Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (PROSTATE CANCER P D)

Publisher: Nature Publishing Group

Journal description

Covers current developments relating to all aspects of prostate cancer research.

Current impact factor: 2.83

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.83
2012 Impact Factor 2.811
2011 Impact Factor 2.421
2010 Impact Factor 2.263
2009 Impact Factor 2.096
2008 Impact Factor 2.062
2007 Impact Factor 2.024
2006 Impact Factor 1.81
2005 Impact Factor 1.143
2004 Impact Factor 1.144
2003 Impact Factor 0.685
2002 Impact Factor 0.459
2001 Impact Factor 0.497
2000 Impact Factor 0.646
1999 Impact Factor 0.583
1998 Impact Factor 0.312

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.26
Cited half-life 5.10
Immediacy index 0.48
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.77
Website Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases website
Other titles Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases (Online)
ISSN 1365-7852
OCLC 42458934
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Nature Publishing Group

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    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
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    • 6 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Authors retain copyright
    • Published source must be acknowledged and DOI cited
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's personal website and institutional repository
    • If funding agency rules apply, authors may post authors version to their relevant funding body's archive, 6 months after publication
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Nature Publishing Group'
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Owing to efficacy and tolerability, abiraterone acetate (AA) is a leading treatment for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Increased serum concentrations of AA, such as by taking AA with food, may lead to the inhibition of additional enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway implicated in castration-resistant prostate cancer progression. Medical records of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who received AA between 1 April 2011 and 31 December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the percent of men with a rising PSA on AA who experienced any PSA decline within 3 months after changing the administration of AA from without food to with food. Secondary outcomes were median time on AA therapy in men who received AA therapy without food versus those that switched administration from without food to with food at PSA progression, and the percent of men who experienced any decline in serum testosterone concentration, and the rate of adverse events observed while taking AA with food. Nineteen men who switched AA administration from without food to with food and 41 patients who administered AA without food only were included in the study. Of those patients who took AA with food at PSA progression, a PSA decline was observed in 3 of the 19 (16%) men, including 3 of the 14 men who had an initial response to AA (21%). Testosterone declined in five out of seven patients from pre-food levels. The median time on AA therapy was increased by nearly 100 days in patients who switched AA administration from without food to with food. No increases in toxicity were observed. Some men with mCRPC may benefit from taking AA with food. Further prospective comparative studies are needed to determine if changing AA administration is beneficial.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 17 March 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.7.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 03/2015; DOI:10.1038/pcan.2015.7
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    ABSTRACT: Permanent radioactive seed implantation provides highly effective treatment for prostate cancer that typically includes multidisciplinary collaboration between urologists and radiation oncologists. Low dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy offers excellent tumor control rates and has equivalent rates of rectal toxicity when compared with external beam radiotherapy. Owing to its proximity to the anterior rectal wall, a small portion of the rectum is often exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation from this procedure. Although rare, some patients develop transfusion-dependent rectal bleeding, ulcers or fistulas. These complications occasionally require permanent colostomy and thus can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. Aside from proper technique, a promising strategy has emerged that can help avoid these complications. By injecting biodegradable materials behind Denonviller's fascia, brachytherpists can increase the distance between the rectum and the radioactive sources to significantly decrease the rectal dose. This review summarizes the progress in this area and its applicability for use in combination with permanent LDR brachytherapy.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 17 February 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.4.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/pcan.2015.4
