Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Publisher: Springer Verlag


The Earth's biosphere is being transformed by various anthropogenic activities. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change addresses a wide range of environmental topics and pressing issues including global climate change processes and effects stratospheric ozone depletion acid deposition eutrophication of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems species extinction and loss of biological diversity deforestation and forest degradation desertification soil resource degradation and land use change sea-level rise and destruction of coastal zones depletion of fresh-water and marine fisheries loss of wetlands and riparian zones and hazardous waste management. Response options to mitigate these threats or to adapt to changing environs are needed to ensure a sustainable biosphere for all forms of life. To that end Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change provides a forum to encourage the conceptualization critical examination and debate on environmental change response options. Moreover the aim of this journal is to provide a forum to review analyze and stimulate the development testing and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies at regional national and global scales. One of the primary goals of the journal is to contribute to real-time policy development as environmental treaties and agreements are discussed and promulgated. Examples of mitigation and adaptation strategies policies and technical topics considered by this journal include emerging environmental technologies restoration and reclamation ecology non- renewable energy conservation renewable and alternative energy supply and use sustainable development of the biosphere bioengineering applications environmental and ecological economics renewable resource management integrated systems planning and development international environmental treaties and agreements environmental services valuation and equity alternative human infrastructure and transportation systems. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change is necessarily transdisciplinary in scope and welcomes full papers short communications book reviews and occasionally reviews of complex novel or emerging mitigation and adaptation strategies. All papers are subject to thorough peer-review. Prompt publication is a priority consistent with a high standard of quality and presentation.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In addition to many other stressors, climate change has emerged as one of the major threats for smallholder farmers from Toumodi in the center and Korhogo in the north of Côte d’Ivoire. This study examined farmers’ adaptation behavior with respect to subjective, socio-demographic, institutional, and physical variables. Focus group discussions with 205 farmers and large-scale surveys involving 800 farmers’ households were conducted in both study areas for data collection. The data were analyzed using a categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA), reliability analyses, and binary logistic regression models to determine relevant influences on farmers’ adaptation behavior. The results revealed that 77 % of farmers perceived high increases in temperature and 75 % perceived strong decreases in rainfall over the last 10 years. Farmers in Toumodi perceived more climate change than their colleagues in Korhogo. In addition, farmers from Korhogo perceived more new pests (81 %) and new weeds (87 %), while those from Toumodi agreed that there were strong changes in flowering and fruiting times (54 %). Furthermore, two main adaptation groups were identified: changes in the sowing management and the technical itinerary. The levels of implemented strategies differed significantly across regions. Factors such as the perceived occurrence of new pests and insects and support from national and international organizations were relevant to farmers’ decision to adapt to climate change. Moreover, the agro-ecological specificities, the types of food crops, and the owners of livestock had also an influence on farmers’ adaptation choices. The appropriate policy response should henceforth integrate these factors to support efficient adaptation processes in response to climate change in Côte d’Ivoire.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Adaptation tracking seeks to characterize, monitor, and compare general trends in climate change adaptation over time and across nations. Recognized as essential for evaluating adaptation progress, there have been few attempts to develop systematic approaches for tracking adaptation. This is reflected in polarized opinions, contradictory findings, and lack of understanding on the state of adaptation globally. In this paper, we outline key methodological considerations necessary for adaptation tracking research to produce systematic, rigorous, comparable, and usable insights that can capture the current state of adaptation globally, provide the basis for characterizing and evaluating adaptations taking place, facilitate examination of what conditions explain differences in adaptation action across jurisdictions, and can underpin the monitoring of change in adaptation over time. Specifically, we argue that approaches to adaptation tracking need to (i) utilize a consistent and operational conceptualization of adaptation, (ii) focus on comparable units of analysis, (iii) use and develop comprehensive datasets on adaptation action, and (iv) be coherent with our understanding of what constitutes real adaptation. Collectively, these form the 4Cs of adaptation tracking (consistency, comparability, comprehensiveness, and coherency).
