Xenotransplantation (Xenotransplantation)

Publisher: International Xenotransplantation Association, Wiley

Journal description

Xenotransplantation which is published quarterly will provide its readership with rapid communication of new findings in the field of organ and tissue transplantation across species barriers. Unsolicited contributions of full length and brief communications dealing with both basic and applied studies in this field will be considered for publication pending scientific review to assure high quality. In addition review articles of timely subjects will be solicited by the editors.

Current impact factor: 1.78

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.779
2012 Impact Factor 2.565
2011 Impact Factor 2.326
2010 Impact Factor 2.067
2009 Impact Factor 2.711
2008 Impact Factor 2.288
2007 Impact Factor 2.588
2006 Impact Factor 1.777
2005 Impact Factor 2.114
2004 Impact Factor 2.876
2003 Impact Factor 2.437
2002 Impact Factor 2.581
2001 Impact Factor 2.079
2000 Impact Factor 3.268
1999 Impact Factor 2.904
1998 Impact Factor 3.671

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.18
Cited half-life 5.20
Immediacy index 1.07
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.69
Website Xenotransplantation website
Other titles Xenotransplantation (Online)
ISSN 1399-3089
OCLC 44974358
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell activation and injury by the terminal pathway of complement is important in various pathobiological processes, including xenograft rejection. Protection against injury by human complement can be induced in porcine endothelial cells (ECs) with IL-4 and IL-13 through metabolic activation. However, despite this resistance, the complement-treated ECs were found to lose membrane permeability control assessed with the small molecule calcein. Therefore, to define the apparent discrepancy of permeability changes vis-à-vis the protection from killing, we now investigated whether IL-4 and IL-13 influence the release of the large cytoplasmic protein lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in ECs incubated with complement or the pore-forming protein melittin. Primary cultures of ECs were pre-treated with IL-4 or IL-13 and then incubated with human serum as source of antibody and complement or melittin. Cell death was assessed using neutral red. Membrane permeability was quantitated measuring LDH release. We found that IL-4-/IL-13-induced protection of ECs from killing by complement or melittin despite loss of LDH in amounts similar to control ECs. However, the cytokine-treated ECs that were protected from killing rapidly regained effective control of membrane permeability. Moreover, the viability of the protected ECs was maintained for at least 2 days. We conclude that the protection induced by IL-4/IL-13 in ECs against lethal attack by complement or melittin is effective and durable despite severe initial impairment of membrane permeability. The metabolic changes responsible for protection allow the cells to repair the membrane injury caused by complement or melittin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Xenotransplantation 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/xen.12172
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte transplantation (Tx) is a potential therapy for certain diseases of the liver, including hepatic failure. However, there is a limited supply of human livers as a source of cells and, after isolation, human hepatocytes can be difficult to expand in culture, limiting the number available for Tx. Hepatocytes from other species, for example, the pig, have therefore emerged as a potential alternative source. We searched the literature through the end of 2014 to assess the current status of experimental research into hepatocyte xenoTx. The literature search identified 51 reports of in vivo cross-species Tx of hepatocytes in a variety of experimental models. Most studies investigated the Tx of human (n = 23) or pig (n = 19) hepatocytes. No studies explored hepatocytes from genetically engineered pigs. The spleen was the most common site of Tx (n = 23), followed by the liver (through the portal vein [n = 6]) and peritoneal cavity (n = 19). In 47 studies (92%), there was evidence of hepatocyte engraftment and function across a species barrier. The data provided by this literature search strengthen the hypothesis that xenoTx of hepatocytes is feasible and potentially successful as a clinical therapy for certain liver diseases, including hepatic failure. By excluding vascular structures, hepatocytes isolated from genetically engineered pig livers may address some of the immunological problems of xenoTx. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Xenotransplantation 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/xen.12170
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    ABSTRACT: Xenotransplantation has the potential to alleviate the organ shortage that prevents many patients with end-stage renal disease from enjoying the benefits of kidney transplantation. Despite significant advances in other models, pig-to-primate kidney xenotransplantation has met limited success. Preformed anti-pig antibodies are an important component of the xenogeneic immune response. To address this, we screened a cohort of 34 rhesus macaques for anti-pig antibody levels. We then selected animals with both low and high titers of anti-pig antibodies to proceed with kidney transplant from galactose-α1,3-galactose knockout/CD55 transgenic pig donors. All animals received T-cell depletion followed by maintenance therapy with costimulation blockade (either anti-CD154 mAb or belatacept), mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid. The animal with the high titer of anti-pig antibody rejected the kidney xenograft within the first week. Low-titer animals treated with anti-CD154 antibody, but not belatacept exhibited prolonged kidney xenograft survival (>133 and >126 vs. 14 and 21 days, respectively). Long-term surviving animals treated with the anti-CD154-based regimen continue to have normal kidney function and preserved renal architecture without evidence of rejection on biopsies sampled at day 100. This description of the longest reported survival of pig-to-non-human primate kidney xenotransplantation, now >125 days, provides promise for further study and potential clinical translation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Xenotransplantation 04/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.1111/xen.12166
  • Article: Comment.