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Ketoconazole is a well-known CYP17-targeted systemic treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, most of the published data has been in the pre-chemotherapy setting; its efficacy in the post-chemotherapy setting has not been as widely described. Chemotherapy-naïve patients treated with attenuated doses of ketoconazole (200-300 mg three times daily) had PSA response rate (>50% decline) of 21-62%. We hypothesized that low-dose ketoconazole would likewise possess efficacy and tolerability in the CRPC post-chemotherapy state.Methods:Men with CRPC and performance status 0-3, adequate organ function and who had received prior docetaxel were treated with low-dose ketoconazole (200 mg orally three times daily) and hydrocortisone (20 mg PO qAM and 10 mg PO qPM) until disease progression. Primary endpoint was PSA response rate (>50% reduction from baseline) where a rate of 25% was to be considered promising for further study (versus a null rate of <5%); 25 patients were required. Secondary endpoints included PSA response >30% from baseline, progression-free survival (PFS), duration of stable disease and evaluation of adverse events (AEs).Results:Thirty patients were accrued with median age of 72 years (range 55-86) and median pre-treatment PSA of 73 ng ml(-1) (range 7-11,420). Twenty-nine patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. PSA response (>50% reduction) was seen in 48% of patients; PSA response (>30% reduction) was seen in 59%. Median PFS was 138 days; median duration of stable disease was 123 days. Twelve patients experienced grade 3 or 4 AEs. Of the 17 grade 3 AEs, only 3 were attributed to treatment. None of the two grade 4 AEs were considered related to treatment.Conclusions:In docetaxel pre-treated CRPC patients, low-dose ketoconazole and hydrocortisone is a well-tolerated, relatively inexpensive and clinically active treatment option. PSA response to low-dose ketoconazole appears historically comparable to that of abiraterone in this patient context. A prospective, randomized study of available post-chemotherapy options is warranted to assess comparative efficacy.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 10 February 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.2.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/pcan.2015.2
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Conflicting evidence exists regarding the beneficial effects of metformin in prostate cancer. To determine the association between metformin and clinical outcomes in prostate cancer using systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Original articles published in English until third week of July, 2014 were searched in electronic databases (Medline-Ovid, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest) for studies on metformin use in prostate cancer. The clinical outcomes assessed were: development of biochemical recurrence, metastases or castration-resistant metastatic cancer, all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled hazard ratio (pHR) and their 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Heterogeneity between the studies was examined using I2 statistics. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of findings and publication bias was assessed by the Egger’s regression asymmetry test and contour plot. Results: Out of 230 retrieved citations, eight retrospective cohort studies and one nested-case-control study met the inclusion criteria. Metformin use was marginally associated with reduction in the risk of biochemical recurrence (pHR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.01, P-value=0.06, I2=25%, five studies). Metformin use was not significantly associated with metastases (pHR: 0.59, 95% 0.30–1.18, P-value=0.14, I2=74%, three studies), all-cause mortality (pHR: 0.86; 95% CI, 0.67, 1.10, P-value=0.23, I2: 73%, six studies) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (pHR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.33, P-value = 0.33, I2=60%, four studies). Pooled estimates for all outcomes varied in sensitivity analysis by diabetes status and primary treatment of prostate cancer. Systematic review revealed mixed findings on metformin use and the risk of CRPC. Conclusions: Metformin may reduce the risk of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. Given the potential of selection bias in the observational studies, randomized trials should be designed to assess the efficacy of metformin use in prostate cancer.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.52
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    ABSTRACT: Background:In an era of personalized medicine, individualized risk assessment using easily available tools on the internet and the literature are appealing. However, uninformed use by clinicians and the public raises potential problems. Herein, we assess the performance of published models to predict insignificant prostate cancer (PCa), using a multi-national low-risk population that may be considered for active surveillance (AS) based on contemporary practice.Methods:Data on men suitable for AS but undergoing upfront radical prostatectomy were pooled from three international academic institutions in Cambridge (UK), Toronto (Canada) and Melbourne (Australia). Four predictive models identified from literature review were assessed for their ability to predict the presence of four definitions of insignificant PCa. Evaluation was performed using area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curves and Brier scores for discrimination, calibration curves and decision curve analysis.Results:A cohort of 460 men meeting the inclusion criteria of all four nomograms was identified. The highest AUCs calculated for any of the four models ranged from 0.618 to 0.664, suggesting weak positive discrimination at best. Models had best discriminative ability for a definition of insignificant disease characterized by organ-confined Gleason score ⩽6 with a total volume ⩽0.5 ml or 1.3 ml. Calibration plots showed moderate range of predictive ability for the Kattan model though this model did not perform well at decision curve analysis.Conclusions:External assessment of models predicting insignificant PCa showed moderate performance at best. Uninformed interpretation may cause undue anxiety or false reassurance and they should be used with caution.