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the paper is to assess the impacts of climate change, population growth and economic development on water demand of Yulin city located in Shaanxi Province of northwest China by using system dynamics approach. Total water consumption is divided into different sectors following the technical specification used for the analysis of water supply and demand balance in China. Water demand in each sector is modeled separately to compute the total water demand. System dynamics models for water demand forecasting are developed by considering the environmental (water quality, ecosystem preservation) and socio-economic (population growth, water consumption, policy and management) factors of regional water demand, and their nonlinear interactions with the physical elements of hydrological processes (natural runoff, groundwater recharge). The model is calibrated by using historical data and then applied for forecasting water demand in Yulin city under projected changes in climate, population, and economy. The study reveals that total water demand in Yulin city will increase from approximately 710million-m3 in 2010 to more than 1480million-m3 in 2030. Total water demand under A1B scenario which lies near the high end of the spectrum for future greenhouse gas emissions will be 2.51million-m3 more compared to B1 scenario. This is due to the projection of higher temperature by A1B scenario. It is concluded that Yulin city should adopt water demand management strategy to achieve sustainability in water resources.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Studies assessing impacts of climate change on forests are numerous, but most evaluate potential tree growth for current and future conditions at discrete time intervals, which is generally insufficient for developing short to medium term forest policies and strategies. Analysis of forest growth and yield during the transition period of climate change is essential in supporting forest management activities in the midst of climate change. A gap model (JABOWA-3) was used to quantify the impact of climate change on major commercial tree species native to Nova Scotia, Canada. Tree species were projected to respond differently to the same level of temperature change. Yields from maples (Acer rubrum and saccharum), beech (Fagus grandifolia), and white pine (Pinus strobus) were projected to increase in response to increasing temperatures; whereas, yields from balsam fir (Abies balsamea), eastern larch (Larix laricina), red spruce (Picea rubens), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), and white birch (Betula papyrifera) were projected to decline. Species-specific modifiers of basal area (BA) yield calculated in this study can be used to adjust stand yield predictions. Nine species-specific regression models were developed to facilitate prediction of BA from current conditions as a function of growing degree days increments. Together, yield-modifiers and BA-response models have the potential to help with (1) understanding the climate change patterns of existing yield curves, and (2) development of mitigation and adaptation policies under scenarios of climate changes. This study indicates a general trend of tree-species response to climatic change, and its results should be interpreted with caution taking into account the limitations of model projections.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Over recent decades, there has been increasing levels of research dedicated to assess drivers of farm-level uptake of adaptation strategies to climate change. The main purpose of this research being to determine how policy intervention can most effectively increase adoption. This paper aims to synthesise this past research in order to scale up uptake of farm-level adaptation strategies through a composite index of potential adoption in Africa. In doing so, we review the estimated coefficients of econometric regressions in 42 case studies published in peer-review journals to identify the factors that regularly explain adoption. We find that these common factors can be grouped into seven components, that is human capital, financial resources, infrastructure and technology, social interaction and governance, food security, dependence on agriculture and attitudes towards the environment. Using national-level indicators of these seven categories, we develop a composite index to inform potential adoption and test the robustness of the index in an in-depth sensitivity analysis. The results show that the highest likelihood of adoption of farm-level adaptation strategies is in Northern African countries namely Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria and Morocco and in Southern African countries such as South Africa and Botswana. Conversely, they indicate that the lowest likelihood of adoption is situated in nations of the Sahel and Horn of Africa and in nations that have recently experienced conflict. We conclude that adoption is associated predominantly with governance, civil rights, financial resources and education. However, it is not necessarily driven by the magnitude of climate change impacts on agricultural production.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Low Carbon Society (LCS) has emerged as a holistic approach to reduce carbon (C) emissions that result from human activities. Although there has been successful implementation of the LCS approach in some cities of developed countries, it is more difficult in developing countries like Thailand. The objectives of this paper are to present drivers and barriers affecting the abilities of three regional cities of Thailand to combine LCS activities with their strategies. Lessons learned from this study will allow for sharing these experiences with municipalities in other developing countries. This research was based on interviews of key informants representing state agencies and local public service associations. It was found that no particular driver significantly influenced local government agencies to implement LCS activities. Conversely, there were financial and managerial barriers to implementing (C) reduction activities. This paper identifies the need for more specific and tailor-made assistance to allow urban municipalities to shift towards LCS activities by considering their individual strengths and weaknesses. Moreover, stakeholders’ understanding of the advantages of implementing LCS activities within locally governed areas was found to be critical for success. The paper concludes that climate change mitigation activities not only reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions but also produce tangible benefits such as improvement the quality of life of people. Such an approach can motivate stakeholders to pursue LCS as a shared goal.