Pharmaceutical Biology (PHARM BIOL)

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

Journal description

As blockbuster drugs become harder to develop by chemical synthesis, pharmacological science is looking increasingly to natural sources for clues. Pharmaceutical Biology publishes manuscripts describing the discovery, methods for discovery, description, analysis characterization, and production/isolation of biologically-active chemicals or other substances, drugs, pharmaceutical products, or preparations utilized in systems of traditional medicine. An essential publication in any modern pharmacology reference center.

Current impact factor: 1.24

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.241
2013 Impact Factor 1.337
2012 Impact Factor 1.206
2011 Impact Factor 0.878
2010 Impact Factor 0.638
2009 Impact Factor 0.672
2008 Impact Factor 0.488
2007 Impact Factor 0.364
2006 Impact Factor 0.397
2005 Impact Factor 0.394
2004 Impact Factor 0.441
2003 Impact Factor 0.413
2002 Impact Factor 0.262
2001 Impact Factor 0.312
2000 Impact Factor 0.132
1999 Impact Factor 0.164
1998 Impact Factor

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.19
Cited half-life 5.20
Immediacy index 0.36
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.23
Website Pharmaceutical Biology website
Other titles Pharmaceutical biology
ISSN 1388-0209
OCLC 39631629
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Non-commercial
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Chinese medicines with different cold/hot properties have various pharmacological actions on multiple organisms. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the cold/hot property differences of traditional Chinese medicine formulas of Mahuang and Maxingshigan decoctions. Materials and methods: A novel cold/hot pad differentiating assay method based on the Intelligent Animal Temperature Tropism Behavior monitoring system at 20 °C (cold pad) and 30 °C (hot pad) was introduced to investigate the variability of temperature tropism among the mice treated by 0.4 mL/20 g (drug volume/body weight) of Mahuang decoction and Maxingshigan decoction, respectively. Meanwhile, the oxygen consumption and activities of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were measured to explore the energy metabolism mechanism. Results: Results showed that the differences between cold/hot properties of Mahuang decoction and Maxingshigan decoction were significant (p < 0.05). Mahuang decoction produced significant synergic effect (a combination index of 1.60), while Maxingshigan decoction expressed significant antagonistic effect (a combination index of 0.35). The changes of energy metabolism including ATPase activity and oxygen consumption might be the possible factors to result in the differences. Those influences tended to be coherent with the definition of cold/hot properties of Chinese medicines based on traditional Chinese medicinal theory. Conclusions: The results indicated that the method based on cold/hot pad differentiating array could objectively and quantitatively represent the cold/hot properties of different compatibilities of traditional Chinese medicines in an ethological way according to the changes of animal's temperature tropism. These findings would provide some experimental basis and data references as well as a novel evaluation method for the study of the regularity of recipe composition.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 11/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1057650
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Earthworms have been used as a traditional medicine in China from thousands of years. In recent years, research has demonstrated that earthworm extracts might promote wound healing; however, its mechanism is still unknown. Objective: The study investigates the mechanism and effects of earthworm active protein (EAP), on mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) proliferation. Materials and methods: The effects of earthworm active protein (EAP) in different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 μg/mL) on NIH3T3 cell were detected by the MTT and Brdu incorporation assay (50, 100, and 150 μg/mL). The effects of EAP (37.5, 75, and 150 μg/mL) on the cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The cell signaling pathways of EAP-promoting NIH3T3 cell proliferation were studied by the MTT and Western blot by using different signaling pathway inhibitors. Results: The results showed that EAP (50, 100, and 150 μg/mL) could promote NIH3T3 fibroblasts proliferation (36.4 ± 4.4%, 59.1 ± 4.9%, and 71.5 ± 5.7%). The mechanism of EAP promoting NIH3T3 cell proliferation should be as follows: EAP elevated cyclin D1 expression by activating MEK/ERK signaling pathway, and then promoted cell cycle from G1 to S phase, finally caused the proliferation of NIH3T3 cell. PI3K signaling pathway may be the upstream of MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion: The study demonstrates that EAP is effective in promoting effects on proliferation and migration activity of NIH3T3 cell, and the proliferation activity of EAP on NIH3T3 cell may be achieved through the PI3K→Rac→PAK→MEK signaling pathway.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1073333
