Clinical Orthodontics and Research (Clin Orthod Res )

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing


Clinical Orthodontics and Research - Genes, Growth and Development is published to serve its readers as a forum for the presentation and discussion of issues pertinent to the advancement of the specialty of orthodontics and the evidence-based knowledge of craniofacial growth and development. This forum is based on scientifically supported information, but also includes minority and conflicting opinions. The objective of the journal is to facilitate effective communication between the research community and practicing clinicians. Papers of originality and high scientific quality that report the findings of clinical trials, clinical epidemiology, and novel therapeutic or diagnostic approaches are appropriate submissions. Similarly, we welcome papers in genetics, developmental biology, syndromology, surgery, speech and hearing, and other biomedical disciplines related to clinical orthodontics and normal and abnormal craniofacial growth and development. In addition to original and basic research, the journal publishes concise reviews, case reports of substantial value, invited essays, letters, and announcements. As of 2001 Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Devellopmental Biology has merged with Clinical Orthodontic Research. Genes, growth and Development.

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    Clinical Orthodontics and Research website
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    Orthodontics and craniofacial research
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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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Blackwell Publishing

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Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factors are mediators of growth hormone and are believed to also stimulate growth independently. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) null mutant mice exhibit a lower rate of skeletal growth compared with their wild-type (control) littermates. Although their general body dimensions seem proportionate, their heads appear shortened with a blunt nose compared with the controls. The aim of this project was threefold: 1) to investigate whether differences in shape/form exist between the craniofacial skeleton of the IGF-I null mutant mice and their control littermates by using three techniques; 2) to determine whether the three techniques yield similar, different, or complementary information regarding the size and shape of specimens; and 3) to investigate whether the histological sections obtained from the craniofacial skeleton exhibit any differences between the two groups. Thirty adult male mice, 12 mutant and 18 wild type, obtained from 11 litters were examined. Lateral and superio-inferior radiographs of their head were analyzed by the procrustes, the macroelement, and the traditional cephalometric techniques. Later, the animals were processed for routine histological examination. The IGF null mutant mice demonstrated a generalized decrease of craniofacial size (43-64% of the normal adult size) and a non-allometric change of shape when compared with their wild-type littermates. While the mandible did not exhibit any shape changes, the facial and cranial areas demonstrated prominent changes. Examination of histological sections did not reveal any structural difference between the two groups at the adult stage. Furthermore, procrustes and macroelement techniques offer a more complete, detailed, and comprehensive description of the specimens compared.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 12/2001; 4(4):206-19.
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    ABSTRACT: It is suggested that osteopontin may promote osteoclast binding to resorptive sites by interacting with the alphavbeta3 receptor on osteoclasts. However, the role of osteopontin in functional remodeling of bony structures remains unclear. The present study was conducted to examine the distribution of osteopontin on the condyle and explore the role in condylar remodeling in growing rats using an immunohistochemical method. Twenty Wistar strain male rats aged 7, 14, 28 and 56 days were used. In 7- and 14-day-old rats, no immunoreaction to osteopontin was detected in the cartilage cells. In 28-day-old rats initiating mastication, the thickness of condylar cartilage was decreased abruptly as compared to the younger rats. High immunoreaction to osteopontin was found in the cytoplasm of hypertrophic chondrocytes and on the trabecular bone surfaces of primary spongiosa adjacent to the osteoclasts or chondroclasts. The immunoreactions to osteopontin in the cytoplasm of hypertrophic chondrocytes were less in 56-day-old rats than in 28-day-old rats. It is shown that the alteration in mechanical loading on the mandibular condyle due to functional changes from weaning to mastication correlates with the localization of osteopontin in growing rats. Furthermore, it is suggested that osteopontin may stimulate osteoclastic resorption of calcified matrix by mediating the attachment of osteoclasts and/or chondroclasts during growth-related functional remodeling of the condyle.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 12/2001; 4(4):194-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to develop a simple, non-invasive method that could be used to objectively record cranial symmetry over time. We utilized this new method to investigate the relationship between torticollis and progressive plagiocephaly. From 1995 to 1999, the head shapes of 419 torticollis patients and 1 211 normal children were evaluated. We used Ezeform strip, a splint material, to make a permanent ring of the head circumference. Each head ring was recorded, scanned, and analyzed. An asymmetric index (AI) was designed. Double-blind comparisons of clinical assessment with AI values demonstrated a good agreement. Asymmetry of the cranium was found with similar frequency in torticollis and normal babies up to 12 months old. After 1 year of age, the deformity persists in patients with torticollis into their adolescence, while the normal group shows increased symmetry. This new recording system offers an objective and efficacious methods for following the natural history of cranial asymmetry.