Grass and Forage Science
The Journal of the British Grassland Society. Grass and Forage Science has subscribers in nearly 70 countries. It is a major English language journal that publishes the results of research and development in all aspects of grass and forage production, management and utilization, occasional reviews of the state of knowledge on relevant topics, and book reviews. Authors are also invited to submit papers on non-agricultural aspects of grassland managment such as recreational and amenity use and the environmental implications of all grassland systems. Hitherto, the Journal has concentrated on temperate regions but now considers papers irrespective of climatic zone.
- Impact factor1.1
- WebsiteGrass and Forage Science website
Other titlesGrass and forage science (Online), Grass and forage science, Grass & forage science
Material typeDocument, Periodical, Internet resource
Document typeInternet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper
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Publications in this journal
Article: A tropical grass resource for pasture improvement and landscape management: Themeda triandra ForsskGrass and Forage Science 02/2013;
Article: Phosphorus efficiency of naturalized Chilean white clover in a grazed field trial. Grass and forage scienceGrass and Forage Science 06/2012; 68(1):125-137.
Article: An alternative rotational stocking management designed to favour butterflies in permanent grasslands[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Grassland butterflies are on the decline throughout Europe. We tested an ‘alternative rotational stocking’ (ARS) strategy based on theoretical and practical aspects of grassland ecology, designed to increase butterfly diversity while also meeting farmers’ production objectives. This management strategy implies taking animals away from one subplot of the rotation during the main flowering period. Its feasibility and benefits on butterfly diversity were tested by comparing ARS with continuous stocking (CS) in plots grazed by cattle at the same stocking rate: high in 2005 and 2006 then lenient in 2007 and 2008. At the high stocking rate, butterfly abundance (21·9 vs. 8·3, P < 0·01) and butterfly species richness (7·4 vs. 3·7, P < 0·001) were significantly higher in ARS than in CS plots, matching the increase in pasture flowering intensity and sward structural diversity. ARS was led according to the pre-planned schedule in 2005, but in 2006, the number of heifer grazing days in ARS was reduced by 19% because of unfavourable spring grass growth. At the lenient stocking rate, ARS was less beneficial for butterflies (abundance: 17·4 vs. 13·0, P < 0·10; species richness: 5·9 vs. 5·2, P = 0·35) but would present less risk for farmers in terms of providing livestock with sufficient forage. Alternative rotational stocking thus has potential to be integrated into grassland-based systems, but would require earlier grazing on the excluded subplot of the rotation in the event of unfavourable grass growth during spring.Grass and Forage Science 02/2012; 67(1):136 - 149.
Article: Size ⁄ density compensation in Chloris gayana Kunth cv. Fine Cut subjected to different defoliation regimes[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study evaluated the plasticity of Chloris gayana Kunth cv. Fine Cut to defoliation in terms of tiller size ⁄ density compensation (SDC). Twelve mini-swards were grown in a greenhouse under non-limiting water and nutrient availabilities for 188 d. Four defoliation treatments were applied as a factorial arrangement of two defoliation frequencies and intensities: 80L, 80H, 100L and 100H (80 and 100 denote percentage of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted at defoliation; L and H denote stubble LAIs of 0Æ6 and 1Æ75, respectively). Tiller density, demography, dry weight, leaf area and volume were determined over the final 77 d of the experiment. SDC was observed across 80H and both 100 treatments. The estimated slope of the relationship between tiller size and density was close to )5 ⁄ 2, the deviation from the )3 ⁄ 2 line proposed for undefoliated swards being related to changes in LAI and tiller leaf area ⁄ volume ratio. The most severe defoliation regime, 80L, resulted in a lower tiller population density relative to the compensation line, suggesting that this defoliation management shifted the species beyond its range of phenotypic plasticity. Cumulative herbage production was significantly reduced in 80L. Despite the similar herbage production of 80H and both 100 treatments, the former was the most favourable defoliation regime for optimizing leafiness and productivity.Grass and Forage Science 02/2012; 67(2):255.
Article: Morphology, tannin concentration and forage value of 15 Swiss accessions of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) as influenced by harvest time and cultivation site[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fifteen accessions of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) were characterized for morphological and phenological traits at Reckenholz in the Swiss lowlands (Experiment 1). The effects of accession, harvest time and site on dry-matter yield, condensed tannin (CT) concentration and forage value (Experiment 2) were determined at three sites in Switzerland varying in altitude from 440 to 559 m. Three to four harvests were taken in the first year after establishment (second year of stand) with harvests 1 and 2 chemically analysed. From the characterization in Experiment 1, a clear grouping of single flowering (Communis) and multiple flowering (Bifera) accessions emerged. Additionally, within the Communis accessions, distinct groupings were identified (historical landraces and newly collected ecotypes) based on morphological characteristics. Experiment 2 showed that Communis and Bifera accessions had a similar chemical composition in the first harvest. In the second harvest, Communis accessions were higher in crude protein and CT and lower in neutral and acid detergent fibre concentrations than Bifera accessions. Total dry-matter yields were higher for Bifera accessions. Among the Communis accessions, ecotypes had consistently higher CT concentrations than landraces. In vitro organic matter digestibility did not significantly differ among accessions. There were clear effects of harvest time and site for most variables, with clear harvest time × sainfoin group interaction but no site × sainfoin group interactions. The results clearly demonstrate that historical landraces and newly collected ecotypes expand the range of available genetic variation for sainfoin breeding.Grass and Forage Science 11/2011; 66(4):474 - 487.