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The underground edible tuber of Dioscorea alata L. (Dioscoreaceae) is a functional food with high nutritive value and therapeutic potentials. The tuber is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties in traditional medicine. Objective: The present study explores the anti-inflammatory activity and standardization of D. alata tuber hydro-methanol extract. Materials and methods: 70% hydro-methanol extract of D. alata tuber was chemically characterized using HPLC and GC-MS techniques. Murine lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h with six different concentrations (0-80 µg/ml) of the extract. Expression of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, COX-1, COX-2 and PGE2 were evaluated using colorimetric and ELISA methods. Results: D. alata extract inhibited the expression of NO and TNF-α with an IC50 value of 134.51 ± 6.75 and 113.30 ± 7.44 μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 value for inhibition of total COX, COX-1, COX-2 activities and PGE2 level were 41.96 ± 3.07, 141.41 ± 8.99, 32.50 ± 1.69 and 186.34 ± 15.36 μg/ml, respectively. Inhibition of PGE2 level and COX-2 activity was positively correlated (R2 = 0.9393). Gallic acid (GA), 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4HBA), syringic acid (SYA), p-coumaric acid (PCA) and myricetin (MY) were identified and quantified using HPLC. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 13 different phytocompounds such as hexadecanoic acid, methyl stearate, cinnamyl cinnamate, squalene etc. Conclusion: The D. alata extract significantly down-regulated the pro-inflammatory signals in a gradual manner compared to control (0 μg/ml). Different bioactive phytocompounds individually possessing anti-inflammatory activities, contributed to the overall bioactivity of the D. alata tuber extract.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Previous studies demonstrated that sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) could inhibit MDV replication in vitro. The mechanism about how STS inhibits MDV replication is still not well understood. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effect of STS on gB gene/protein of Marek's disease virus (MDV). Materials and methods: The concentration of 0.25 mg/ml of STS was used in this study. Meanwhile, 0.25 mg/ml of acyclovir (ACV) was used as a positive control. About 9-11-d-old embryonated specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs were used to prepare CEF cells. CEF cells were infected with MDV 2 h, followed by treatment with STS. Real-time PCR and western blot assay were used to measure the gB (UL27) gene/protein expression in STS treatment group at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-infection. Results: Compared with MDV control, the gB gene copies were significantly decreased in STS and ACV treatment groups at 72 h and 96 h (p < 0.05), both in the DNA and in the mRNA level. Furthermore, the expression of gB protein was also inhibited by STS at 24, 72, and 96 h. Discussion and conclusion: Our study demonstrated that STS could effectively inhibit the MDV replication by suppressing gB gene/protein expression in cell culture.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1072568
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    ABSTRACT: Context: trans-3,4,5,4'-Tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-212), an derivative of resveratrol, shows strong antiproliferative activities against many cancer cells. In our previous study, we demonstrated that DMU-212 possesses potent proapoptosis and antiangiogenesis effects on vascular endothelial cells (VECs), which made it a promising agent for the treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases. Objective: We studied the gene expression profile of DMU-212-treated VECs to gain further insight into the mechanisms by which DMU-212 exerts its potent pro-apoptosis and antiangiogenesis effects. Materials and methods: The potential changes in the gene expression of VECs incubated with DMU-212 were identified and analyzed using the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 1.0 array. In addition, the gene expression profile was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis for seven of those altered genes. Results and conclusion: DMU-212 was found to regulate a diverse range of genes, including cytokines (IL8, selectin E, MPZL2, EGR1, CCL20, ITGB8, CXCL1, VCAM1, KITLG, and AREG), transport proteins (TRPC4, SLC41A2, SLC17A5, and CREB5), metabolism (CYP1B1, CYP1A1, PDK4, CSNK1G1, MVK, TCEB3C, and CDKN3), enzymes (RAB23, SPHK1, CHSY3, PLAU, PLA2G4C, and MMP10), and genes involved in signal transduction (TMEM217, DUSP8, and SPRY4), chromosome organization (HIST1H2BH and GEM), cell migration and angiogenesis (ERRFI1, HBEGF, and NEDD9), and apoptosis (TNFSF15, TNFRSF9, CD274, BCL2L11, BIRC3, TNFAIP3, and TIFA), as well as other genes with unknown function (PGM5P2, SNORD1142, LOC151760, KRTAP5-2, C1orf110, SNORA14A, MIR31, C2CD4B, SCARNA4, C2orf66, SC4MOL, LOC644714, and LOC283392). This is the first application of microarray technique to investigate and analyze the profile of genes regulated by DMU-212 in VECs. Our results lead to an increased understanding of the signaling pathways involved in DMU-212-induced apoptosis and antiangiogenesis.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1071414