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12/2014; 19(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Structural changes in the global commodity markets have particularly serious implications to the food security of import-dependent countries. Adapting importation policy to that global change is essential given that many commodities are imported to fulfill domestic demand. Using Singapore as a case study, this paper examines rice (Oryza) import allocation for seeking adaptive measures, which have broad implications to import-dependent countries. Its quarterly trade data (between 1999 and 2008) have been analyzed using an almost ideal demand system (AIDS) model. Our findings in respect to expenditure elasticity reveal that Singapore will continue its importation from its current range of suppliers, and add new import sources, fulfilling its national diversification strategy. New sources that located in different regions will also strengthen Singapore’s regional diversification strategy. Both national and regional diversification strategies enable any country to tap into associative import sources when unfavorable events deplete supply from a normally preferred supplier. In addition, the results in respect to own-price elasticity suggest that Thailand is Singapore’s primary preferred source while other exporters are secondary suppliers. Supported by the outputs of cross-price elasticity, secondary sources are substitutable. Within a diversified import portfolio, their competitive relationship gives an import-dependent country a strategic position to hedge against price manipulation and escalation, and to substitute expensive suppliers with cheaper alternatives. For these reasons, an import diversification policy is recommended both as an adaptive measure in response to the global change in commodity markets and, at the same time, as a mean for sustaining food security in import-dependent countries.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, the relationship between agricultural and energy markets has strengthened. Traditional energy sources have been increasingly replaced by energy from biomass, and this trend is expected to continue into the future. Consequently, an assessment of the efficiency of bioenergy policies requires a comprehensive analysis of both agricultural and energy markets. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impacts of two detailed European Union (EU) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation policies on the utilization of biomass for energy production and the implications for agricultural prices and trade. The consequences of a policy-induced shift from consumption of fossil to renewable energy are assessed under full consideration of interrelations between the energy and agricultural sectors. To this end, we combine an energy system model and an agricultural sector model by establishing a consistent interface between them. Depending on the ambition of the GHG emission reduction scenarios, the results indicate significant price increases. Furthermore, the increase in European demand for energy crops is to a substantial degree covered by additional imports. These results highlight that GHG emission mitigation policies enacted in a large economy like the EU cannot be considered without accounting for indirect effects in the rest of the world. They put the efficiency and also the effectiveness of such policies in general into question.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11/2014;
  • Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Forests have the potential to be a sink in the global carbon (C) budget and thus play an important role in mitigating climate change. However, large-scale management of forests to their sink potential requires understanding of factors responsible for changes in forest C stocks. In this paper, we quantify the effects of initial forest landscape condition and disturbance rates on landscape-level changes in forest C stocks using predictions for managed forests in Ontario, Canada. Ten-year changes in C stocks in public forests managed for wood fibre production were simulated under four scenarios reflecting the range of volume harvested between 1998 and 2007. Changes in forest C stocks varied across Ontario and with harvest rate, resulting in the forest ranging from being a source of 0.767 tC ha-1 year−1 to a sink of 0.656 tC ha−1 year−1. Simulation results were used to develop a predictive equation explaining over 93 % of the variation in forest C stocks. Variables included in the equation, in descending order of their effect on changes in forest C stocks, were relative harvest rate, forest growth rate, natural disturbance rate, and initial forest C stocks. A reduced equation, including only the first three variables, explained nearly 89 % of the variation in forest C stocks. The results indicate that short-term changes in C stocks depend on initial forest condition and that there are limits to how much these changes can be manipulated by altering harvest and disturbance rates.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Making the concept of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) ready to be a mechanism to combat tropical deforestation and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by compensating developing countries for income foregone in reducing their rates of deforestation, requires solutions for outstanding controversies. Existing opinions on REDD+ vary greatly. By using the Q-method as part of an action research approach, this paper investigates experts’ attitudes towards REDD+. Based on their responses to 41 statements, four attitudinal groups were identified, characterized as pragmatists, sceptics, conventionalists and optimists. Opinions between groups differed as to the level of application, credibility, eligibility, economic effectiveness, and public acceptability of REDD+ policy instruments. Three of the four groups were supportive of international REDD+ type policy interventions, but there was disagreement on the more concrete design issues of REDD+ projects, such as the allocation of responsibilities, the distribution of burdens and benefits, and whether or not co-benefits could be expected, or should be required. As the potential of REDD+ is shaped not only by international climate policy but also by national and regional policies and stakeholder perceptions, this paper suggests that participatory forms of decision-making may help to develop tailor-made solutions that are supported by the many different actors that are necessarily involved in REDD+ projects.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 08/2014; 19(6).
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    ABSTRACT: In topographically diverse highland terrain, socio-economic and environmental conditions can vary dramatically over relatively short distances. This presents a challenge for climate resilient development strategies, as exposure to climate variability and change, climate impacts, and adaptive capacity differ between communities located within common cultural and administrative units. The Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) framed within the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) vulnerability framework (LVI-IPCC) offers a tool to assess climate vulnerability through direct household surveys. This makes it particularly appropriate for analyses at sub-community and community scales. Here we apply the LVI-IPCC to communities of Choke Mountain, located in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. Recognizing the physiographic and climatic diversity that exists in this mountainous environment, we implement LVI-IPCC analysis for 793 mixed croplivestock farming households using the five distinct agroecological systems (AES) that compose the populated area of Choke Mountain as a framework for analysis. For each AES, an LVI index, adaptive capacity metric, and LVI-IPCC vulnerability score was calculated. We found that each of these metrics varied systematically across AES. High elevation sloping lands and low elevation steep lands exhibited relatively low adaptive capacity and high vulnerability while midland AES had higher capacity and lower vulnerability. These results suggest that resilience building interventions for Choke Mountain ecosystems should be targeted to address the specific circumstances of each AES. The approach of applying LVIIPCC at AES scale could be applicable to other climate vulnerable mountainous regions.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 07/2014; Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change.