Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (CURR PHARM BIOTECHNO )

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers


Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in pharmaceutical biotechnology. Each issue of the journal contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics in both pre-clinical and clinical areas of pharmaceutical biotechnology. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.

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  • Website
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology website
  • Other titles
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology (Online)
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Bentham Science Publishers

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    • 12 months (unless federal, government, funding agencies or local policy mandates for the author's institute a different policy on self-archiving)
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    • Articles in all journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: L-asparaginase is an effective anti-neoplastic agent used in the chemotherapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. One hundred and thirty actinomycete isolates were isolated from several soil samples collected from different localities in Egypt. All these isolates were purified and evaluated for their ability to produce L-asparaginase activity. Among them, strain NEAE-95 was selected and identified as Streptomyces parvus strain NEAE-95 based on morphological, cultural, physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence. The sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank database under accession number KJ200341. L-asparaginase production by Streptomyces sp. NEAE-95 was optimized in shake flask culture. The Plackett–Burman statistical design was used for initial screening of sixteen factors for their significances on L-asparaginase production. Among the variables screened, incubation time, L-asparagine and yeast extract had significant effects on L-asparaginase production. The levels of these significant variables and their interaction effects were optimized by Box–Behnken statistical design. As a result, the maximal L-asparaginase production is achieved at the following fermentation conditions: g/L (dextrose 2, starch 20, L-asparagine 14, KNO3 2, yeast extract 2, K2HPO4 2, MgSO4.7H2O 0.1, NaCl 0.1, FeSO4.7H2O 0.01), pH 7, temperature 30°C, agitation speed 200 rpm/min, inoculum size 2%,v/v and incubation time 8 days.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis of tuberculosis is marked with infection of macrophages followed by expansion of M. tuberculosis. Every step of this host-pathogen interaction is determined by the battle between the pathogen and host immune factors. It starts with phagocytosis of bacilli by mononuclear cells including alveolar macrophages and Dendritic Cells (DCs), both of which are Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs). Phagocytosed M. tuberculosis is subject to degradation by various means inside the phagolysosome. This very specific anti-M. tuberculosis mechanism within the phagocytes is well orchestrated. Upon activation, macrophages exhibit elevated levels of various intermediates via the oxidative burst, which effectively kills the pathogen and inhibits its dissemination. Generation of these intermediates and then their neutralization is intricately linked with the balance of divalent and trivalent iron metals in and outside of the cell. This review will bring the insight of host-M. tuberculosis interaction and its effectiveness in containment of the disease. Furthermore, the physiological balance of iron, its pathogen driven perturbance as well as its effect on the disease will also be discussed.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 12/2014; 15(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Estrogens along with their receptors are required for the normal physiological development of women. However, in altered physiological conditions a high level of estrogens acts either as initiator or progressor of breast cancer. Approximately in 75% of estrogen dependent breast cancer cases estrogen receptors (ERs) are held responsible. Recent studies indicate that estrogens along with iron (Fe) concomitantly involved in the proliferation of ER+ breast cancer cells. While a number of antiestrogen/anti-ER drugs including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and selective estrogen receptor down regulators (SERDs) are used to eradicate breast cancer but their action on Fe dependent breast cancer complication is not yet explored. Moreover, many of the ER+ breast cancer patients receiving anti-estrogen drugs relapsed within a couple of years and become resistant to antiestrogen therapy. Mutation and loss of affinity to the target molecule (ERs), loss or overexpression of ERs, along with activation of growth promoting pathways alternative to estrogen-ER pathways are the major reasons of drug resistance. Combinational therapy may be best alternative to antiestrogen relapsed patients. Some of the widely studied drug combinations are roscovitine (ROSC) and tamoxifen, metformin and tamoxifen, tamoxifen and RAD001. While in all these drug combinations anti-ER compound tamoxifen may be one of the major content, anti-Fe compounds are yet to be used as drug combination. The present review article describes all the currently studied drugs/drug combinations in ER+ breast cancer cells and future drug possibilities including anti-Fe compounds.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The scenario of tuberculosis has gone deadly due to its high prevalence and emergence of widespread drug resistance. It is now high time to develop novel antimycobacterial strategies and to understand novel mechanisms of existing antimycobacterial compounds so that we are equipped with newer tuberculosis controlling molecules in the days to come. Iron has proven to be essential for pathogenesis of tuberculosis and retinoic acid is known to influence the iron metabolism pathway. Retenoic acid is also known to exhibit antitubercular effect in in vivo system. Therefore there is every possibility that retinoic acid by affecting the iron metabolism pathway exhibits its antimycobacterial effect. These aspects are reviewed in the present manuscript for understanding the antimycobacterial role of retinoic acid in the context of iron metabolism and other immunological aspects.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11/2014;
  • Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the development of atherosclerosis, naringin has exhibited potential protective effects. However, the specific mechanisms are not clearly understood. The aim of this trial was to determine the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin and uncover the mechanisms in Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry assay. The levels of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), p22phox, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) over-expressions were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) was evaluated by Western blotting. Naringin inhibited ROS production as well as over-expression levels of Nox4, p22phox induced by TNF-α. Naringin inhibited TNF-α induced mRNA and protein over-expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Naringin also suppressed activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results indicated the preventive effects of naringin on HUVECs injury caused by oxidative stress and inflammation response and the effects might be obtained via inhibition of Nox4 and NF-κB pathways as well as activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. Naringin may be useful in preventing endothelial dysfunction, therefore to ameliorate the development of atherosclerosis.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Oridonin, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid mainly extracted from Chinese medical plant Rabdosia rubescens and some related species, has been reported its remarkably antitumor efficacy in various cancer cells. This review will be focused on the underlying molecular mechanisms in its treatments of hematological malignancies, which include the regulation of oncoproteins (AML1-ETO, NPM1 mutants, PML-RARα, ABL kinase), accumulation of ROS, modulation of MAPKs and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, and changes of abnormal expressions of MicroRNAs. And we get the conclusion that oridonin is a promising natural product with multiple targets against hematological malignancies.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Presenilin (PS) was identified in screens for mutations causing the early onset forms of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) in 1995. As catalytic units of the γ-secretase complex, presenilins participate in the processing of amyloid beta protein (Aβ), the main component of deposits in brain of patients with AD. The more than 90 substrates of γ-secretase isolated so far demonstrate its contribution to wide range of cellular processes and signaling events. However, recent findings have revealed numerous γ-secretase-independent presenilin functions, including involvement in calcium homeostasis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. This mini-review attempts to summarize the multiple physiological and pathological functions of presenilin.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11/2014; 15(11):1019-25.
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is one of the leading global health issues responsible for a significant mortality. The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR), extensively drug resistant (XDR) and total drug resistant (TDR) strains have further hampered the disease control. Drug resistance has emerged as imperative concern resulting in genetic selection of drug resistance strains making them unresponsive to most of the drugs. In addition iron has been implicated in promoting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) replication, infection and progression to clinical disease. ideR is an essential gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and controls the transcription of mycobacterium by binding to promoters of ideR regulated gene in presence of iron. Iron chelators have the potential to sequester this excess iron hence hampering MTB replication and restoring host defence mechanisms. Iron chelators could be envisaged as promising candidates in iron overload associated prevention and treatment of MTB.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11/2014;
  • Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11/2014; 15.
  • Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11/2014; 15(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is the manifestation of multiple dysregulated cellular pathways. Treatment protocols engaged in treating these diseases involve mainly the cell cycle regulating genes/proteins, DNA synthesis and repair, protein synthetic machinery, apoptotic and proliferation activity and cytoskeletal framework. Some of the traditional therapeutic strategies have over the years developed resistance making cure difficult to achieve. This paper analyzes the mechanisms employed by various cancers that render them resistant against therapeutic drugs.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 11/2014; 15.