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Crataegus songarica K. Koch (Rosaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Objective: This study evaluates the effect of C. songarica methanol extract on the kidney and heart tissue damage of albino rats, and to determine cytotoxic activity of various extracts of songarica on various human cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: Rats were divided into six groups, Group I received water only; Group II received CCl4 (1 mL/kg b wt) intraperitoneal; C. songarica extract (at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b wt) orally for 15 days. Cytotoxic activity was determined by SRB method using MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SF-295, SW480 and IMR-32 cell lines. Results: Compared with CCl4 group, administration of C. songarica extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg b wt, significantly decreases serum creatinine (59.74%), urea (40.23%) and cholesterol (54 mg/dL), MDA (0.007 nmol/mg protein) in kidney and (0.025 nmol/mg protein) in heart tissue, along with evaluation of GSH (209.79 ± 54.6), GR (111.45 ± 2.84), GPx (94.01 ± 14.80), GST (201.71) in kidney tissue and GSH (51.47 ± 1.47), GR (45.42 ± 6.69), GPx (77.19 ± 10.94), GST (49.89) in heart tissue. In addition, methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited potent anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 28.57 to 85.106 µg/mL. Discussion and conclusion: Crataegus songarica methanol extract has a potential antioxidant effect as it protects the kidney and heart tissue against CCl4-induced toxicity, prevents DNA damage and showed strong anticancer activity.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1066398
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a serious health problem worldwide. It has been reported that Aglaia andamanica Hiern (Meliaceae) leaves possessed an antiviral effect. Therefore, a search of anti-HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) agents from A. andamanica is a promising target. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate anti-HIV-1 IN activity of isolated compounds from A. andamanica using an in vitro assay and molecular docking study as well as testing acute toxicity in mice using the up and down method. Materials and methods: The leaves and compounds (3-100 μg/mL) from A. andamanica were determined for the anti-HIV-1 IN effect using the multiplate integration assay (MIA) by detection the absorbance of the final product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The molecular docking with the HIV-1 IN of the active compound N-methyl-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (10) was also studied. The Swiss albino mice were used for an acute toxicity test. Results and discussion: Among the isolated compounds, 10 showed marked anti-HIV-1 IN effect with an IC50 value of 11.8 μg/mL, whereas other compounds were inactive (IC50 value > 100 μg/mL). The molecular docking of compound 10 with an HIV-1 IN enzyme was also studied. The result revealed that this compound formed the hydrogen bonding with the Thr66, Asn155, and Lys159 of the HIV-1 IN binding site. The acute toxicity of the A. andamanica extract was not observed at the dose 2000 mg/kg mice. This is the first report of A. andamanica for anti-HIV-1 IN activity.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1071413
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Natural products can present remarkable biological and pharmacological activities. In traditional medicine, plants have been used historically in treating cancer, infections, and other inflammatory conditions. Objective: Verbascoside and catechin are widespread polyphenolic plant compounds that could play a role in the anti-inflammatory and health-promoting effects of plants and plant extracts. Materials and methods: This study compares the potential cytotoxic effects of polyphenols verbascoside and catechin (6.25-200 µM) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for 48 h and myelomonocytic THP-1 and THP-1 Blue cells for 24 h. The effects of the compounds on immune activation markers such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity as well as on neopterin formation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were investigated. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested using Cell-Titer Blue assay. Results: Verbascoside exhibited significant suppressive effects in mitogen-stimulated PBMC on tryptophan breakdown (>50 µM; IC50 value: 58.6 µM) and the production of neopterin (>6.25 µM; IC50 value: 217 µM). These effects correlated with a decline in cell viability, while THP-1 Blue cells were less sensitive. NF-κB activity was slightly enhanced at lower concentrations (<50 µM verbascoside) in stimulated cells and at the highest concentration used in unstimulated cells. Catechin had no relevant effects on cell viability and on the tested inflammation markers, except NF-κB activation in THP-1 Blue cells. Discussion and conclusion: The results obtained show that verbascoside and catechin represent effective compounds which interfere with immunobiochemical pathways that are highly relevant for immunosurveillance and competing virus infections.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1072830