    Xenotransplantation 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/xen.12165
  • Xenotransplantation 03/2015; 22(2). DOI:10.1111/xen.12162
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    ABSTRACT: Xenotransplantation represents one of alternative candidates for allotransplantation due to the chronic shortage of suitable human tissues; however, many obstacles remain. Expression and release of endogenous retroviral antigens by porcine cells after transplantation may evoke adverse immune responses in human subjects. Here, we examined whether human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) could induce the production of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) antigens in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Porcine PBMCs were infected with HHV-1 and examined for the production of PERV Gag protein and HHV-1 using antigen-capture ELISA and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. HHV-1 infection resulted in a 1.7- to 33.2-fold induction of PERV Gag relative to mock infection controls, compared to a 2.9- to 12.9-fold induction following treatment with PMA. Expression of PERV Gag was detected in porcine PBMCs and PK-15 cells after HHV-1 infection by double immunofluorescence staining of PERV Gag and HHV-1 antigen. The viability of HHV-1-infected porcine PBMCs was significantly lower than that of mock-infected cells. The HHV-1 level in the culture supernatant increased 5.2-fold relative to controls 24-h post-infection, indicative of active replication within these cells; decreased levels of HHV-1 were detected 72-h post-infection. These results suggest that HHV-1 may be capable of infecting transplanted porcine cells, resulting in strong direct induction of PERV antigen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015; 22(2). DOI:10.1111/xen.12160
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    ABSTRACT: Current medical research in the area of xenotransplantation is driven by the aim to save human lives and to improve the quality of life of those suffering from organ insufficiencies. This study reflects the therapeutic intent of xenotransplantation from a theological-ethical perspective. Regarding statements of Christian communities, the analysis focuses mainly on catholic documents. This study takes into account the document on Prospects for Xenotransplantation by the Pontifical Academy for Life as well as a position paper on xenotransplantation released as a collaboration between the German Bishops Conference (Catholic) and the Evangelical Church in Germany (Protestant). Documents of other Christian denominations will be discussed in a separate paper. Aspects concerning the areas of medicine, social ethics and animal ethics are considered as well as biographical, psychosocial, culture-bound and ideological preconditions of acceptability. These aspects also include consequences for the construction of personal identity. With regard to an anthropocentrism that is based theologically and relationally, xenotransplantation-in general-can be viewed as a permissible form of therapy, given that the principles of biomedical ethics will be observed and that animals are treated with respect. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.1111/xen.12157
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    ABSTRACT: Background The lethal thrombocytopenia that accompanies liver xenotransplantation is a barrier to clinical application. Human platelets are bound by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGR) on pig sinusoidal endothelial cells and phagocytosed. Inactivation of the ASGR1 gene in donor pigs may prevent xenotransplantation-induced thrombocytopenia.Methods Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were targeted to the ASGR1 gene in pig liver-derived cells. ASGR1 deficient pig cells were used for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). ASGR1 knock out (ASGR1−/−) fetal fibroblasts were used to produce healthy ASGR1 knock out piglets. Human platelet uptake was measured in ASGR1+/+ and ASGR1−/− livers.ResultsTargeted disruption of the ASGR1 gene with TALENs eliminated expression of the receptor. ASGR1-/- livers phagocytosed fewer human platelets than domestic porcine livers during perfusion.Conclusions The use of TALENs in liver-derived cells followed by SCNT enabled the production of healthy homozygous ASGR1 knock out pigs. Livers from ASGR1-/- pigs exhibit decreased human platelet uptake. Deletion of the ASGR1 gene is a viable strategy to diminish platelet destruction in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.1111/xen.12164