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a prominent cause of mortality in women worldwide, with about 2/3rd cases linked to hormone mediated malignancy itself. A hormone receptor positive breast cancer represents cells showing rigorous proliferation upon hormonal exposure. BRCA1 is the predominant marker gene responsible for estrogen regulation. However increased exposure to estrogen is not the sole cause for this abnormality as there is no significant alteration reported in breast tissue estrogen levels. Iron metabolism has also been shown to be frequently altered in breast cancer with considerably higher iron in post menstrual women. In fact estrogen and iron have been implicated to exert synergistic effects on cellular proliferation in BRCA1 linked hormone responsive breast cancer. Thus establishing a link between estrogen and iron metabolism which has a great prognostic value in predicting clinical outcome in BRCA1 linked hormone responsive breast cancer patients. Since the time immemorial Iron chelators have been implicated in combating iron dysregulation especially in breast cancer. We summarize here in this review the recent advancements in the area of iron chelation therapy delineating the role of iron in hormone receptor positive Breast cancer.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The oral route is the most suitable and physiological delivery route. Oral insulin delivery would minimize the health hazard implied in repeated injection, surpass complications arising from the need for sterile techniques associated with parenteral formulations and provide better glucose homeostasis. However, it is limited by various physiological barriers and still remains a scientific challenge. The desire to deliver insulin by the oral route in a conveniently and effectively way has led to the intense investigation of new delivery systems. Nanodelivery systems have been proposed to enhance the bioavailability of insulin after oral administration. This review article describes the gastrointestinal barriers to oral insulin delivery, including chemical, enzymatic and absorption barriers. The potential transport mechanisms of insulin delivered by nanoparticles across the intestinal epithelium are also addressed. Finally, how nanoparticles characteristics affect insulin pharmacological activity and bioavailability is discussed.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is mainly associated with impaired insulin secretion by the pancreatic β-cells, insulin resistance and elevated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Incretin based treatments for T2DM are now widely investigated and used. The incretin based therapies mainly include incretin hormones which are glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptides (GIP) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from the endocrinal cells in the small intestine in response to food intake. The main function of GLP-1 is to induce insulin secretion and suppress glucagon secretion. This review describes the different formulation approaches for oral delivery of incretins and the limitations associated with this route of administration. We highlight the use of micro and nanosystems to efficiently deliver the incretins orally. Furthermore, we present several examples of the significant potential of these systems in pharmaceutical applications.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Anticoagulant therapy is widely used for the treatment and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and coronary syndromes. Until now, drugs such as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins need to be administered parenterally. Parenteral administration results in lower patient compliance compared to oral therapy and for this reason, the focus of various research groups is to develop an oral heparin formulation which is as effective as the parenteral formulation, easy to use and non-toxic. In the last few years, some new oral anticoagulants like Rivaroxaban (Xarelto®), Apixaban (Eliquis®) and Dabigatranetexilat (Pradaxa®) have reached the market, but their use is limited to certain indications. Therefore, the development of oral formulations with well-established anti-coagulant drugs is still relevant and in demand. In this paper, we reviewed strategies that have been developed so far to achieve an adequate anticoagulant effect using oral formulations of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The oral route is the most convenient and least expensive route of drug administration. Yet, it is accompanied by many physiological barriers to drug uptake including low stomach pH, intestinal enzymes and transporters, mucosal barriers, and high intestinal fluid shear. While many drug delivery systems have been developed for oral drug administration, the physiological components of the gastro intestinal tract remain formidable barriers to drug uptake. Recently, microfabrication techniques have been applied to create micron-scale devices for oral drug delivery with a high degree of control over microdevice size, shape, chemical composition, drug release profile, and targeting ability. With precise control over device properties, microdevices can be fabricated with characteristics that provide increased adhesion for prolonged drug exposure, unidirectional release which serves to avoid luminal drug loss and enhance drug permeation, and protection of a drug payload from the harsh environment of the intestinal tract. Here we review the recent developments in microdevice technology and discuss the potential of these devices to overcome unsolved challenges in oral drug delivery.
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 09/2014;