and putative iGb3S genes in pigs that have been naturally deleted in humans. Cells lacking galactose α-1,3 galactose (α-Gal) were negatively selected by an IB4 lectin/magnetic bead. α-Gal negative multiplexed single-guide RNA-treated cells were used for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and transferred to fertile sows. We examined the levels of α-Gal and Neu5Gc expression of 32 day fetuses and piglets and analyzed the targeted genes by DNA sequencing.ResultsLiver-derived cells treated with multiple single-guide RNA and selected for an α-Gal null phenotype were significantly more likely to also carry mutations in simultaneously targeted genes. Multiplex single-guide RNA-treated cells used directly for SCNT without further genetic selection produced piglets with deletions in the targeted genes but also created double- and triple-gene KO variations. CRISPR/Cas-treated cells grew normally and yielded normal liters of healthy piglets via somatic cell nuclear transfer.Conclusions The CRISPR/Cas system allows targeting of multiple genes in a single reaction with the potential to create pigs of one genetic strain or multiple genetic modifications in a single pregnancy. The application of this phenotypic selection strategy with multiplexed sgRNA and the Cas9 nuclease has accelerated our ability to produce and evaluate pigs important to xenotransplantation.
    Xenotransplantation 09/2014;
  • Xenotransplantation 09/2014; 21(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Background Xenograft rejection of pigs organs with an engineered mutation in the GGTA-1 gene (GTKO) remains a predominantly antibody mediated process which is directed to a variety of non-Gal protein and carbohydrate antigens. We previously used an expression library screening strategy to identify six porcine endothelial cell cDNAs which encode pig antigens that bind to IgG induced after pig-to-primate cardiac xenotransplantation. One of these gene products was a glycosyltransferase with homology to the bovine β1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (B4GALNT2). We now characterize the porcine B4GALNT2 gene sequence, genomic organization, expression, and functional significance.Methods The porcine B4GALNT2 cDNA was recovered from the original library isolate, subcloned, sequenced, and used to identify a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the entire B4GALNT2 locus from the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute BACPAC Resource Centre (#AC173453). PCR primers were designed to map the intron/exon genomic organization in the BAC clone. A stable human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line expressing porcine B4GALNT2 (HEK-B4T) was produced. Expression of porcine B4GALNT2 in HEK-B4T cells was characterized by immune staining and siRNA transfection. The effects of B4GALNT2 expression in HEK-B4T cells was measured by flow cytometry and complement mediated lysis. Antibody binding to HEK and HEK-B4T cells was used to detect an induced antibody response to the B4GALNT2 produced glycan and the results were compared to GTKO PAEC specific non-Gal antibody induction. Expression of porcine B4GALNT2 in pig cells and tissues was measured by qualitative and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR and by Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) tissue staining.ResultsThe porcine B4GALNT2 gene shares a conserved genomic organization and encodes an open reading frame with 76 and 70% amino acid identity to the human and murine B4GALNT2 genes, respectively. The B4GALNT2 gene is expressed in porcine endothelial cells and shows a broadly distributed expression pattern. Expression of porcine B4GALNT2 in human HEK cells (HEK-B4T) results in increased binding of antibody to the B4GALNT2 enzyme, and increased reactivity with anti-Sda and DBA. HEK-B4T cells show increased sensitivity to complement mediated lysis when challenged with serum from primates after pig to primate cardiac xenotransplantation. In GTKO and GTKO:CD55 cardiac xenotransplantation recipients there is a significant correlation between the induction of a non-Gal antibody, measured using GTKO PAECs, and the induction of antibodies which preferentially bind to HEK-B4T cells.Conclusion The functional isolation of the porcine B4GALNT2 gene from a PAEC expression library, the pattern of B4GALNT2 gene expression and its sensitization of HEK-B4T cells to antibody binding and complement mediated lysis indicates that the enzymatic activity of porcine B4GALNT2 produces a new immunogenic non-Gal glycan which contributes in part to the non-Gal immune response detected after pig-to-baboon cardiac xenotransplantation.
    Xenotransplantation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Scientists working in the field of xenotransplantation do not employ a uniform method to measure and report natural and induced antibody responses to non-Galα(1,3)Gal (non-Gal) epitopes. Such humoral responses are thought to be particularly pathogenic after transplantation of vascularized GalTKO pig organs and having a more uniform assay and reporting format would greatly facilitate comparisons between laboratories.Methods Flow cytometry allows examination of antibody reactivity to intact antigens in their natural location and conformation on cell membranes. We have established a simple and reproducible flow cytometric assay to detect antibodies specific for non-Gal pig antigens using primary porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAECs) and cell culture-adapted pAEC cell lines generated from wild type and α1,3galactosyl transferase knockout (GalTKO) swine.ResultsThe consensus protocol we propose here is based on procedures routinely used in four xenotransplantation centers and was independently evaluated at three sites using shared cells and serum samples. Our observation support use of the cell culture-adapted GalTKO pAEC KO:15502 cells as a routine method to determine the reactivity of anti-non-Gal antibodies in human and baboon serum.Conclusions We have developed an assay that allows the detection of natural and induced non-Gal xenoreactive antibodies present in human or baboon serum in a reliable and consistent manner. This consensus assay and format for reporting the data should be accessible to laboratories and will be useful for assessing experimental results between multiple research centers. Adopting this assay and format for reporting the data should facilitate the detection, monitoring, and detailed characterization of non-Gal antibody responses.
    Xenotransplantation 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Patients with liver failure could potentially be bridged with porcine xenogeneic liver cell transplantation. We examined species-specific differences between primary human and porcine hepatocytes in the regulation of coagulation protein expression and function.Methods Isolated primary human and porcine hepatocytes were stimulated with either porcine or human interleukin (IL)-6 (10 ng/ml), IL-1β (10 ng/ml), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, 30 ng/ml). mRNA expression of coagulation factors were measured by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Cell culture supernatants were used for the measurement of fibrinogen by ELISA and determination of fibrin clot generation.ResultsFibrinogen expression in human hepatocytes increased after IL-6 treatment (P = 0.010) and decreased after TNF-α treatment (P = 0.005). Porcine hepatocytes displayed a lower increase in fibrinogen expression after IL-6 treatment as compared to hepatocytes of human origin (P = 0.021). Porcine hepatocytes responded contrarily following TNF-α treatment with an increased expression of fibrinogen resulting in a significant species-specific difference between human and porcine hepatocytes (P = 0.029). Fibrin polymer generation by human hepatocytes was stable and widely branched after IL-6 treatment, while stimulation with TNF-α displayed no fibrin generation at all. In contrast, treatment of porcine hepatocytes with TNF-α resulted in generation of a stable and widely branched fibrin polymer, and stimulation with IL-6 only leads to generation of partial fibrin aggregates.Conclusion We identified species-specific differences in the regulation of fibrinogen mRNA expression and fibrin generation under inflammatory stimuli. In hepatic xenotransplantation of porcine origin, these interspecies differences might lead to a loss of physiological coagulation function and a loss of transplanted cells.
    Xenotransplantation 09/2014;