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    ABSTRACT: Background Xenotransplantation is a potential answer to the current organ shortage, but the risk of infections related to overimmunosuppression is an important parameter that may predict the recipient's long-term survival. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in xenotransplanted and immunosuppressed primates is a well-known cause of disease particularly affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and a zoonotic concern.Methods Post-mortem sera and tissues from 45 immunosuppressed and xenografted Macaca fascicularis were evaluated for CMV using antisera specific for the immediate early 1 (IE1), anti-RhCMV, and QPCR for virus.ResultsSerological analysis showed 100% positivity for the presence of CMV antibodies following the application of a specific test designed for RhCMV. Five of 45 primates showed typical lesions of CMV infection in the GI tract, including neutrophilic enteritis and inclusion bodies. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of recipient's CMV in the tissues with CMV histopathology. Porcine CMV from the donor animals was not found in any of the CMV-specific IHC-positive recipients.Conclusion The presence of active CMV infection in animals intended for xenograft experiments can lead to severe gastrointestinal lesions that could impact the overall aims of the study. In such cases, the animals should be investigated using appropriate (non-human primate-specific) diagnostic tools prior to use and treated aggressively with state-of-the-art antiviral therapy.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015; 22(2). DOI:10.1111/xen.12153
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    ABSTRACT: Background Simultaneous inactivation of pig GGTA1 and CMAH genes eliminates carbohydrate xenoantigens recognized by human antibodies. The β4GalNT2 glycosyltransferase may also synthesize xenoantigens. To further characterize glycan-based species incompatibilities, we examined human and non-human primate antibody binding to cells derived from genetically modified pigs lacking these carbohydrate-modifying genes.Methods The Cas9 endonuclease and gRNA were used to create pigs lacking GGTA1, GGTA1/CMAH, or GGTA1/CMAH/β4GalNT2 genes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from these animals and examined for binding to IgM and IgG from humans, rhesus macaques, and baboons.ResultsCells from GGTA1/CMAH/β4GalNT2 deficient pigs exhibited reduced human IgM and IgG binding compared to cells lacking both GGTA1 and CMAH. Non-human primate antibody reactivity with cells from the various pigs exhibited a slightly different pattern of reactivity than that seen in humans. Simultaneous inactivation of the GGTA1 and CMAH genes increased non-human primate antibody binding compared to cells lacking either GGTA1 only or to those deficient in GGTA1/CMAH/β4GalNT2.Conclusions Inactivation of the β4GalNT2 gene reduces human and non-human primate antibody binding resulting in diminished porcine xenoantigenicity. The increased humoral immunity of non-human primates toward GGTA1-/CMAH-deficient cells compared to pigs lacking either GGTA1 or GGTA1/CMAH/β4GalNT2 highlights the complexities of carbohydrate xenoantigens and suggests potential limitations of the non-human primate model for examining some genetic modifications. The progressive reduction of swine xenoantigens recognized by human immunoglobulin through inactivation of pig GGTA1/CMAH/β4GalNT2 genes demonstrates that the antibody barrier to xenotransplantation can be minimized by genetic engineering.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.1111/xen.12161
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    ABSTRACT: Background Unlike allotransplantation, reflections on xenotransplantation are infrequent in theological literature. However, xenotransplantation poses questions specifically concerning ethical and theological aspects that are imperative to address, such as personal identity between the poles of body, soul, and mind, the relationship between humans and animals, as well as challenges regarding specific issues of medical and social ethics.Method This study summarizes the lectures of the symposium on “Xenotransplantation—a challenge to theological ethics,” which took place in Munich from September 30 until October 2, 2013, and analyses the implications of xenotransplantation from the perspectives of Christian theological ethics, biblical theology, and systematic theology. Furthermore, the issue of xenotransplantation is addressed from the perspectives of Judaism and Islam. Beyond these theological deliberations, the metaphorical and religious meaning of the human heart, which may have an impact on the societal acceptability of xenotransplantation, as well as the Christian notion of compassion regarding animals, is analyzed from the perspective of historical sciences.Results and Conclusion According to the perspectives of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, there are no specifically religious fundamental and generally binding reasons to prohibit xenotransplantation as a means of treating grave and life-threatening organ insufficiencies.