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Commiphora molmol Engl (Burseraceae) or myrrh has been traditionally used for the treatment of skin fungal infections. Objective: This study evaluates the antifungal activity of myrrh ethanol extract and essential oil against skin dermatophytes. Materials and methods: The antifungal evaluations were performed by the food poisoning technique (250 ppm) and micro-broth dilution assay (800-6.25 µg/mL) against Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, and T. verrucosum. The chemical composition of myrrh oil and ethanol extract was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Results: Furanoeudesma 1,3-diene and menthofuran were the main components of myrrh oil, while 2-tert-butyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, benzenemethanol,3-methoxy-α-phenyl, and curzerene were the main components of myrrh ethanol extract. The inhibitory effect of myrrh oil and ethanol extract against dermatophytes were 43.1-61.6% and 12.5-27.5%, respectively. The MIC and MFC values of myrrh oil were 25-100 and 25-200 µg/mL while these amounts for ethanol extract were 25-400 and 25-400 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, myrrh oil had higher antifungal activity than that of the ethanol extract. Both extracts showed good anti-elastase activity. Conclusion: The results of our investigation confirmed the traditional uses of C. molmol as a poultice for the treatment of cutaneous fungal infections.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1072831
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Gastric cancer remains highly prevalent, but treatment options are limited. Natural products have proved to be a rich source of anticancer drugs. Chrysosplenium nudicaule Ledeb. (Saxifragaceae) is a perennial herb that grows in the highlands of China. It has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat digestive diseases for hundreds of years. Recent studies revealed that this herb had anticancer activity, and the flavonoids were speculated to be the effective components. 6,7,3'-Trimethoxy-3,5,4'-trihydroxy flavone (TTF) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-3,6,3'trimethoxy-flavone-7-O-β-d-glucoside (DTFG) are flavonoid compounds isolated from Chrysosplenium nudicaule. Objective: This study examined the effect of TTF and DTFG on SGC-7901 human stomach cancer cell in vitro to determine the anticancer and induction of apoptosis properties of TTF. Materials and methods: The proliferation of cells treated with 32, 16, 8, 4, and 2 μg/mL of TTF or DTFG for 24, 48, and 72 h was assessed by the MTT assay. After being treated with TTF, the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells was assessed by acridine orange staining, ultrastructure, electrophoresis of DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry. Results: Results indicated that TTF inhibited the growth of cancer cells with an IC50 value of 8.33 μg/mL after 72 h incubation. However, DTFG showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of the cancer cell. Further studies on TTF also confirmed that it was able to induce apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells at a concentration as low as 4 μg/mL. Discussion and conclusion: The apoptotic effect of TTF makes it a promising candidate for future chemotherapeutic application in treating stomach cancer.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1055634
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Lyoniside is the major constituent of Saraca asoca Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) bark. There is an immediate need to develop an efficient method to isolate its chemical constituents, since it is a therapeutically important plant. Objective: A rapid extraction method for lyoniside based on microwave-assisted extraction of S. asoca bark was developed and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Materials and methods: Lyoniside was analyzed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction solvent ratio (%), material solvent ratio (g/ml) and extraction time (min) were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of 1:30 material solvent ratio with 70:30 mixture of methanol:water for 10 min duration. Results: The optimized microwave-assisted extraction yielded 9.4 mg/g of lyoniside content in comparison to reflux extraction under identical conditions which yielded 4.2 mg/g of lyoniside content. Under optimum conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a high goodness-of-fit model and the success of the RSM method for optimizing lyoniside extraction from the bark of S. asoca. Discussion: All the three variables significantly affected the lyoniside content. Increased polarity of solvent medium enhances the lyoniside yield. Conclusion: The present study shows the applicability of microwave-assisted extraction in extraction of lyoniside from S. asoca bark.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1066399