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 10 February 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.1.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/pcan.2015.1
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) is increasingly advocated for prostate cancer detection. There are limited reports of its use in the setting of radiorecurrent disease. Our aim was to assess mp-MRI for detection of radiorecurrent prostate cancer and examine the added value of its functional sequences.Methods:Thirty-seven men with mean age of 69.7 (interquartile range, 66-74) with biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy underwent mp-MRI (T2-weighted, high b-value, multi-b-value apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging); then transperineal systematic template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy. Using a locked sequential read paradigm (with the sequence order above), two experienced radiologists independently reported mp-MRI studies using score 1-5. Radiologist scores were matched with TPM histopathology at the hemigland level (n=74). Accuracy statistics were derived for each reader. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa statistics.Results:Receiver-operator characteristic area under curve (AUC) for readers 1 and 2 increased from 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-0.80) to 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.91) and from 0.67 (95% CI, 0.55-0.80) to 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76-0.93), respectively, between T2-weighted imaging alone and full mp-MRI reads. Addition of ADC maps and DCE imaging to the examination did not significantly improve AUC for either reader (P=0.08 and 0.47 after adding ADC, P=0.90 and 0.27 after adding DCE imaging) compared with T2+high b-value review. Inter-reader agreement increased from k=0.39 to k=0.65 between T2 and full mp-MRI review.Conclusions:mp-MRI can detect radiorecurrent prostate cancer. The optimal examination included T2-weighted imaging and high b-value DWI; adding ADC maps and DCE imaging did not significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 3 February 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.55.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.55
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    ABSTRACT: Background:The diffusion of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) in the United States may have led to adverse patient outcomes due to rapid surgeon adoption and collective inexperience. We hypothesized that throughout the early period of minimally invasive surgery, MIRP patients had inferior outcomes as compared with those who had open radical prostatectomy (ORP).Methods:We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare dataset and identified men who had ORP and MIRP for prostate cancer from 2003-2009. Study endpoints were receipt of subsequent cancer treatment, and evidence of postoperative voiding dysfunction, erectile dysfunction (ED) and bladder outlet obstruction. We used proportional hazards regression to estimate the impact of surgical approach on each endpoint, and included an interaction term to test for modification of the effect of surgical approach by year of surgery.Results:ORP (n=5362) and MIRP (n=1852) patients differed in their clinical and demographic characteristics. Controlling for patient characteristics and surgeon volume, there was no difference in subsequent cancer treatments (hazard ratio (HR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.05), although MIRP was associated with a higher risk of voiding dysfunction (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43) and ED (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.31-1.56), but a lower risk of bladder outlet obstruction (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.97). There was no interaction between approach and year for any outcome. When stratifying the analysis by year, MIRP consistently had higher rates of ED and voiding dysfunction with no substantial improvement over time.Conclusions:MIRP patients had adverse urinary and sexual outcomes throughout the diffusion of minimally invasive surgery. This may have been a result of the rapid adoption of robotic surgery with inadequate surgeon preparedness.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 16 December 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.49.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 12/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.49
