Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

The Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics has become established among pharmacists in various disciplines and areas of specialization as a forum for the communication of significant developments in clinical and hospital pharmacy. Its scope embraces: the manufacture, quality control and formulation of medicines; drug information services; pharmacokinetics; radiopharmacy; organisation and management of the hospital pharmacy; drug distribution systems including unit dose systems; clinical pharmacy education; all other aspects of clinical pharmacy.

Current impact factor: 1.53

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.533
2012 Impact Factor 2.104
2011 Impact Factor 1.57
2010 Impact Factor 1.649
2009 Impact Factor 1.671
2008 Impact Factor 1.755
2007 Impact Factor 1.364
2006 Impact Factor 0.966
2005 Impact Factor 1.164
2004 Impact Factor 0.984
2003 Impact Factor 1.157
2002 Impact Factor 1.324
2001 Impact Factor 1.245
2000 Impact Factor 0.902
1999 Impact Factor 0.409
1998 Impact Factor 0.529
1997 Impact Factor 0.431
1996 Impact Factor 0.355
1995 Impact Factor 0.328
1994 Impact Factor 0.442
1993 Impact Factor 0.437
1992 Impact Factor 0.281

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.91
Cited half-life 6.30
Immediacy index 0.47
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.51
Website Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics website
Other titles Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics (Online), Journal of clinical pharmacy & therapeutics
ISSN 1365-2710
OCLC 45469824
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obstetrics services are a high-throughput and high-risk environment poised for pharmacist involvement, but determining how to ideally allocate services is difficult. There is recent interest in the development of tools for service prioritization, but none are specifically targeted to obstetrics. Therefore, the aim of this study was (i) to conduct a practice audit surveying the demographics of patients attending obstetrics wards at a high-capacity maternity hospital; and (ii) to evaluate a triage tool developed to prioritize pharmacy services. A retrospective case review of women discharged after birth admissions was undertaken at a hospital in National Health Service (NHS) Scotland during June 2014. Demographic and admission data were collected, as well as pharmacist interventions and missed opportunities in patient care on post-natal wards. A pharmacy triage tool was developed and retrospectively applied to each case to ascertain a risk category that would trigger and target pharmacist review. Interventions/opportunities were classified as either clinical (medication related) or administrative (potential for error development). One hundred and seventy-five cases were reviewed with a median age of 29 years old. Eighty-six patients (49·1%) were retrospectively classified with elevated risk using the triage tool. A total of 117 charts (66·9%) were identified with missed opportunities for pharmacist intervention, which was significantly greater among patients classified as higher risk (75·6 vs. 58·4%, P = 0·017). Compared to low-risk patients, patients with a higher-risk classification had lower rates of administrative missed opportunities (55·4 vs. 80·8%, P = 0·015), but numerically higher rates of clinical (26·2 vs. 9·6%, p=NS) and mixed clinical/administrative (18·5 vs. 9·6%, p=NS) missed opportunities, although this failed to reach statistical significance. Evaluation of a triage tool for obstetric services demonstrated potential for prioritizing higher-risk patients for pharmacist review and addressing opportunities for clinical improvements. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12301
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    ABSTRACT: Despite extensive warfarin use, optimal management of subtherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs) remains unclear. This study assessed the differences in bridging practices among pharmacists with varying levels of experience, residency training and prescribing privileges. An electronic survey was distributed to two ambulatory care pharmacist e-mail lists. Respondents indicated if they would utilize parenteral anticoagulation bridging in 16 clinical scenarios at three therapeutic time points. The scenarios included patients with atrial fibrillation (AFib) (CHADS2 score of 3-4), AFib (CHADS2 score of 5-6) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). The AFib time points were as follows: anticoagulation initiation, early phase (<1 month) and maintenance phase (>1 month). VTE time points included early phase (<1 month), months 2-3 and maintenance phase (>3 months). The survey was completed by 143 respondents. In only three of the scenarios did >50% of respondents indicate they would utilize parenteral anticoagulation bridging. No statistically significant differences in bridging practices were identified between pharmacists providing anticoagulation services in different clinic settings. However, there were significant differences in bridging practices between pharmacists with varying levels of experience, residency training and prescribing privileges in some, but not all of the scenarios. The standards of care for subtherapeutic INRs warrant further definition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12300
