Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Publisher: Springer Verlag


The Earth's biosphere is being transformed by various anthropogenic activities. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change addresses a wide range of environmental topics and pressing issues including global climate change processes and effects stratospheric ozone depletion acid deposition eutrophication of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems species extinction and loss of biological diversity deforestation and forest degradation desertification soil resource degradation and land use change sea-level rise and destruction of coastal zones depletion of fresh-water and marine fisheries loss of wetlands and riparian zones and hazardous waste management. Response options to mitigate these threats or to adapt to changing environs are needed to ensure a sustainable biosphere for all forms of life. To that end Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change provides a forum to encourage the conceptualization critical examination and debate on environmental change response options. Moreover the aim of this journal is to provide a forum to review analyze and stimulate the development testing and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies at regional national and global scales. One of the primary goals of the journal is to contribute to real-time policy development as environmental treaties and agreements are discussed and promulgated. Examples of mitigation and adaptation strategies policies and technical topics considered by this journal include emerging environmental technologies restoration and reclamation ecology non- renewable energy conservation renewable and alternative energy supply and use sustainable development of the biosphere bioengineering applications environmental and ecological economics renewable resource management integrated systems planning and development international environmental treaties and agreements environmental services valuation and equity alternative human infrastructure and transportation systems. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change is necessarily transdisciplinary in scope and welcomes full papers short communications book reviews and occasionally reviews of complex novel or emerging mitigation and adaptation strategies. All papers are subject to thorough peer-review. Prompt publication is a priority consistent with a high standard of quality and presentation.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Forests have the potential to be a sink in the global carbon (C) budget and thus play an important role in mitigating climate change. However, large-scale management of forests to their sink potential requires understanding of factors responsible for changes in forest C stocks. In this paper, we quantify the effects of initial forest landscape condition and disturbance rates on landscape-level changes in forest C stocks using predictions for managed forests in Ontario, Canada. Ten-year changes in C stocks in public forests managed for wood fibre production were simulated under four scenarios reflecting the range of volume harvested between 1998 and 2007. Changes in forest C stocks varied across Ontario and with harvest rate, resulting in the forest ranging from being a source of 0.767 tC ha-1 year−1 to a sink of 0.656 tC ha−1 year−1. Simulation results were used to develop a predictive equation explaining over 93 % of the variation in forest C stocks. Variables included in the equation, in descending order of their effect on changes in forest C stocks, were relative harvest rate, forest growth rate, natural disturbance rate, and initial forest C stocks. A reduced equation, including only the first three variables, explained nearly 89 % of the variation in forest C stocks. The results indicate that short-term changes in C stocks depend on initial forest condition and that there are limits to how much these changes can be manipulated by altering harvest and disturbance rates.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There are fears that global warming will lead to degradation of peatlands, higher emissions of greenhouse gases from peat, and accelerated warming. Anaerobic decomposition of organic soils produces methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. Two peat bogs differing in mean annual temperature, Velke Darko (VD, Czech Republic, 7.2 °C), and Stor Åmyran (SA, Sweden, 4.0 °C), were selected for a comparative study of how organic soils in different climatic zones will respond to warmer and drier conditions. Twenty peat cores from each bog were incubated in growth chambers. Under present-day summer conditions, VD produced 14 times more CH4 than SA. Two different warming scenarios were used. Peat-core replicates were kept at temperatures of 11 versus 16 °C, and 11 versus 22 °C. From 11 to 16 °C, the CH4 production slightly decreased at SA, and slightly increased at VD. From 11 to 22 °C, the CH4 production increased 9 times at SA, but slightly decreased at VD. After an 8-month incubation, peat cores under drying conditions (water table at −14 cm) were compared to samples with original water table (−2 cm). Drying conditions led to a steeper reduction in CH4 production at VD, compared to SA. The CH4 production decreased more than 100 times at VD. Then, the combined effect of simultaneous warming and drying at 11 and 22 °C was studied. We did not find any significant effect of interactions between increasing temperature and decreasing water table level. Overall, the warmer site VD responded more strongly to the simulated climate change than the colder site SA.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10/2014;
  • Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Making the concept of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) ready to be a mechanism to combat tropical deforestation and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by compensating developing countries for income foregone in reducing their rates of deforestation, requires solutions for outstanding controversies. Existing opinions on REDD+ vary greatly. By using the Q-method as part of an action research approach, this paper investigates experts’ attitudes towards REDD+. Based on their responses to 41 statements, four attitudinal groups were identified, characterized as pragmatists, sceptics, conventionalists and optimists. Opinions between groups differed as to the level of application, credibility, eligibility, economic effectiveness, and public acceptability of REDD+ policy instruments. Three of the four groups were supportive of international REDD+ type policy interventions, but there was disagreement on the more concrete design issues of REDD+ projects, such as the allocation of responsibilities, the distribution of burdens and benefits, and whether or not co-benefits could be expected, or should be required. As the potential of REDD+ is shaped not only by international climate policy but also by national and regional policies and stakeholder perceptions, this paper suggests that participatory forms of decision-making may help to develop tailor-made solutions that are supported by the many different actors that are necessarily involved in REDD+ projects.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 08/2014; 19(6).
