Pharmaceutical Biology (PHARM BIOL )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Journal description

As blockbuster drugs become harder to develop by chemical synthesis, pharmacological science is looking increasingly to natural sources for clues. Pharmaceutical Biology publishes manuscripts describing the discovery, methods for discovery, description, analysis characterization, and production/isolation of biologically-active chemicals or other substances, drugs, pharmaceutical products, or preparations utilized in systems of traditional medicine. An essential publication in any modern pharmacology reference center.

Current impact factor: 1.34

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.337
2012 Impact Factor 1.206
2011 Impact Factor 0.878
2010 Impact Factor 0.638
2009 Impact Factor 0.672
2008 Impact Factor 0.488
2007 Impact Factor 0.364
2006 Impact Factor 0.397
2005 Impact Factor 0.394
2004 Impact Factor 0.441
2003 Impact Factor 0.413
2002 Impact Factor 0.262
2001 Impact Factor 0.312
2000 Impact Factor 0.132
1999 Impact Factor 0.164
1998 Impact Factor

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.06
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.21
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.20
Website Pharmaceutical Biology website
Other titles Pharmaceutical biology
ISSN 1388-0209
OCLC 39631629
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals or 18 months embargo for SSH journals
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Currently, there is a great tendency in cosmetic area to use natural extracts. Coffee silverskin (CS) is the most abundant solid by-product generated during roasting of coffee processing. Objectives: To evaluate different CS extracts as promising cosmetic ingredients, regarding antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties. Materials and methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic CS extracts were obtained by an environmentally friendly procedure considering costs and pollution. Extracts were characterized for total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), antimicrobial activity expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes). Results: The TPC of extracts was 18.33–35.25 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of material on a dry basis (mg GAE/g db). The TFC of extracts was 1.08–2.47 µg cathechin equivalents per g dry material (µg CE/g db). The antioxidant activity was high, with values ranging between 95.95 and 216.40 µmol Fe2+/g for aqueous and alcoholic samples, respectively. Preliminary assays for antimicrobial potential showed that extracts display antibacterial activity. The MIC varied from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for Gram-positive, and from 31.3 to 1000 µg/mL for Gram-negative. Extracts did not affect in vitro cell viability, with values near 100% in all concentrations tested. Conclusion: Results seem show that CS is a safe source of natural antioxidants with antifungal and antibacterial activity and no cytotoxicity, with potential usefulness for cosmetic applications.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina) I. M. Johnst. and Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic.Serm. & Bizzarri are two Chilean Cupressaceae that are naturally resistant to biodegradation. Secondary metabolites from these species display a variety of biological activities. Objective: To evaluate the antiproliferative activity of two lignans, a diterpene and a flavonol isolated from A. chilensis and F. cupressoides, to elucidate their cytological effects on P3X murine myeloma cells. Materials and methods: The antiproliferative activity of yatein, isotaxiresinol, ferruginol, and isorhamnetin was evaluated in vitro using the MTT assay. The effect of yatein at the cellular level, due to its high antiproliferative activity was evaluated. P3X cells treated for 24 h with 12.5 and 25 mg/mL of yatein were also examined at the cytological level using immunofluorescence and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Yatein, a lignan isolated from A. chilensis, potentially inhibited P3X murine myeloma cell proliferation, resulting in approximately 75% cell death in response to a 25 mg/mL treatment with the lignan. P3X cells lost membrane integrity at the nuclear and cytoplasmic levels, including organelles, in response to yatein treatment (12.5 mg/mL), and we observed changes in the cytoplasmic organization and distribution of microtubules. The other compounds tested had low activity. Discussion and conclusions: Yatein is a lignan precursor of podophyllotoxin, a key agent in anticancer drugs. Due to its structural similarities to podophyllotoxin, yatein could have similar cytoplasmic target(s), such as the microtubular apparatus. These findings suggest that yatein may be of potential pharmacological interest and warrants further investigation in human cell lines