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is one report on the possible reduced clearance of methotrexate in an adult patient when given concomitantly with imatinib, there is little information on the possible pharmacokinetic interaction. We report on three cases of delayed elimination of methotrexate in children with chromosome Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated concomitantly with imatinib. Three patients, aged 9-17 years, presented with high methotrexate blood levels following co-administration of imatinib and high-dose methotrexate. Two patients presented with clinical symptoms (nausea, epigastric pain and mucositis, acute renal failure, liver cytolysis). One patient required extra supplementary folinic acid doses than used in the standard protocol and one child required the use of carboxypeptidase-G2. There is an apparent pharmacokinetic interaction between imatinib and methotrexate in children. Several mechanisms could explain this interaction, including competition for BCRP or ABCB transporters. Temporary withdrawal of imatinib may be necessary for preventing severe methotrexate-related adverse events. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12298
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This provides a clear rationale for antifungal prophylaxis in this population. A concern is the potential for drug interactions, given that most of antifungals are metabolized through the P450 cytochrome system. We present a case of a 33-year-old woman, with a past history of high-risk epilepsy, who underwent allogeneic HSCT for a myelodysplastic syndrome. Anidulafungin was successfully used as antifungal prophylaxis to minimize drug interactions with her antiepileptic treatment. This is the first reported case of antifungal prophylaxis with this echinocandin in HSCT. Anidulafungin may be an option in transplant recipients with multiple risk factors for drug interactions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12299
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    ABSTRACT: Intensive chemotherapy for treatment of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) - a high-grade lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) - can cause neurotoxicity. An association between motor neurone disease (MND) and LPDs has previously been described, but there is a lack of recommendations available to guide management of such patients. This report aims to describe suitable management of BL in a patient with MND. A 66-year-old woman with a history of MND affecting her limbs was diagnosed with bulky, extranodal, high-risk gastric BL. Standard chemotherapy is with multiple non-cross-resistant cytotoxic agents. To avoid exacerbation of neuropathy, six cycles of a modified regimen was planned, aiming to minimize exposure to the most neurotoxic agents. A PET-FDG-negative remission was obtained at 12 months, without the signs of central neurotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy or muscle weakness. High-intensity chemotherapy, minimizing known neurotoxic agents, was delivered safely and effectively in a patient with BL and pre-existing MND. More case descriptions are required to guide management decisions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12293
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that mismanagement of intravenous (IV) fluid therapy may cause serious complications. The 2013 NICE guideline on intravenous fluid therapy in hospitalized adults also emphasizes the importance of appropriate prescribing of IV fluid. So far, no systematic review of the incidence and types of inappropriate prescribing of IV fluid has been conducted. Therefore, this study was undertaken to review the research literature on inappropriate prescribing of IV fluid in adult patients and develop corresponding strategies for improving practice. A comprehensive literature search was performed. Critical appraisals were conducted on the articles drawn from the search, and an analysis was performed on the results. Incorrect volumes and types of IV fluids prescribed, classified as misprescribing, was the most common type of inappropriate prescribing. Commonly, patients on IV fluid therapy were prescribed a greater volume of fluid and amount of sodium in excess of normal requirements. Doctors did not always check the body weight, serum electrolyte level and serum creatinine before prescribing IV fluid for patients. The other common type of inappropriate prescribing was incomplete/incorrect prescription writing. These common inappropriate prescribing of IV fluid could be caused by insufficient knowledge and training of the prescribers. In addition, the ignorance of the importance of IV fluid prescribing also contributed to this behaviour. There is an urgent need to make doctors aware of these problems and enhance appropriate training on IV fluid prescribing, especially on the appropriate volume and amount of electrolytes. Pharmacists could exert a role in reviewing the fluid prescription chart for improving clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12295
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    ABSTRACT: What is known and objectiveCerebral systemic thrombolysis (i.v. thrombolysis) with tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only proven medical therapy for ischaemic stroke. The use of i.v. thrombolysis up to 4·5 h from stroke onset was approved in certain countries in 2008, but its safety and efficacy have not been fully determined to date. Objective: To assess the long-term outcome and complication rate of i.v. thrombolysis performed in the extended ‘time window’.Methods The study included 403 ischaemic stroke patients consecutively treated with i.v. thrombolysis from 2006 to 2012 at three comprehensive stroke centres in Poland. The long-term outcome and the haemorrhagic complications' (HC) rate were compared between subgroups of patients treated within 3 vs. 3–4·5 h from stroke onset.Results and discussionAbout 132 (32·75%) patients were treated between 3 and 4·5 h from stroke onset. Neurological deficits tended to be more severe in patients treated ≤3 than in those treated 3–4·5 h (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS 12 vs.10 points; P = 0·053); however, the ratio of patients with a favourable outcome (mRS 0–2 points) and mortality did not differ between the two groups (53·9 vs. 58·3, P = 0·39 and 17·7 vs. 21·2, P = 0·39, respectively). The rate of HC also did not differ between the two groups (18·8% vs. 15·1%, P = 0·46).What is new and conclusionThe efficacy of i.v. thrombolysis routinely performed in an extended ‘time window’ is not reduced when compared to procedures performed within 3 h from symptom onset.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12292