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    ABSTRACT: In topographically diverse highland terrain, socio-economic and environmental conditions can vary dramatically over relatively short distances. This presents a challenge for climate resilient development strategies, as exposure to climate variability and change, climate impacts, and adaptive capacity differ between communities located within common cultural and administrative units. The Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) framed within the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) vulnerability framework (LVI-IPCC) offers a tool to assess climate vulnerability through direct household surveys. This makes it particularly appropriate for analyses at sub-community and community scales. Here we apply the LVI-IPCC to communities of Choke Mountain, located in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. Recognizing the physiographic and climatic diversity that exists in this mountainous environment, we implement LVI-IPCC analysis for 793 mixed croplivestock farming households using the five distinct agroecological systems (AES) that compose the populated area of Choke Mountain as a framework for analysis. For each AES, an LVI index, adaptive capacity metric, and LVI-IPCC vulnerability score was calculated. We found that each of these metrics varied systematically across AES. High elevation sloping lands and low elevation steep lands exhibited relatively low adaptive capacity and high vulnerability while midland AES had higher capacity and lower vulnerability. These results suggest that resilience building interventions for Choke Mountain ecosystems should be targeted to address the specific circumstances of each AES. The approach of applying LVIIPCC at AES scale could be applicable to other climate vulnerable mountainous regions.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 07/2014; Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change.
  • Peng Pei, S.F. Korom, K Ling, J Nasah
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness and integrity of forest-based emissions reduction schemes such as Clean Development Mechanism Afforestation Reforestation (CDM A R) project and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), along with conservation and enhancement of carbon (C) stocks implementation and assessment in developing countries are required not only, the appropriate monitoring and evaluation, rather the precise values of constants being used to estimate the C stocks or C credit in place of default or guess value. Estimates are reported of the C content of wood of four forest species (Shorea robusta, Pinus roxburghii, Tectona grandis and Cinnamomum camphora) and two important farm species (Populus deltoides and Eucalyptus treticornis) in the temperate region of Indian Himalayas, derived using the ash content method. These species were considered keeping in view of their potentiality for the C sequestration and storage projects across the developing countries specifically the South East Asian Countries. The specific gravity, ash content andC proportion is estimated for these six species by selecting randomwoods pieces. These estimates are designed to improve the calculations of biomass C for use in estimation of C credits in the developing region under CDM A R projects and REDD+ program supported by developed country. Regression analysis of C prediction models revealed that, for all six species, C content may be estimated through specific gravity of the wood by a linear equation without intercept. Indirectly, this results also implies that among the two farm trees, eucalyptus has high potentiality for C capturing and among four forest trees, Shorea robusta has high potentiality, therefore these two should have preference for plantation/regeneration as well as for conservation.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Geographic factors make mountain communities around the world vulnerable to the direct effects of climate change, and reliance on recreation and tourism can increase vulnerability to the secondary economic impacts.The goal of this research was to investigate the current state of community adaptation planning in the Southern Rocky Mountain region of North America. Using original survey data this paper discusses the challenges that community and county officials currently face, the perceived effects of future climate change in this region, and the perceived barriers to adaptation planning and hurdles to adaptation implementation. Results show lack of resources, information and political will are the most commonly reported barriers to adaptation. This paper also examines the connectivity between mountain communities and the surrounding federal public lands. Fifty one percent of respondents report that decisions made on nearby public lands frequently or always affect planning and decision making in their community. Collaborative efforts between these entities are proposed as a way to reduce the resource burden of adaptation planning for both entities. Finally, this paper discusses how attitudes and beliefs about climate change affect responses to questions about adaptation planning. On average, respondents who report higher levels of concern about and belief in climate change and those who are better informed about climate change report higher levels of adaptation planning. Elected officials in this sample have, on average, lower concern about and belief in climate change than bureaucratic respondents. Thus changes in elected official composition or improved leadership on climate change planning by incumbent officials could facilitate progress on adaptation
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Because volcanic soils store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), they play a far more important role in the carbon (C) cycle than their limited global coverage suggests. We analysed the C released as CO2 from a range of volcanic soils under natural conditions and analysed the influence of environmental variables (moisture and temperature), substrate availability (as assessed from the contents of various SOC fractions and the inputs of plant residues from litterfall), respiratory agents (roots, microorganisms and decomposing enzymes) and other pedological features of the topsoils (0–30 cm depth) on the CO2 efflux rates over a 2-year experimental period. High CO2 efflux rates (419 g C-CO2 m−2 y−1 as the average for Andisols) were obtained that were related to significant decreases in the amount of SOC stored. CO2 release was strongly controlled by soil moisture, although it was inhibited in the Andisols with the highest moisture levels (above 50 kg m−2 in topsoil). It was not responsive to the availability of decomposing microorganisms or enzymes and appeared more related to the inputs of easily decomposable plant residues than to the amount of either labile or recalcitrant SOC. Among the SOC pools, only the water-soluble C in saturated paste extracts (WSCse) of air-dried soil samples was consistently correlated with the CO2 efflux rates. The desiccation of Andisols appeared to induce the release of previously stabilised SOC, which was readily mineralised when the moisture conditions became favourable. The results of this study indicate that SOC storage in Andisols is highly vulnerable to drying-wetting processes even in unmanaged natural ecosystems and that microclimate conditions can be critical for successful C sequestration in these soils.