    Pharmaceutical Biology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: The principal bioactive lignan of Schisandra chinensis fructus, commonly used for traditional Chinese medicine, is schisandrin A. Schisandrin A has been widely reported as being very effective for the treatment of liver disease. However, the mechanisms of its protective effects in liver remain unclear. Objective: To explore the hepatoprotective mechanisms of schisandrin A. Materials and methods: d-Galactosamine (d-GalN)-induced liver injury in mice was used as a model. Schisandrin A was examined for its protective mechanisms using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results: Aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in the schisandrin A group were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) compared with those in the d-GalN-treated group. HE results showed that the pathological changes in hepatic tissue seen in the d-GalN-treated were reduced in the schisandrin A/d-GalN-treated group, with the morphological characteristics being close to those of the control (untreated) group. Western blotting results showed that schisandrin A can activate autophagy flux and inhibit progression of apoptosis. The immune function of the schisandrin A-pretreated group was assayed by flow cytometry. It was found that the mechanism may involve activated autophagy flux, inhibited apoptosis, and improved immunity in response to liver damage. Conclusion: Our results show that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of schisandrin A may include activation of autophagy flux and inhibition of apoptosis. These results provide pharmacological evidence supporting its future clinical application.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014; 52(10):1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. (Moraceae), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been extensively applied for many years to treat various diseases. Recently, a number of compounds with biological and pharmacological activities have been extracted from the plant and used as chemotherapeutic candidates to treat a range of diseases such as cancer. Objective: The current study was designed to isolate the alkaloid compounds from ethyl acetate extraction of Broussonetia papyrifera fruits, and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of total alkaloids as well as individual isoquinoline alkaloids from B. papyrifera fruits. Methods: Alkaloid compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extraction by silica gel column chromatography methods using CHCl3/MeOH as eluents. The compounds' structures were determined by detailed analysis of NMR, MS spectral data, and chemical methodology. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods against human A375, Hela, BEL-7402 cancer cells, and non-cancer cells. Results: Two isoquinonline alkaloids were isolated and characterized as N-norchelerythrine and dihydrosanguinarine. The total alkaloids and seven individual alkaloids had higher activities on BEL-7402 and Hela cell lines with low IC50 values 6.61-47.41 and 5.97-40.17 μg/mL (<50 μg/mL). Nitidine, broussonpapyrine, and chelerythrine had strong toxic on non-cancer cells with IC50 value 18.01, 19.91, and 22.31 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion: N-Norchelerythrine and dihydrosanguinarine were isolated from this plant for the first time. Our data implicated that seven isoquinoline alkaloids had cytotoxity with structure-activity relationships, which provided fundamental information for further modification of their anticancer effect.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Scorzonera L. species (Asteraceae) are edible and as medicinal plants are used for various purposed in folk medicine. Objective: The methanol extracts of the aerial parts and roots from 27 Scorzonera taxa were investigated for their possible neurobiological effects. Materials and methods: Inhibitory potential of the Scorzonera species was tested against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase (TYRO) at 100 µg mL(-1) using ELISA microtiter assay. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested with radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation capacity, ferric- (FRAP), and phosphomolibdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, and scorzotomentosin-4-O-β-glucoside were also screened in the same manner. Total phenol and flavonoid quantification in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results: The aerial parts of Scorzonera pisidica (40.25 ± 0.74%) and chlorogenic acid (46.97 ± 0.82%) displayed the highest TYRO inhibition, while the remaining samples showed only trivial inhibition against cholinesterases (2.08 ± 1.35%-25.32 ± 1.37%). The same extract of S. pisidica was revealed to be the most potent in scavenging of all three radicals and FRAP assay. Discussion and conclusion: Out of 27 taxa, S. pisidica, in particular, may deserve further investigation for its neuroprotective potential.