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    ABSTRACT: What is known and objectiveNeuropathic pain is a common disorder for which patients seek treatment. The most common causes of neuropathic pain are diabetes, herpetic infection and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Oral administration of amitriptyline has traditionally been used for treating neuropathic pain; however, it has dose-related anticholinergic effects, which may limit its use in some individuals. Pharmacotherapeutic agents that are commonly used to treat neuropathic pain include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids and opioid-like substances, and topical medications. The objective of this paper is to review the effectiveness of topical amitriptyline in patients with neuropathic pain.Methods We utilized the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to provide a systematic and transparent reporting method. The literature search was performed using PubMed (1966 through October 2014) applying the MeSH ‘amitriptyline’ and ‘drug administration, topical’ and ‘neuropathy’. Web of Science (1945 through October 2014) was searched using the text words ‘amitriptyline’ and ‘neuropathy’. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were scanned for relevant articles. Cochrane databases were also searched for methods to treat neuropathic pain. Broad subject headings, including ‘neuropathic pain’, were used to search the database for review articles. All data sources in English and in humans were considered for inclusion.Results and discussionTopical application of amitriptyline has the theoretical advantage of local effects with fewer systemic side effects. The clinical trials and case reports describing the use of topical amitriptyline we reviewed show mixed results concerning the efficacy and the presence of adverse reactions. Controlled clinical trials reveal that topical amitriptyline is not effective in treating neuropathic pain. The uncontrolled clinical trials did support efficacy of topical amitriptyline; however, the data from these trials may be biased due to the nature of the study design. Finally, there have been several case reports that claim patients achieved pain relief with the use of topical amitriptyline. Data from these cases are limited due to the fact that there were no controls to which the amitriptyline treatments could be compared, and the majority of the patients in these cases were on other analgesics.What is new and conclusionAlthough there are reports that describe the benefits of topical amitriptyline for neuropathic pain, data from evidence-based controlled clinical trials do not support efficacy in patients who use topical amitriptyline for neuropathic pain control.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12297
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is a debilitating complication of brucellosis and how best to treat this is a matter of debate. Inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of both brucellosis and depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that celecoxib could be beneficial for the treatment of depression due to brucellosis. Forty outpatients with depression due to brucellosis with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score (HDRS) <19 participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and underwent 8 weeks of treatment with either celecoxib (200 mg bid) or placebo as an adjunctive to antibiotic therapy. Patients were evaluated using HDRS at baseline and weeks 4 and 8. Repeated-measures analysis demonstrated significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HDRS score [F (1·43, 57·41) = 37·22, P < 0·001]. Significantly greater response to treatment occurred in the celecoxib group than in the placebo group at the study end [10 patients (50%) vs. no patient (0%), respectively, P < 0·001]. No serious adverse event was observed. Celecoxib is a safe and effective treatment for depression due to brucellosis when compared with placebo. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12287