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    ABSTRACT: Background:To examine whether diagnostic biopsy (B1), for patients on active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer, performed at an outside referral centre (external) compared with our in-house tertiary center (internal), increased the risk of re-classification on the second (confirmatory) biopsy (B2).Methods:Patients on AS were identified from our tertiary center database (1997-2012) with PSA<10, Gleason sum (GS) ⩽6, clinical stage ⩽cT2, ⩽3 positive cores, <50% of single core involved, age ⩽75 years and having a B2. Patients who had <10 cores at B1 and delay in B2 >24 mo were excluded. Depending on center where B1 was performed, men were dichotomized to internal or external groups. All B2 were performed internally. Multivariate logistic regression examined if external B1 was a predictor of re-classification at B2.Results:A total of 375 patients were divided into external (n=71, 18.9%) and internal groups (n=304, 81.1%). At B2, more men in the external group re-classified (26.8%) compared with the internal group (13.8%)(P=0.008). On multivariate analysis, external B1 predicted grade-related re-classification (odds ratio (OR) 4.14, confidence interval (CI) 2.01-8.54, P<0.001) and volume-related re-classification (OR 3.43, CI 1.87-6.25, P<0.001). Other significant predictors for grade-related re-classification were age (OR 2.13 per decade, CI 1.32-3.57, P<0.001), PSA density (OR 2.56 per unit, CI 1.44-4.73, P<0.001), maximum % core involvement (OR 1.04 per percentage point, CI 1.01-1.09, P=0.02) and time between B1 and B2 (OR 1.43 per 6 months, CI 1.21-1.71, P<0.001).Conclusion:At our institution, patients on AS who had their initial B1 performed externally were more likely to have adverse pathological features and re-classify on internal B2.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 9 December 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.48.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 12/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.48
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    ABSTRACT: Background:To determine the effect of statins and metformin in combination on biochemical recurrence (BCR) among diabetic men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).Methods:Diabetic men undergoing RP at our institution from January 1995 to March 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Recipients of adjuvant radiation or hormonal therapy were excluded. Statin and/or metformin use was determined through review of electronic records. BCR-free survival was plotted using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the effect of statins and metformin on BCR was assessed via a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.Results:Seven hundred and sixty-seven men met the inclusion criteria. Seventy-six (9.9%) were users of statins only, 56 (7.3%) were users of metformin only and 42 (5.5%) were dual users. Median follow-up time was 27 months. Dual users were less likely than nonusers or users of either medication alone to have a biopsy Gleason sum of 8-10 (P=0.033), and tended towards a lower rate of pathological T stage of pT3 or higher (P=0.064). Dual users had the highest 2-year and 5-year BCR-free survival, although this was not statistically significant (P=0.205). On multivariate regression, neither statin nor metformin use alone was significantly associated with BCR-free survival. However, their interaction led to a significantly lower BCR risk than would be expected from each medication's independent effects (hazard ratio=0.2; P=0.037).Conclusions:The combination of statins and metformin in men undergoing RP for prostate cancer (PCa) may be associated with a lower BCR risk than would be predicted based on the independent effects of both medications. A synergism between these two agents is biologically plausible based on our current understanding of their diverse molecular pathways of action. The results of future clinical trials involving the use of either medication in men with PCa should be carefully assessed for confirmatory evidence of such a relationship.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.47.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 11/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.47
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Partner of SLD5 1 (PSF1) is an evolutionarily conserved DNA replication factor. Previous studies have suggested that transcriptional activity of the PSF1 gene correlated with malignancy of cancer cells. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between PSF1 expression and the clinical features of prostate cancer.Methods:We determined the expression of PSF1 in 120 needle biopsy samples of prostate cancer by immunohistochemistry. We divided patients into PSF1-positive or -negative groups and analyzed the relationships between the expression of PSF1, the Gleason score, PSA level, TNM classification and prognosis.Results:Our results showed that the PSF1 expression correlated significantly with PSA values at diagnosis (P=0.0028), with tumor grade (P<0.0001), and with clinical stage (P=0.0005). Moreover, the PSF1 expression correlated significantly with overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-15.8; P=0.003) and progression-free survival in 99 consecutive patients with prostate cancer. Noteworthy, the prognosis of PSF1-positive cases was also worse in patients with a Gleason score of 8-10 (HR 3.7; 95% CI 1.28-13.43; P=0.0143). Limitations include that this study had a retrospective design, that patients in the study were heterogeneous and included those with early and advanced cancer, and that small tumor fragments may not be representative of the entire carcinoma.Conclusions:PSF1 is expressed in high-grade prostate cancer and may be a useful biomarker to identify patients with a poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.46.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 11/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.46
