Parasitology International (Parasitol Int )

Publisher: Nihon Kiseichū Gakkai, Elsevier


Parasitology International provides a medium for rapid, carefully reviewed publications in the field of human and animal parasitology. Original papers, rapid communications, and original case reports from all geographical areas and covering all parasitological disciplines, including structure, immunology, cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and systematics, may be submitted. Reviews on recent developments are invited regularly, but suggestions in this respect are welcome. Letters to the Editor commenting on any aspect of the Journal are also welcome.

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    Parasitology international (Online), PI
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The composition, structure and pattern of helminth assemblages associated with the storks (Ciconiidae), ibises and spoonbills (Threskiornithidae) are poorly understood. Here we analyze the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with the white stork Ciconia ciconia and black stork Ciconia nigra, and notice the findings of helminths on Eurasian spoonbill Platalea leucorodia and glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus obtained in the Czech Republic in years 1962-2013. Comparison with datasets from multiple European countries supports the existence of well-defined local helminth component communities, which are subject to strong geographic variation. The diversity of the helminth component communities reached 11.0 ± 1.6 (C. ciconia) and 12.5 ± 5.4 (C. nigra) species, with the Berger-Parker dominance index reaching only 0.24 and 0.21, respectively. Typically, the dominant species (Chaunocephalus ferox, Tylodelphys excavata and Dictymetra discoidea in C. ciconia, and Cathaemasia hians and Dicheilonema ciconiae in C. nigra) were considered as local, with intermediate host species available onsite. Ten of the 11 species with known life cycle were capable to complete their life cycle locally, which is in strong contrast with the situation in Czech egrets and herons. In C. ciconia and C. nigra, the highest helminth load was in juveniles, whereas Echinostoma sudanense, absent in the juveniles, was associated with intermediate hosts absent in the study area. Relative prevalence and frequency of helminths associated with male and female C. ciconia was highly similar to each other. The first systematically collected evidence of the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in storks is provided.
    Parasitology International 02/2015; 64(2):130-134.
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of a Raphidascarid parasitic nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi,1802) in two sparid fish (Sparus aurata and Diplodus vulgaris) and one soleid fish (Solea solea) was investigated in this study. A total of 868 individuals; 385 S. aurata, 437 D. vulgaris and 46 S. solea were collected from the Mersin Bay between February 2013 and January 2014 and examined. Variations in the prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance of the parasite were 14.55%, 2.05, 0.30 for S. aurata, 4.12%, 2.44, 0.10 for D. vulgaris, and 15.22%, 3.29, 0.50 for S. sole respectively. Nucleotide sequences of 1398 base pair long fragment of 18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA region and 641 base pair long fragment of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene were used in molecular identification of isolated parasites at species level. All the parasite samples were identified as Hysterothylacium aduncum based on nucleotide sequence comparisons. Both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox1 sequences revealed a genetic variation among H. aduncum specimens isolated from different fish species, while only mtDNA cox1 sequences were indicating a mean genetic distance of 0.010 among H. aduncum specimens of the same host species
    Parasitology International 12/2014;
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    Parasitology International 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As phosphor proteins are reported to be involved in virulence and survival, the ability of Leishmania to inhibit macrophage effector functions may result from a direct interference of leishmanial molecules with macrophage signal transduction pathways. Several such proteins such as pp63, pp41 and pp29 have also been identified as a Th1 stimulatory protein in the Leishmania donovani. In the present study, the immunogenicity of a cocktail of pp63 + pp41 + pp29 was assessed by estimation of serum antibody titre, nitric oxide(NO) production, estimation of Th1 cytokine(IFN-γ) as well as Th2 cytokines(IL-4), and determination of parasite load in L. donovani infected mice. In the group immunized with antigenic cocktail there was a sharp rise in antibody titer up to Day 20 which reduced considerably by Day 50. Groups of mice vaccinated with pp63, pp41, pp29 and the antigenic cocktail expressed 10-fold, 16-fold, 22-fold and 25-fold increase respectively in NO production by splenocytes. The animal groups immunized with pp63, pp41, pp29 and the antigenic cocktail animals showed reduced parasite load in the liver and spleen, as well as increased IFN-gamma production in the spleen. Furthermore immunized animals remained with a normal hematological profile, whereas L. donovani in unimmunized mice lead to significant anemia
    Parasitology International 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to identify the occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum abortions in goats from Argentina by serological, macroscopical and microscopical examination and bioassay, and to characterize the obtained isolates by molecular techniques. For this purpose, 25 caprine fetal fluids, 18 caprine fetal brains and 10 caprine placentas from 8 dairy/meat goat farms from Argentina were analyzed. Gestational age of the aborted fetuses was determined in 18 cases. Protozoal infections were detected by at least one of the applied diagnostic techniques in 44% (11/25) of examined fetuses; specifically, 24% (6/25) were positive to T. gondii, 8% (2/25) were positive to N. caninum and 12% (3/25) were positive to both parasites. In this study IFAT titers were similarly distributed in younger and older fetuses. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of one placenta revealed chalky nodules in the fetal cotyledons and normal intercotyledonary areas, as well as necrosis and calcification of mesenchymal cells in villi. Tachyzoites were observed in peritoneal wash from 2 mice inoculated with brain and a pool of brain and placenta of two foetuses. Cell culture growth of tachyzoites was achieved from one inoculated mouse, and confirmed as T. gondii by PCR. The T. gondii isolate was identified as atypical or non canonical by nested-PCR-RFLP. This is the first study that investigated the involvement of N. caninum and T. gondii in cases of goat abortion in Argentina.