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Coastal dunes play an important role in coastal defense along sandy shorelines of the world. The majority of the shorelines experience erosion and this erosion is expected to accelerate under anthropogenic climate change and subsequent sea level rise. This paper investigates the impact of climate change, sea level rise and current management for coastal dunes in the Netherlands. Furthermore the paper discusses the implications of climate change projections for adaptation strategies into the future. Recent climate change scenarios for the Netherlands highlight rising temperature and accelerated sea-level rise. Their combined effects on dune-building processes are expected to be manifested through an increase in erosive forces at the expensive of accretive forces. In the Netherlands, a negative sand balance and inland migration of the beach-dune system has been successfully counteracted in the last decades through the application of sand nourishments. These have enhanced accretion on the one hand and limited erosion on the other hand. Generally, coastal protection has improved despite rising sea levels. Important preconditions that make this sand nourishment strategy possible are: a readily available sand resource that makes exploitation technically and economically feasible; a sound monitoring system supported by solid science; political consensus and a good institutional structure to implement the strategy. In the Netherlands, the necessary preconditions are already in place to successfully adapt to sea level rise. Given the expected accelerated rise in sea level and its potential effects on the dune-beach sediment balance, the annual sand nourishment will need to be intensified to ensure the preservation and integrity of the coastal zone.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Improving the quantification of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural land has become an issue of major concern due to its strong contribution to the greenhouse effect and to the fact that N2O is now the most significant ozone-depleting emission to the atmosphere. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a new field-scale, simple and empirical model that simulates monthly nitrogen (N) flows in cropping systems based on site characteristics and management practices. We explored its sensitivity for a Basque region of Spain growing winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under humid Mediterranean conditions to varied weather conditions and different scenarios of: (i) fertiliser rates, (ii) soil texture, (iii) organic/mineral fertilisation, (iv) slurry injection/no injection and (v) tillage/no tillage. The model showed sensitivity to most of the changes in the tested parameters. On average, simulated N2O emissions decreased: (i) with the decrease in N fertiliser rates, (ii) in lighter textured soils, (iii) with organic fertilisation, (iv) after non-injecting slurry and (v) under notillage. The model showed that it could be useful to simulate some of the potential trade-offs that may occur after implementation of specific N pollution mitigation measures (e.g. tradeoffs in crop productivity and ammonia (NH3) volatilisation after implementation of measures that target a reduction in N2O emissions). In a validation exercise, simulated and measured yield and soil moisture showed reasonable agreement. Although the model showed discrepancies for monthly-averaged N2O fluxes, the peak after fertilisation application was reasonably well simulated. These results and the simplicity and user-friendliness of the model suggest that its structure is appropriate and, if properly calibrated for different soil types and weather conditions, it could be a useful model to be used in carbon footprint studies or to develop sitespecific emission factors for current or future climatic scenarios.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Small changes in agricultural practices have a large potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the implementation of such practices at the local level is often limited by a range of barriers. Understanding the barriers is essential for defining effective measures, the actual mitigation potential of the measures, and the policy needs to ensure implementation. Here we evaluate behavioural, cultural, and policy barriers for implementation of mitigation practices at the local level that imply small changes to farmers. The choice of potential mitigation practices relevant to the case study is based on a literature review of previous empirical studies. Two methods that include the stakeholders’ involvement (experts and farmers) are undertaken for the prioritization of these potential practices: (a) Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) of the choices of an expert panel and (b) Analysis of barriers to implementation based on a survey of farmers. The MCA considers two future climate scenarios – current climate and a drier and warmer climate scenario. Results suggest that all potential selected practices are suitable for mitigation considering multiple criteria in both scenarios. Nevertheless, if all the barriers for implementation had the same influence, the preferred mitigation practices in the case study would be changes in fertilization management and use of cover crops. The identification of barriers for the implementation of the practices is based on the econometric analysis of surveys given to farmers. Results show that farmers’ environmental concerns, financial incentives and access to technical advice are the main factors that define their barriers to implementation. These results may contribute to develop effective mitigation policy to be included in the 2020 review of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 04/2014;

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