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 12/2001; 4(4):200-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Efficiency of treatment mechanics has been a major focus throughout the history of orthodontics. Self-ligating brackets were developed on the premise that elimination of ligature ties creates a friction-free environment and allows for better sliding mechanics. It is expected that the self-ligating bracket will reduce the treatment time. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Damon self-ligating (SL) brackets to those brackets ligated with either steel ligatures or elastomeric 'O' rings. Not only treatment time and the number of appointments needed were addressed, but the quality of the treatment outcome was also assessed. American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) grading criteria for models and panoramic radiographs were employed. Additionally, a nine-question survey was sent to the 215-patients in this study (108 Damon, 107 conventionally-ligated) to elicit their perceptions of how their orthodontic treatment progressed and finished. The results showed that patients treated with Damon SL brackets had significantly lower treatment times, required significantly fewer appointments, and had significantly higher ABO scores than those treated with conventionally-ligated edgewise brackets. There were no significant differences in Damon or non-Damon ABO scores with respect to gender. Damon patients over the age of 21 had significantly higher ABO scores. Conversely, the non-Damon patients under the age of 21 had significantly higher ABO scores. For pre-treatment Angle classification, no significant differences were noted. Patient responses showed that Damon patients perceived their treatment time as being shorter than expected. It appears that faster orthodontic treatment can be better as measured by the ABO criteria.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 12/2001; 4(4):228-34.
  • Clinical Orthodontics and Research 12/2001; 4(4):192-3.
  • Clinical Orthodontics and Research 12/2001; 4(4):190-1.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at determining the relative genetic and environmental impact on a number of well-known cephalometric variables in twins. In order to find a clue in the heritability pattern of some dentofacial characteristics and on the expected limits of the therapeutic impact on the dentofacial subparts they are representing. Cephalograms were collected from 33 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic twins, who did not undergo any orthodontic treatment. Nineteen linear and four angular variables were selected all representing a different definite subpart of the dentofacial complex. The reproducibility of the measurement of most of the linear variables was very high. A genetic analysis using model fitting and path analysis was carried out. First, data were checked on the fulfilment of the conditions for genetic analysis in twins reared together. The results show that the genetic determination is significantly higher for vertical (72%) than for horizontal (61%) variables. As far as the genetic component is concerned, all variables selected seem to be inherited by additive genes, except for mandibular body length, which was determined by dominant alleles. Sex differences in genetic determination were found for the anterior face height, showing a significantly higher genetic component for boys (91%) than for girls (68%). For the angular measurements, no genetic influence was found: only environmental influences common to both members of each pair could be demonstrated.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 09/2001; 4(3):130-40.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the nature of human craniofacial growth by means of finite element method (FEM), and to compare the results with the current concept derived from morphometric studies with roentgenographic cephalometry (RCM). Lateral cephalograms were taken of 20 males and 20 females, and traced on acetate paper. On the tracing, the craniofacial complex was divided into seven areas or elements. Growth analysis was executed with FEM for changes in the size and shape of each area during six developmental periods from 4 to 18 years old. The size change in the male group exhibited a peak from 10 to 12 years old for the cranial base and upper facial skeleton, from 8 to 10 years old for the maxillary complex, and from 12 to 14 years old for the mandible. On the other hand, in the females, the size change was almost invariable from 4 to 12 years old and completed suddenly at 12 years old, which was earlier by a few years than in the males. An interesting finding is that changes in the size and shape were the most substantial in the maxillary complex, followed by those in the mandible, and the smallest in the cranial base and upper facial skeleton. It is shown that growth of the cranial base lasted up to 14 years old and the maxillary complex exhibited the greatest growth changes in the size among various anatomic structures. These findings may provide a new concept of human craniofacial growth, somewhat different from the previously established principles by RCM.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 09/2001; 4(3):148-60.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The displacement of teeth into areas with substantial atrophy of the alveolar ridge or through the maxillary sinus has been considered a major limitation. Bone formation can, however, be generated if the orthodontic appliance can produce the necessary strain distribution along the entire periodontal ligament. The aim of this case report is to illustrate how bone formation can accompany mesial bodily movement of maxillary and mandibular molars. The necessary strain distribution was generated by the rational use of segmented mechanics. The use of superelastic Ni-Ti springs allows the application of low and constant forces over a wide range of deactivation, thus providing a uniform strain in the periodontium. The result of those appliances is highly predictable and side effects can be minimized effectively.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 09/2001; 4(3):182-8.