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014; 52(7):873-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Liposomes are increasingly employed to deliver chemotherapeutic agents, antisense oligonucleotides, and genes to various therapeutic targets. Objective: The present investigation evaluates the ability of fusogenic pH-sensitive liposomes of rapamycin in increasing its antiproliferative effect on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line. Materials and methods: Cholesterol (Chol) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) (DPPC:Chol, 7:3) were used to prepare conventional rapamycin liposomes by a modified ethanol injection method. Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) was used to produce fusogenic and pH-sensitive properties in liposomes simultaneously (DPPC:Chol:DOPE, 7:3:4.2). The prepared liposomes were characterized by their size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency percent (EE%), and chemical stability during 6 months. The antiproliferative effects of both types of rapamycin liposomes (10, 25, and 50 nmol/L) with optimized formulations were assessed on MCF-7 cells, as cancerous cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), as healthy cells, employing the diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for 72 h. Results and discussion: The particle size, zeta potential, and EE% of the liposomes were 165 ± 12.3 and 178 ± 15.4 nm, -39.6 ± 1.3, and -41.2 ± 2.1 mV as well as 76.9 ± 2.6 and 76.9 ± 2.6% in conventional and fusogenic pH-sensitive liposomes, respectively. Physicochemical stability results indicated that both liposome types were relatively stable at 4 °C than 25 °C. In vitro antiproliferative evaluation showed that fusogenic pH-sensitive liposomes had better antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells compared to the conventional liposomes. Conversely, fusogenic pH-sensitive liposomes had less cytotoxicity on HUVEC cell line.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014; 52(7):848-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Traditionally, the content of total phenolics (flavonoid phenolics (FP) and non-flavonoid phenolics (NFP)) and flavonoids (flavone/flavonol and flavonone/dihydroflavonol) in propolis has been determined by different methodologies. Until now, the percentage of total phenolic (TP) compounds that corresponds to FP and NFP, expressed in the same units by a spectrophotometric method, has not been determined. Objective: The current study proposes a quick and simple methodology that separates FP and NFP in propolis samples and determines TP, FP, and NFP by the same method. Materials and methods: Propolis samples from five Argentine provinces (Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Salta, Misiones, and Jujuy) were used. Extraction of TP from the propolis samples was carried out by maceration with 80% ethanol and quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FC-R). Then, FP was precipitated with formaldehyde in acid medium. After centrifugation, NFP were determined in the supernatant using FC-R. FP content was calculated as the difference between the content of TP and NFP. The method was also validated using commercial flavonoids and chalcones. Results: FP recovery in all experiments was between 85.95% and 98.29%. Propolis from Tucumán had significantly higher amounts of total phenols than propolis from other provinces. SE5 showed higher content of FP (81.52%) followed by SA1 (74.75%). The propolis from TUC4, SA4, SE3, and MI showed the lowest FP content and highest content of NFP. Conclusions: This method provides a simple, reliable, and specific spectrophotometric assay to estimate the content of NFP, FP, and TP in propolis samples.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014; 52(7):835-40.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other beneficial medicinal properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-allergic effects in mast cells are unknown. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether CAPE modulates the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated local allergic reaction in animals, as well as to elucidate the effects of CAPE on mast cells in vitro. Materials and methods: To investigate the bioactive potential of CAPE (10 or 20 µM), HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI) for 24 h in the presence or absence of CAPE. To study the pharmacological effects of CAPE, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), and fluorescence assays were used. Results: CAPE (10 mg/kg) inhibited local IgE-mediated allergic reactions (0.164 versus 0.065 O.D.) in a mouse model. Additionally, CAPE (20 µM) attenuated PMACI-stimulated histamine release (3146.42 versus 2564.83 pg/ml) and the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β (4.775 versus 0.713 pg/ml, IC50 = 6.67 µM), IL-6 (4771.5 versus 449.1 pg/ml, IC50 = 5.25 µM), and IL-8 (5991.7 versus 2213.1 pg/ml, IC50 = 9.95 µM) in HMC-1 cells. In activated HMC-1 cells, pretreatment with CAPE decreased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, CAPE inhibited PMACI-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and its degradation. Discussion and conclusion: Our results indicated that CAPE can modulate mast cell-mediated allergic disease.