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    ABSTRACT: Background:The role of global DNA methylation in prostate cancer (PCa) remains largely unknown. Our aim was to summarize evidence on the role of global DNA hypomethylation in PCa development and progression.Methods:We searched PubMed through December 2013 for all studies containing information on global methylation levels in PCa tissue and at least one non-tumor comparison tissue and/or studies reporting association between global methylation levels in PCa tissue and survival, disease recurrence or at least one clinicopathological prognostic factor. We summarized results using non-parametric comparisons and P-value summary methods.Results:We included 15 studies in the review: 6 studies with both diagnostic and prognostic information, 5 studies with only diagnostic information and 4 studies with only prognostic information. Quantitative meta-analysis was not possible because of the large heterogeneity in molecular techniques, types of tissues analyzed, aims and study designs. Summary statistical tests showed association of DNA hypomethylation with PCa diagnosis (P<0.006) and prognosis (P<0.001). Restriction to studies assessing 5-methylcytosine or long interspersed nucleotide element-1 revealed results in the same direction. Analyses restricted to specific clinicopathological features showed association with the presence of metastasis and tumor stage in all tests with P<0.03, and no association with Gleason score (all tests P>0.1 except for the weighted Z-test, P=0.05).Conclusion:DNA hypomethylation was associated with PCa development and progression. However, due to the heterogeneity and small sample sizes of the included studies, along with the possibility of publication bias, this association requires additional assessment.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.45.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 11/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.45
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Multiple phase-2 trials in men with biochemically-recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC) have assessed the impact of nonhormonal agents on PSA kinetics. We have previously demonstrated that changes in PSA kinetics correlate with metastasis-free survival; however, it is unknown whether these changes also correlate with overall survival (OS).METHODS:We performed a combined retrospective analysis of 146 men with BRPC treated on phase-2 trials using one of four investigational drugs: lenalidomide (n=60), marimastat (n=39), ATN-224 (n=22) and imatinib (n=25). We examined factors influencing OS, including within-subject changes in PSA kinetics (PSA slope, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity), before and 6 months after treatment initiation.RESULTS:After a median follow-up of 83.1 months, 49 of 146 men had died. In univariate Cox regression analysis, two factors were associated with OS: baseline PSA velocity and change in PSA velocity on therapy. In a landmark multivariable model, stratified by study (which controlled for age, Gleason score, type of local therapy and use of androgen-deprivation therapy prior to metastases), baseline PSA velocity and increase in PSA velocity on therapy remained independent predictors of OS. Median OS for men with an increase in PSA velocity on treatment was 115.4 months and was not reached for men with a decrease in PSA velocity (hazard ratio=0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.88; P=0.02).CONCLUSIONS:This hypothesis-generating study suggests that within-subject changes in PSA velocity after initiation of nonhormonal therapy may correlate with OS in men with BRPC. If validated in prospective trials, change in PSA velocity may represent a reasonable intermediate end point for screening new agents in these patients.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.44.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 11/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.44
  • Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 11/2014; 18(1):43-48. DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.43
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    ABSTRACT: Background:To examine the impact of race on treatment regret among men with recurrent prostate cancer after surgery or radiation.Methods:The prospective Comprehensive, Observational, Multicenter, Prostate Adenocarcinoma (COMPARE) registry was used to study a cohort of 484 men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation or brachytherapy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association between race and treatment regret and to determine whether there was an interaction between race and sexual problems after treatment with regards to treatment regret.Results:Black men (N=78) were significantly more likely to have treatment regret when compared with non-black men (N=406; 21.8% versus 12.6%) on univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR) 1.94; 