  • Clinical Orthodontics and Research 09/2001; 4(3):127-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Movement of teeth through anatomic limitations, such as the maxillary sinus, can be a reliable therapeutic protocol if suitable force systems are used. We report here the outcome of a treatment based on this concept. The patient exhibited pneumatization of the maxillary sinus resulting from earlier extractions. She was treated using an endosseous implant inserted in the retromolar region to serve as orthodontic anchorage and a T-loop appliance fabricated from TMA wire to bodily move an upper second premolar through the sinus. After 6 months, at the end of the displacement, a titanium implant was inserted in the alveolus of the moved tooth and a single crown restoration was placed. The premolar moved through the sinus maintaining its support apparatus and bone. At the end of treatment the implant used for anchorage was still osseointegrated.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 09/2001; 4(3):177-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Hard tissue palatal dimensions and shape in 29 boys and 32 girls (mean age 14 years) and 30 men and 35 women (mean age 20 years), all with a complete permanent dentition including the second molars, and free from respiratory problems, were analyzed. Palatal landmarks were digitized with a computerized 3D instrument, and their coordinates were used to derive a mathematical model of palatal form. Palatal shape (size-independent) was assessed by a four-order polynomial in the sagittal and frontal plane projections. Palatal dimensions in the frontal and sagittal planes were computed, and compared between ages and sexes by two-way factorial analyses of variance. The effect of age on palatal shape was different in the two sexes: while in females the curves in both the frontal and sagittal planes were practically superimposed, in males the youngest subjects had somewhat 'lower' curves than the oldest subjects. Sex had a significant (p<0.05) effect for all variables. Age was significant only for palatal slope in the sagittal plane (p<0.01), and for raphe inclination in the horizontal plane (p<0.05). For all variables but palatal length in the sagittal plane, a significant (p<0.01) sexxage interaction was found: while in males all linear variables were larger in adults than in adolescents, the reverse was found in females. Overall, while in adolescent females palatal form appeared to have already attained adult characteristics, in males some modifications between adolescence and young adulthood were measured. These modifications should be taken into consideration as a possible factor of relapse after orthodontic treatment.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 08/2001; 4(3):141-7.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This case report examines the masticatory jaw movements and electromyograph (EMG) recordings of anterior and posterior temporal and masseter muscles before and after surgical orthodontic treatment in an adult patient with incisor crossbite and skeletal Class III jaw base relationship. The prescribed treatment resulted in a good occlusion and skeletal and dental Class I relationship. The chopping type jaw movement pattern during gum chewing was transformed to more of a grinding motion after treatment. But this motion was not as broad as is normally seen. This observation is indicative of the difficulties associated with improving the masticatory jaw movements in an adult patient to a completely normal pattern even after retention. In this patient, the high frequency of silent periods on the EMG that were observed in the early intercuspal phase before treatment were decreased to normal low levels after treatment. A similar decrease was also seen in the mean duration of the chewing cycle. We conjecture that this patient unsuccessfully attempted to compensate for the silent periods by increasing the period of his chewing cycle.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 06/2001; 4(2):119-23.