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotics are the most frequently used drugs in hospitalized patients, but studies have shown that the prescribed antibiotics may be inappropriate and may contribute to antibiotic resistance. We carried out a survey of antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance in our tertiary care university hospital, from 2005 to 2013. We focus on cephalosporins, one of the most prescribed groups of antibiotics in the tertiary health care. The objective was to identify any relationship between ceftriaxone consumption and resistance by enterobacteria. Antibiotics consumption and antimicrobial resistance were monitored in the tertiary care university hospital from 2005 to 2013. Data on the use of antibiotics in surgical inpatients were obtained and expressed as defined daily doses per 100 bed days. Bacterial resistances were given as percentages of resistant isolates. There was an increasing trend in cephalosporins consumption from 9·56 DBD (2005) to 23·32 DBD (2013), with ceftriaxone as the most frequently used cephalosporin, 3·6 DBD (2005) to 10·78 DBD (2013). E. coli and P. mirabilis resistance to ceftriaxone increased significantly from 22% in 2005 to 47% in 2013 and from 31% in 2005 to 60% in 2013, respectively. We found a significant correlation between ceftriaxone consumption and E. coli resistance (r = 0·895, P < 0·05). Our study shows that cephalosporin consumption increased from 2005 to 2013, with ceftriaxone as the most prescribed antibiotic. E. coli and P. mirabilis resistance to ceftriaxone increased significantly over the study period. E. coli resistance increased with ceftriaxone consumption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12283
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    ABSTRACT: Anaemia is a common clinical finding among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with significant morbidity and healthcare costs. Iron deficiency is an important contributing factor, and adequate iron supplementation is essential to optimize the management of anaemia of CKD. Oral iron is convenient and inexpensive but is poorly absorbed and associated with gastrointestinal distress. Intravenous iron overcomes these limitations but is more expensive, requires additional clinical visits for administration and is associated with serious adverse events. Oral heme iron polypeptide (HIP) is a newer dosage form that has been reported to have higher bioavailability and fewer side effects when compared with non-heme iron in healthy subjects, but data in patients with CKD are limited. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of HIP for the management of CKD. Searches for PubMed (1947-2015) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-2015) were conducted using the following terms: heme iron, heme iron polypeptide, oral iron, anaemia and chronic kidney disease. The bibliography of each relevant article was evaluated for additional studies. Articles were selected for review if they were published in the English language and were randomized controlled trials evaluating the bioavailability, tolerability or efficacy of oral HIP in human subjects with CKD. This search yielded three clinical studies. The safety and efficacy of HIP was evaluated in a total of 161 subjects with anaemia and various stages of CKD. HIP was consistently associated with lower ferritin values when compared with traditional iron supplementation. With few exceptions, the effect of HIP on haemoglobin, haematocrit, transferrin saturation and recombinant human erythropoietin dose, and adverse effects appeared similar to intravenous and oral non-heme iron supplementation. The cost of HIP is substantially more than non-heme iron and comparable to intravenous iron. Heme iron polypeptide does not appear to confer benefit over traditional iron supplementation among patients with anaemia of CKD and is more expensive. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12281
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    ABSTRACT: What is known and Objective Medication is the main treatment option for patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. However, medication can have negative effects. We aimed to detect negative outcomes associated with medication that led to patients with chronic atrial fibrillation presenting themselves to hospital emergency departments. We assessed the severity of those outcomes and comment on whether they could have been avoided.Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study included all patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who attended the emergency department of our tertiary hospital. We used the Dader method to identify and evaluate the negative outcomes associated with medication through interviews with patients and scrutiny of the clinical charts.Results and DiscussionOf the 198 eligible patients who presented at the emergency department, 134 (67·7%) did so because of negative outcomes associated with medication (41% related to necessity, 32·1% to effectiveness and 26·9% to safety); 67·9% of those negative outcomes could have been avoided. In terms of severity, 6·7% were mild, 31·3% moderate, 51·5% severe and 10·4% fatal. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification anatomical group most frequently associated with negative outcomes was the cardiovascular system, followed by blood/blood-forming organs.What is new and ConclusionA high percentage of patients with chronic atrial fibrillation presenting at hospital emergency departments had negative outcomes associated with medication. Some led to deaths. More than half of these were severe, and most could have been avoided.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12289