Article: Economic modelling of an integrated grazed and conserved perennial ryegrass forage production system[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Grange Feed Costing Model was modified to simulate the economic implications of grassland management strategies for a grass-based suckler beef calf-to-weanling system at the whole-farm level. The modified model enabled costing of annual grass consumed as grazed grass and silage when the farm grazing and conservation areas are integrated. Grass growth data from sites in the south, east and north of Ireland were used. Sixty-three scenarios were simulated, enabling analysis of site, stocking rate and silage strategy effects on total annual feed cost for the grass forage production system. Total annual feed cost (of grazed grass and grass silage) ranged from €96 to €111 per 1000 UFL (Unité Fourragère Lait) and €411 to €456 per beef cow unit (CU). The silage strategy with respect to the number of harvests and whether the silage area was grazed in the spring had negligible impact on annual total feed cost per CU. However, a tendency towards reduced annual feed cost under a two harvest, relative to a one harvest, silage strategy was observed. The lowest cost stocking rate was 2 CU ha−1. Site-specific differences such as seasonal growth distribution and nitrogen fertilizer response rate had the greatest influence on the annual cost of the grass-based feeding system.Grass and Forage Science 11/2011; 67(2):162 - 176.
Article: Alpha‐tocopherol and β‐carotene in legume–grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Effects of wilting, ensiling and type of additive on α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents in legume–grass mixtures were examined. Swards of birdsfoot trefoil + timothy (Bft + Ti), red clover + timothy (Rc + Ti) and red clover + meadow fescue (Rc + Mf) were harvested as a first regrowth in August 2005. Forage was wilted to a dry-matter (DM) content of 273 g kg−1 and ensiled without additive or with an inoculant or acid. Wilting decreased α-tocopherol concentration by 30% in the Bft + Ti mixture (P = 0·015). Untreated Bft + Ti silage had higher α-tocopherol content than red clover silages (56·9 vs. 34·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·015). The α-tocopherol concentration of Bft + Ti forages increased during ensiling from 41·1 mg kg−1 DM in wilted herbage to 56·9, 65·2 and 56·8 mg kg−1 DM in untreated, inoculated and acid-treated silage respectively (P = 0·015). The inoculant increased α-tocopherol content in the red clover silages (50·1 vs. 34·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·015) compared with untreated red clover silages. Red clover mixtures had lower β-carotene content than Bft + Ti (32·3 vs. 46·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·016), averaged over treatments. In conclusion, wilting had small effects but the use of bacterial inoculant as an additive and a Bft + Ti mixture increased α-tocopherol concentration in the silage.Grass and Forage Science 11/2011; 67(1):119 - 128.
Article: Effects of sowing date and nitrogen fertilizer on forage yield, nitrogen‐ and water‐use efficiency and nutritive value of an annual triple‐crop complementary forage rotation[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Complementary forage rotation (CFR) systems based on non-limiting inputs of fertilizer nitrogen (N) (∼600 kg N ha−1) are perceived as uneconomic. An experiment was carried out in Australia to investigate the effects of rates and timing of N fertilizer and sowing date on yield, nutrient-use efficiency and nutritive value of a triple-crop (maize, forage rape, field peas) CFR system. Treatments were early- and late-sown maize grown with 0 or 135 kg fertilizer N ha−1 pre-sowing (N1) and 0, 79 or 158 kg N ha−1 post-sowing (N2). Forage rape was sown with 0 or 230 kg N ha−1 (N3) and field peas without N. Application of fertilizer N at N1, N2 and N3 increased CFR yield from 28·5 to 48·8 t dry matter (DM) ha−1 and irrigation water-use efficiency (IWUE) from 3·4 to 6·1 t DM per megalitre. Increase in yield and IWUE of CFR occurs at the expense of nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) as applications of N at N1, N2 and N3 decreased NUE of CFR from 524 to 91 kg DM kg−1 N. Nutritive value, particularly metabolizable energy content of all forages, was similar among N treatments, and interactions between treatments were minimal. Results indicate that increase in NUE of CFR may occur at the expense of reduced yield, but increased IWUE need not compromise the yield of this CFR system.Grass and Forage Science 10/2011; 67(1):96 - 110.