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.56; P=0.03). On multivariable analysis, black race trended towards but was no longer significantly associated with an increase in treatment regret (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.84 (0.95-3.58); P=0.071). There was an interaction between race and sexual problems after treatment (Pinteraction=0.02) such that among those without sexual problems, black men had more treatment regret than non-black men (26.7% versus 8.4%: AOR 4.68 (1.73-12.63); P=0.002), whereas among those with sexual problems, there was no difference in treatment regret between black and non-black men (18.8% versus 17.3%: AOR 1.04 (0.44-2.46); P=0.93).Conclusions:Among men with recurrent prostate cancer after surgery or radiation, black men were nearly twice as likely to experience treatment regret. Treating physicians should ensure that patients are fully apprised of the pros and cons of all treatment options to reduce the risk of subsequent regret.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 28 October 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.42.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 10/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.42
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The significance of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) remains controversial, and the association of LVI with biochemical relapse was investigated in men treated with radical prostatectomy according to pathological results.METHODS:Data from 1268 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathological variables were compared between LVI-negative and LVI-positive patients. Multivariate analyses by Cox proportional hazard model and Kaplan-Meier method were performed to identify risk factors for biochemical relapse in all patients, patients with pT2N0 and pT2N0 negative resection margin (RM).RESULTS:LVI information was available in 1160 cases, and LVI was seen in 121 cases (10.4%). Clinicopathological variables were significantly worse in LVI-positive patients than in LVI-negative patients. On multivariate analyses, PSA⩾10 ng ml(-1), pathological Gleason score ⩾8, pathological T stage ⩾3, lymph node metastasis, positive RM and LVI were independent predictors for biochemical relapse in all patients. In patients with pT2N0, PSA⩾10 ng ml(-1), pathological Gleason score ⩾8, positive RM and LVI were independent predictors for biochemical relapse. In patients with pT2N0 negative RM, LVI and pathological Gleason score ⩾8 were independent predictors for biochemical relapse (LVI; hazard ratio 3.809, 95% confidence interval 1.900-7.635, P-value<0.001, Gleason score ⩾8; hazard ratio 2.189, 95% confidence interval 1.199-3.999, P-value=0.011). With a median follow-up of 50 months, 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival in patients with pT2N0 negative RM was 95.7% in those with negative LVI in comparison to 85.3% in those with positive LVI (P<0.001, log rank).CONCLUSIONS:LVI was consistently a significant predictor for biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy in not only all patients but also in patients with pT2N0 and pT2N0 negative RM. These results strongly support the significance of LVI as a predictor for biochemical relapse.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 21 October 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.40.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 10/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.40
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    ABSTRACT: Background:During the last 30 years, there has been a major shift in initial staging in prostate cancer (CaP) in Western countries, with the incidence of metastases at diagnosis decreasing from over 50% in the 1970s to currently less than 10%. Yet, CaP is still the second cause of cancer death in men. We used two monthly curated databases of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to describe the natural history of patients dying of CaP in the modern era.Methods:The outcome of 190 men with metastatic CRPC treated from 2008 to 2011 was studied. The characteristics of the patients who died from CaP (n=113 patients, 61%) were analyzed.Results:All 113 patients who died of CaP were assessable for the presence of metastases at diagnosis. Sixty-three patients (56%) had detectable metastases at diagnosis: 67%, 11% and 43% had bone, visceral and lymph node metastases, respectively. The median time to CRPC was 16 months and median overall survival (OS) was 5.2 years.Among the patients with localized CaP at diagnosis (n=50, 44%), 46% had T stage⩾3 and 38% had a Gleason score⩾8. Overall, 64% of patients were classified as having a high-risk CaP. Only 26% who died from CaP had a Gleason score⩽6. Median OS was 8.8 years.Conclusions:In the modern era, approximately half of the patients who die from CaP have metastases at diagnosis. The paradigm of progression from localized disease to metastasis and eventually death is only represented in the other half, although possible initial screening and staging errors ought to be taken into consideration. More efforts are needed to conduct trials in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic CaP.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 14 October 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.35.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 10/2014; DOI:10.1038/pcan.2014.35