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014; 52(7):926-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels (Menispermaceae) is used in Indian folk system of alternative medicine for rheumatism, eczema, diabetics, inflammation, and neuralgia. Objective: To evaluate antitumor activities of C. hirsutus in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods: C. hirsutus was successively extracted using hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT assay. Phytochemical analyses were conducted with methanol extract of C. hirsutus (MECH) and in vivo antitumor activity was carried out with MECH using Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) mouse model. Antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation. Results and discussion: Phytochemical studies indicated a high content of total alkaloid (165.6 mg/100 g), total phenolic (43.5 GAE mg/g), and total flavanoid (4.97 RE mg/g) in MECH. Anti-proliferative activity against the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 showed IC50 values of 221.5 ± 16.68, 255 ± 17.88, 213 ± 8.4, 147 ± 7.9, and 229 ± 8.02 µg/ml with hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts, respectively. A significant (p < 0.01) decrease in packed cell volume, viable cell count, and increased lifespan (58 and 77%) was observed. Hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in MECH-treated mice. MECH-treated group significantly (p < 0.001) decreased SOD, lipid peroxidation, and CAT towards normal. Conclusion: C. hirsutus exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities that are reasonably attributed to endogenous antioxidant mechanisms.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014; 52(7):867-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Geniposidic acid, one of the main active ingredients in Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis (Rubiaceae), may also possess important pharmacological activities for cardiovascular disorders similar to other derivatives, such as geniposide. Objective: To evaluate its anti-atherosclerosis (anti-AS) effect, the related pharmacological activities and possible cellular mechanisms were studied. Materials and methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group, and geniposidic acid subgroups. In the AS model, its effects on the intima/media thickness ratio and aortic morphology were observed. In the study of primary cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs), its activities on both ECs and HUASMCs proliferation, HUASMCs' migration were also studied. Results: Compared with the model control group, the plaque area, intima/media thickness ratio, and intimal foam cells number in geniposidic acid (80, 160, and 240 mg/kg) subgroups were significantly improved (p < 0.05). By HE staining, the activities of geniposidic acid on relieving ECs shedding and improving aortic morphology disorders were also demonstrated. From the results of CCK-8 testing, only 100 μg/ml geniposidic acid performed significant inhibition on SMC proliferation. The relative IC50 of geniposidic acid on SMC inhibition was 87.73 μg/ml. Geniposide acid also showed promotion effect on ECs proliferation, and the related ED50 of geniposidic acid was 86.05 μg/ml. Besides, only 50 and 100 μg/ml geniposidic acid showed obvious inhibition on SMC migration from the upper chamber (p < 0.05). Discussion and conclusion: The effects of geniposidic acid on protecting vascular endothelium and reversing plaque formation in an atherosclerotic model were demonstrated.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in clinical practice to treat bone disease for thousands of years. They are cost-effective with fewer side effects and are more suitable for long-term use compared with chemically synthesized medicines. Objective: Chinese herbal formula prescribed among the CHMs is safe, and it is an alternative medicine for bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis. Methods: Science Direct and Google Scholar were used to search articles published. The input key words were CHM, osteoporosis, Chinese herbal formula, traditional Chinese medicine, single herb, multiple-herbs, and bone health. CHMs (single herb and formula) lacking sufficient proof and evidence in the literature were excluded and only those with high citation were retained. Results: A brief review was summarized to indicate the application and the potential mechanism of single herb formula and multi-herb formula in treating the common bone-related diseases such as inflammation, fracture, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Conclusion: In order to ensure safety and efficacy of all these CHMs, the prescriptions with single herb and multi-component formula must be verified and ensured by reliable pharmacological and toxicological methods. Much more effort needs to be done for studying the standardization, safety evaluation, and mechanism exploration of herb formula as well as confirming the compatibility of these herbs which make one.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 06/2014;