Article: Growth, yield and nitrogen performance of faba bean intercrops with oat and triticale at varying seeding ratios[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intercropping of grain legumes with cereals may offer several advantages over sole crops for forage production and is commonly used, particularly in low-input agriculture. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) sole crops as well as the intercrops of faba bean with each of the above cereals, in three seeding ratios (75:25, 50:50 and 25:75), were compared for dry-matter (DM) yield, nitrogen (N) concentration, chlorophyll content, growth rate and plant height in a 2-year field experiment. Triticale sole crop and faba bean intercrops with triticale provided higher DM yield than faba bean sole crop and the intercrops of faba bean with oat. Growth rates of faba bean, oat and triticale in mixtures were lower than those in sole crops. Faba bean plants were taller in the intercrops than in the sole crop at 3 weeks after tillering (WAT), whereas at 6 WAT, the trend was different as faba bean plants in the sole crop were taller than in the intercrops. N concentration was higher for the cereals when faba bean was included in the mixture. Crude protein (CP) concentration was the highest in faba bean sole crop followed by the faba bean intercrops with oat. However, triticale sole crop and faba bean mixtures with triticale provided higher CP yield than all other crops because of their highest DM yield. Thus, mixtures of faba beans with triticale could be a promising alternative for increased forage production because of their capacity for high DM and protein yields.Grass and Forage Science 10/2011; 66(4):569 - 577.
Article: Rates and timing of nitrogen fertilizer application on yield, nutritive value and nutrient‐use efficiency of early‐ and late‐sown forage maize[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The outcomes of previous studies have resulted in differing recommendations on the rate and timing of fertilizer N applications for forage maize. In order to gain an improved understanding of the role of N fertilizer, a field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of time and rate of N application on total and plant-fraction yield, nutritive value and efficiency of nutrient utilization in early- and late-sown forage maize. Treatments included two sowing dates (early, late), two rates of N (0, 135 kg ha−1) applied pre-sowing (N1) and three rates of N (0, 79, 158 kg ha−1) applied post-sowing (N2) at the six-leaf stage (V6). Application of N at N1 (N0 vs. N135) increased dry-matter (DM) stover yield by 11% and total yield by 7%. Application of fertilizer N at N2 (N0 vs. N158) increased grain yield by 44% and total yield by 34%. Application of N2 also increased irrigation and total water-use efficiency (WUE) from 30 to 40 and 46 to 61 kg DM ml−1 water respectively. Late sowing increased DM yield by 6%, but decreased WUE compared with early sowing. The results indicate that application of N at both N1 and N2 is essential to maximize total DM yield from forage maize, but application at V6 is recommended when N input is reduced.Grass and Forage Science 07/2011; 67(1):24 - 33.
Article: Pasture residue amount and sowing method effects on establishment of overseeded cool‐season grasses and on total annual production of herbage[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Warm-season pasture residue may create problems for no-till overseeding with cool-season grasses in the USA Southern Plains. Removal of residue to facilitate overseeding, however, represents additional cost and labour that may not be available on small livestock farms. Field experiments were undertaken to assess the effects of above-surface residues of warm-season pasture averaging 1·62, 2·48 or 3·36 t DM ha−1 on establishment and herbage production of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) or tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) overseeded by broadcasting or by no-till drilling into dormant warm-season pasture. On average, no-till drilling was more effective than broadcasting in establishing both grass species, but it was no more effective than broadcasting when used with the greatest amount of residue. Cool-season grass production was increased by 0·16 when no-till drilled, but combined yearly total herbage production of cool- and warm-season grasses was increased by 0·07 when cool-season grasses were established by broadcasting. Amount of residue at sowing did not significantly affect herbage yield of cool-season grass, but increased residue in autumn resulted in a 0·16 increase in total herbage production in the year following sowing. Residue amount did not affect over-winter survival of grass seedlings, and productivity benefits of increased residue are small compared with reduced harvest arising from underutilization of warm-season pasture residue in autumn.Grass and Forage Science 07/2011; 66(4):560 - 568.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and leaves. This study (i) quantified and compared the tensile fracture properties of stems and leaves of seven tropical grass species and (ii) provided insight into the underlying plant traits that explain differences in fracture properties between species. Fracture force, tensile strength, fracture energy and toughness of stems (in various phenological stages) and leaves were measured and compared among five introduced tropical grasses (Cenchrus ciliaris, Chloris gayana, Digitaria milanjiana, Megathyrsus maximus (syn. Panicum maximum), Setaria sphacelata) and two native tropical grasses (Setaria surgens and Dichanthium sericeum). Species differed significantly in fracture force and fracture energy, with stems and leaves of C. ciliaris and S. surgens requiring less force and energy to fracture and stems and leaves of M. maximus and S. sphacelata requiring more force and energy to fracture in comparison with the other species. Differences in tensile strength and toughness were less pronounced. The differences among species in fracture force and energy mainly resulted from differences in cross-sectional area of plant parts rather than from differences in tensile strength and toughness.Grass and Forage Science 07/2011; 66(4):551 - 559.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
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