    Parasitology International 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To date there is no vaccine available against human leishmaniasis. Although some vaccination protocols can induce immunity in murine models, they fail to induce protection in humans. The reasons for that remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterize the changes in the pattern of the immune response during sub-cutaneous vaccination with Leishvacin® in mice. We also investigated whether IFN-γ and nitric oxide synthase are indispensable for the protection elicited by the vaccine. C57BL/6 WT vaccinated mice showed smaller lesions and fewer numbers of parasites in footpads until 8weeks post-infection. Up to this time they produced higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-17A and IL-10 and higher specific antibody response than control non-vaccinated mice. Moreover, we showed that IFN-γ, most likely by induction of iNOS expression, is essential for immunity. However, after 12weeks of infection we observed loss of difference in lesion size and parasite burden between the groups. Loss of resistance was associated with the disappearance of differences in cytokine patterns between vaccinated and control mice, but not of antibody response, which remained different until a later time of infection. The reversal of resistance to L. amazonensis could not be explained by upregulation of regulatory cytokines. Our data point to a subversion of the host immune response by L. amazonensis even when a protective response is previously induced.
    Parasitology International 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Philophthalmosis is a zoonotic disease associated largely with the spread of the invasive freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata, serving as an intermediate host. Here we examined Philophthalmus gralli focal fenced infection site reported recently as being associated with Tinamus major and M. tuberculata in Alajuela, Costa Rica. Removal of the definitive hosts allowed us to address also the long-term survival strategy of the parasite. Initially, the snail intermediate hosts displayed high prevalence of P. gralli infection across all its age cohorts. Two years following the removal of definitive hosts, the infection rate decreased by one order of magnitude, while the snails aging less than one year displayed zero infection prevalence. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (ND1) and nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) DNA loci revealed negligible intrasite DNA variability of the specimens obtained at the study site in Costa Rica (but not of those obtained earlier in Peru or New Zealand), supporting strongly the hypothesis on focal origin of the infection. The observed dynamics of infection suggests the explanation for the high variability in P. gralli prevalence in intermediate hosts experienced worldwide. We noticed that the reports claiming >20% prevalence of M. tuberculata infection by P. gralli originated exclusively from foci with known eye infection of the definitive hosts, while the P. gralli infection penetrance <2% is typically associated with sites, where the infection of definitive hosts was not observed, suggesting that the infected definitive hosts were present onsite only in the past, or were present only at a site upstream or downstream of the respective sampling site. Thus, this is the first evidence on the possible persistence of eye-trematode infection site for over two years following the last confirmed outbreak in its adult hosts.
    Parasitology International 07/2014; 63(6):802-807.
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    ABSTRACT: This report describes a case of peritoneal larval cestodiasis caused by tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp. in an adult female squirrel monkey. The monkey had lived in a zoological garden in Japan and had a clinical history of wasting. At necropsy, numerous whitish oval masses were found in the liver and peritoneal cavity. These masses contained larval cestodes. Morphological observation and molecular analyses of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequences allowed us to identify the larva as the tetrathyridium of Mesocestoides sp. This is the first report of Mesocestoides larvae in a squirrel monkey in Japan.
    Parasitology International 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Information on Strongyloides stercoralis re-infection after ivermectin treatment is scarce in S. stercoralis endemic countries. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined S. stercoralis infection and re-infection rates among schoolchildren, two years after ivermectin treatment (2x100μg/kg PO, 24hours apart). The study was conducted among 484 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province from 2009 to 2011, using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method on two stool samples per child. Complete data were available for 302 participants. We observed infections in 24.2% and 22.5% of the children at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. At baseline, 73 children were treated for S. stercoralis infection. At follow-up, one-third of those treated for S. stercoralis infection had been reinfected, while 19.6% of the 229 healthy children (at baseline) had been newly infected with S. stercoralis. Possession of shoes and defecation in toilet were associated with S. stercoralis infection at follow-up. Infection and re-infection rates of S. stercoralis among schoolchildren are considerably high. However, 68.5% of infected children remained free of infection for at least two years. A large-scale cohort study is required to understand age-specific infection and re-infection dynamics in endemic countries.
    Parasitology International 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are stress hormones secreted in response to perceived psychological and or physiological stress. GCs have been shown to reduce tissue inflammation by down-regulating the production of inflammatory chemokines produced by epithelial cells. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is known to increase cytokine, chemokine, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression in parasite infected mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We sought to analyze the role of an anti-inflammatory protein, glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in MODE-K cells during infection with T. gondii. GILZ expression in MODE-K cells was assessed by PCR and immunoblotting after stimulation with GCs (corticosterone, CORT) or T. gondii infection. GILZ mRNA was constitutively expressed in MODE-K cells but not its protein product. While infection and pre-exposure to CORT decreased GILZ isoforms of 28 and 17kD, the presence of CORT during infection increased levels of 17kD isoform. Infected cells treated with CORT had decreased expression of chemokines (IP-10/CXCL10, MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-2/CXCL8) while their expression was increased when endogenous GILZ was removed by siRNA treatment. GILZ up-regulation during infection may serve as a mechanism to decrease epithelial cell responses and facilitate parasite replication.
    Parasitology International 05/2014;