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    ABSTRACT: Parabens have been commonly used as preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for almost 50 years. These compounds are thermostable, pH-stable and inexpensive and have a wide antimicrobial effect. The antimicrobial activity of parabens in emulsion system is limited by their poor solubility in water phase, which is increasing with the length of their alkyl chain. The aim of this work was preparation of 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-glycerol, more hydrophilic and naturally occurring analogue of parabens, and comparison of its antimicrobial activity with commercially used parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben). 1-O-(4-Hydroxybenzoyl)-glycerol was obtained by the transesterification reaction of methyl paraben with glycerol. Purity was confirmed by determination of melting point and by GC/MSD. Antimicrobial activity of 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-glycerol and commercially used parabens was determined by spectrophotometrical monitoring of microbial growth in media containing the testing substances, using spectrophotometers PowerWave XS and Cary 50 Conc. 1-O-(4-Hydroxybenzoyl)-glycerol was prepared with purity >99%. This compound showed antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Fusarium culmorum). In comparison with other tested substances, 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-glycerol showed less inhibitory activity at the highest concentration of 20 mmol/L, with the maximum inhibitory activity ca. 70%. On the other hand, antimicrobial activity of 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-glycerol at the lower concentrations (2·5 mmol/L, 1·25 mmol/L) was the same or, in some cases, even higher (S. aureus) in comparison with commercially used parabens. A novel hydrophilic analogue of parabens was synthetized and tested for its antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms in model system. This study confirms antimicrobial potential of 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-glycerol, which is comparable with other commercially used parabens. Unlike commercial parabens, it is possible to expect more significant antimicrobial activity of 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-glycerol in real emulsion systems due to the increased solubility of this substance in water phase and also the lower skin irritation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12285
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    ABSTRACT: What is known and objectiveEsophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a common diagnostic procedure which requires sedation for most patients. We undertook a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study to compare the effect of propofol vs. dexmedetomidine on the sedation of outpatients during EGD.Methods Prior to the procedure, outpatients received either propofol at 0·6 mg/kg, with additional doses of 10–20 mg until the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S) score reached 2–4, or dexmedetomidine at a loading dose of 1 μg/kg over a 10-min period followed by a 0·5 μg/kg/h infusion until the OAA/S score reached 2–4. Vital signs, sedation level, adverse events, patients' and endoscopist's satisfaction score, and an evaluation of the recovery time were assessed.Results and discussionNegligible haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate variations were observed in both groups, although respiratory depression occurred in two cases (5·9%) in the propofol group. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the propofol group decreased during the procedure compared with baseline (P < 0·05) and was also lower in comparison with the dexmedetomidine group (P < 0·05). Heart rate (HR) decreased after the loading dose in the dexmedetomidine group (P < 0·05). More patients in the propofol group underwent deeper sedation at the beginning of the procedure (P < 0·05), although the recovery time was comparable between the two groups (P > 0·05). Three cases (9·1%) in the dexmedetomidine group were delayed because of dizziness, bradycardia and nausea. There was a higher satisfaction score among patients in the propofol group (P < 0·05), although the endoscopist's satisfaction score was comparable between the two groups (P > 0·05).What is new and conclusionPropofol and dexmedetomidine provide a relatively satisfactory level of sedation without clinically notable adverse effects during EGD. In addition, patients preferred propofol administration for the deeper sedation and rapid recovery, and dexmedetomidine exhibited minimal adverse effects on respiratory function.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12282
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    ABSTRACT: What is known and Objective Digestive disorders represent the most common metformin side effects for type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of these metformin side effects is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether asymptomatic chronic gastritis could influence metformin tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods Demographic, anthropometric, ultrasound and laboratory data were obtained from 144 metformin naïve patients with diabetes. The diagnosis of chronic gastritis was based on endoscopic and histopathological examination, and H. pylori infection was assessed based on 13C urea breath test (UBT). All subjects started metformin at 500 mg/day and increasing progressively to 1500 mg/day over 4 weeks. A score of gastrointestinal side effects (abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, bloating and anorexia) was assessed each week, and metformin dose was adjusted as appropriate.Results and discussionBased on endoscopy, 64 patients were categorized as non-gastritis subjects and 80 as chronic gastritis subjects. At baseline, there is no statistical difference in gastrointestinal symptoms between two groups. With metformin, the mean scores for gastrointestinal symptoms in the non-gastritis and gastritis subjects were 1·02 ± 1·71 vs. 2·18 ± 2·05 (P = 0·001), 0·20 ± 0·65 vs. 0·50 ± 0·89 (P = 0·022), 0 vs. 0·06 ± 0·24 (P = 0·024) and 1·08 ± 1·03 vs. 1·71 ± 1·66 (P = 0·028). The mean final metformin dose used by gastritis subjects was 706·24 ± 568·90 mg, significantly less than the mean dose used by non-gastritis subjects (1101·56 ± 578·58 mg, P = 0·001). After adjustment for age and sex, the odds ratio (OR) for a final metformin dose of less than 1500 mg/day was found to be 2·76 (95% CI 1·38–5·53, P = 0·004) for chronic gastritis subjects. The OR for a final metformin dose of less than 1000 mg/day was found to be 3·98 (95% CI 1·91–8·27, P = 0·001) for chronic gastritis subjects.What is new and conclusionsOur data suggest that pre-existing non-symptomatic gastritis was associated with metformin-related gastrointestinal side effects.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12290