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) has been used in dental epidemiology and to prioritize orthodontic treatment. The aim of this paper was to use the aesthetic component (AC) of the IOTN to measure agreement between normative and perceived orthodontic need amongst school children. Three hundred and seventy-eight children aged 11-14 years, enrolled in London UK state schools participated in this survey. The study focused on three ethnic groups: white, black and South Asian. Townsend deprivation scores suggested that the children were from areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Logistic regression analysis was carried out for agreement between normative and perceived need at each threshold value. Perceived need for braces, ethnic background, social class and hours of television viewing were significant variables. Black pupils were significantly less likely to concur on normative and perceived need scores, tending to perceive less need for treatment than did the dentist. Subjects from lower social classes were significantly more likely to concur on normative and perceived need scores. In conclusion, the study showed that using the IOTN AC at various points along the scale, different influences play a significant role in agreement/disagreement between normative and perceived needs, indicating that patient-clinician agreement regards orthodontic treatment is sensitive to several cultural factors.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 06/2001; 4(2):65-71.
  • Clinical Orthodontics and Research 06/2001; 4(2):63-4.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The causes of bracket loss during the late phases of orthodontic treatment have hitherto been considered to be of mechanical nature (e.g. trauma, high forces applied). Recently, it was hypothesized that bacterial degradation of composite resin could be a reason for late bracket failure. This was based on the observation of apparently degraded composite on bracket bases sent to a recycling company, and on a weight loss of 0.1-1% of a limited number of composite resin foils incubated with bacteria. To further elucidate the basis for this hypothesis, we examined brackets, immediately after debonding, for signs of potential decay and tested the ability of selected bacterial species to degrade composites. Out of a total of 1056 brackets collected, 6.2% displayed signs of decay indicative of inclusion of air bubbles, corrosion of the bracket base and discoloration of the composite and comparable to the decay observed on brackets received from the recycling company. Composite discs of two different brands were each incubated with either of five strains representing different bacterial species. The incubation lasted 3 months or until the bacteria had died. There was no significant difference in weight change of the discs incubated with bacteria and control discs incubated without bacteria. Thus, our results do not support that bacterial degradation of composite resin bonding materials is a likely cause of bracket loss.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 06/2001; 4(2):112-8.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this report is to present facial changes produced by the Twin Block appliance in three-dimensional visual and numerical formats. Using a C3D system, stereophotogrammetric records were made of two children with Class II division 1 malocclusions prescribed treatment with a Twin Block appliance. Three-dimensional images of their faces were captured. Comparison of specified regions of the three-dimensional images was made using landmark identification and superimpositions. In addition to obvious visual evidence, numerical data in the form of surface area measurements were also generated. The three-dimensional, C3D, system, provides a flexible imaging tool which should become increasingly useful as more improvements are made.
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 06/2001; 4(2):105-111.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sound analysis to diagnose internal derangement has received much attention as an alternative to radiographic examination. The purpose of this study was to compare findings with an electronic device (sonography) and clinical examination to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Twenty-three symptomatic patients (46 joints) were evaluated for this study. All patients had jaw joint pain and one or more of the following findings; limitation of jaw opening, painful mandibular movement with or without clicking or crepitation. The presence or absence of joint sounds was evaluated clinically by palpation and auscultation and with sonography. If sounds were present (clicking or crepitation) on either examination the patient was considered positive for disc displacement for that examination. Two by two tables were constructed comparing sonography and clinical examination with MRI findings. The sensitivity of the sonogram was 84% and the specificity was 33% when compared with MRI findings. The sensitivity of the clinical examination was 70% and the specificity was 40% when compared with MRI findings. This study suggests that clinical and sonographic examination has a high sensitivity (low false negative examinations) but low specificity (high false positive examinations).
    Clinical Orthodontics and Research 06/2001; 4(2):72-78.

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