    Xenotransplantation 02/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.1111/xen.12163
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    ABSTRACT: Background To understand humoral responses elicited after xenotransplantation, we compared the induction of anti-non-Gal antibodies vs. anti-Gal antibodies in non-human primates (NHPs) after intraportal porcine islet transplantation (PITX).Methods Anti-Gal and anti-non-Gal IgGs were analyzed in serial plasma samples of NHP recipients after PITX by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using synthetic Gal and by flow cytometry using α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) porcine endothelial cells, respectively. Anti-non-Gal IgG was detected in some recipients after PITX. The specificity of anti-non-Gal IgG was investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis of the protein extract from GTKO porcine endothelial cells, Western blot analysis of recipient pre- and post-PITX plasma, and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, revealing albumin, a non-glycosylated protein in the serum supplement of the islets solution, as a putative antigen for anti-non-Gal IgG. The binding of IgG antibodies to human albumin (HA), bovine albumin (BA), porcine albumin (PA), and Gal was compared by ELISA in pre- and post-PITX plasma samples of 30 NHP recipients subjected to intraportal PITX, which were grouped according to the use of CD40-CD154 blockade and sirolimus.ResultsOne of the immunoblot-matched spots was identified as BA by mass spectrometry. By ELISA, the plasma used in the immunoblot analysis revealed strong IgG binding to BA and PA, but not to HA. Anti-PA, anti-BA, and anti-Gal antibodies in NHP recipients 1 month after PITX were detected in 5 (100%), 3 (60%), and 5 (100%), respectively, of the 5 recipients receiving various immunosuppression (IS) without CD40-CD154 blockade (group I) and in 0 (0%), 0 (0%), and 4 (16%), respectively, of the 25 recipients receiving IS with CD40-CD154 blockade and sirolimus (group II). This finding revealed significant differences between the groups (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0011 and P = 0.0013, respectively). Interestingly, among 15 recipients achieving graft survival longer than 1 month in group II, anti-PA IgG was detected in only 1 recipient (6.7%) 180 days after PITX. However, an increase in anti-Gal IgG was detected in 7 recipients (46.7%) despite maintenance IS with anti-CD154 and sirolimus. This result indicates that anti-Gal IgG is more frequently induced than anti-PA IgG (P = 0.0352). Moreover, induction IS with anti-CD154 and sirolimus suppressed anti-Gal IgG, but not anti-PA and anti-BA IgG, responses in sensitized recipients given a repeat transplantation.Conclusions In NHP recipients of PITX, anti-PA and anti-BA IgG antibodies are elicited by porcine serum included as a supplement in porcine islet preparation. IS including CD40-CD154 blockade and sirolimus suppresses these antibody responses in naïve recipients, but not in sensitized recipients. The elicitation of anti-xenogenic albumin antibodies, a humoral response to a model protein antigen, is distinct from that of anti-Gal antibodies, a response to carbohydrate antigen.
    Xenotransplantation 01/2015; 22(2). DOI:10.1111/xen.12152
  • Xenotransplantation 01/2015; 22(1):80-83. DOI:10.1111/xen.12158
  • Xenotransplantation 12/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1111/xen.12150