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    ABSTRACT: What is known and objectiveKetoprofen has high analgesic efficacy against inflammatory and nociceptive pain. Additionally, when ketoprofen is administered in conjunction with an opioid during pain management, it prevents the development of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The main limitation for racemic ketoprofen IV administration is venous irritation. Dexketoprofen is the active enantiomer of racemic ketoprofen and has a similar analgesic efficacy in a dose proportion of 1 : 2, but it causes fewer adverse effects than racemic ketoprofen. It has been claimed that dexketoprofen may cause less frequent and less severe injection pain than racemic ketoprofen. In this study, we compared the injection pain of IV administered racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen in elective surgical patients.Methods The ethics committee of our institution approved this randomized, double-blinded, two-treatment, two-period, crossover clinical comparison of ketoprofen and dexketoprofen. A total of 221 ASA I-III adult patients, aged 20–75 years, were initially IV administered either 0·5 mg/kg racemic ketoprofen followed 2 h later with 0·25 mg/kg dexketoprofen (group 1) or vice versa (group 2). Both compounds were diluted in 20 mL of normal saline and were injected over 6 min. Patients reported injection pain on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) (0 = no pain, 10 = most pain).Results and discussionSignificantly less injection pain was reported after dexketoprofen administration. A total of 201 of 209 patients reported pain during racemic ketoprofen injection, and 157 of 210 patients reported pain during dexketoprofen injection, respectively. Moderate or severe pain was reported by 90 (41%) patients during racemic ketoprofen administration and by 43 (20%) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). The mean of injection pain during racemic ketoprofen injection was 4·2 (SD 2·5) and was 2·5 (2·4) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). No serious or unexpected adverse events were reported.What is new and conclusionDexketoprofen causes significantly less injection pain than racemic ketoprofen; therefore, it may be a more suitable IV non-steroidal anti-inflammatory than the racemate.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12284
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacist-managed anticoagulation programmes have been shown to improve appropriate use of warfarin, but few programmes have included the new target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) in their protocols. A greater understanding of TSOAC prescribing, monitoring and administration is needed to identify common errors in the current outpatient practice. The objective of this study is to assess the rate of errors related to prescribing, baseline monitoring and patient administration of TSOACs. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify patients on TSOAC therapy in each of four outpatient practice sites. Data were abstracted to include TSOAC indication, dosage and frequency prescribed, pertinent past medical history, and laboratory monitoring obtained at the time of TSOAC initiation. In addition, patients were contacted by telephone to assess TSOAC adherence, storage, administration and incidence of adverse events. A total of 395 patients were included in the evaluation. Prescribers did not obtain baseline laboratory values within 1 week before or after the time of TSOAC initiation for a majority of study patients. At the time of TSOAC initiation, two patients had abnormally elevated alanine aminotransferase, six had elevated total bilirubin, and 43 had low haemoglobin. A majority (61%) of study patients were prescribed an appropriate TSOAC dose based upon their indication and renal function; however, dosing accuracy could not be determined for all patients as baseline serum creatinine was not obtained by prescribers for 148 patients (37%) at the time of prescribing. TSOACs were dosed inappropriately according to baseline serum creatinine in six patients, and two patients receiving treatment for venous thromboembolism were maintained on a high dose of rivaroxaban for an inappropriate duration. A total of 157 (40%) patients were available by phone and agreed to answer questions regarding their current TSOAC use. Twenty-four patients (23%) reported taking rivaroxaban inappropriately without food, and six patients (14%) endorsed inappropriate storage of dabigatran. Ten patients (6%) reported missing at least one TSOAC dose per week, and 25 (16%) described minor bleeding with their TSOAC. Inappropriate prescribing, monitoring and administration of TSOACs occurred frequently in patients not formally enrolled in an anticoagulation monitoring programme. These results indicate a need for more thorough patient education at the time of TSOAC initiation, as well as improved prescriber education regarding recommended TSOAC dosing and monitoring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12296