Brain Injury Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: International Association for the Study of Traumatic Brain Injury; European Brain Injury Society, Informa Healthcare

Journal description

This journal covers all aspects of brain injury from basic science, neurological techniques and outcomes to vocational aspects, with studies of rehabilitation and outcome of both patients and their families. It addresses both adult and pediatric issues and it embraces issues such as family and peer relationships, effects of alcohol and drugs, communication problems and management techniques and creating new programs. Brain Injury uses case studies to illustrate different approaches to a subject, and provides a forum for the appraisal of theories which may influence future research. Brain Injury is the official journal of the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA) and the European Brain Injury Society (EBIS).

Current impact factor: 1.81

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.808
2013 Impact Factor 1.861
2012 Impact Factor 1.513
2011 Impact Factor 1.36
2010 Impact Factor 1.75
2009 Impact Factor 1.533
2008 Impact Factor 1.116
2007 Impact Factor 1.25
2006 Impact Factor 1.182
2005 Impact Factor 1.471
2004 Impact Factor 1.136
2003 Impact Factor 1.12
2002 Impact Factor 1.043
2001 Impact Factor 0.924
2000 Impact Factor 0.914
1999 Impact Factor 1.017
1998 Impact Factor 1.085
1997 Impact Factor 1.256
1996 Impact Factor 0.843
1995 Impact Factor 0.88

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.13
Cited half-life 8.20
Immediacy index 0.31
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.60
Website Brain Injury website
Other titles Brain injury (Online), BI
ISSN 1362-301X
OCLC 38266063
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Non-commercial
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary objective: Neurotrophin levels are elevated after TBI, yet there is minimal regeneration. It was hypothesized that the pro-neurotrophin/p75NTR pathway is induced more than the mature neurotrophin/Trk pathway and that interfering with p75 signalling improves recovery following TBI. Research design: Lateral Fluid Percussion (LFP) injury was performed on wildtype and p75 mutant mice. In addition, TrkB agonist 7,8 Dihydroxyflavone or p75 antagonist TAT-Pep5 were tested. Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed biochemical and cellular changes. Morris Water Maze and Rotarod tests demonstrated cognitive and vestibulomotor function. Main outcomes and results: p75 was up-regulated and TrkB was down-regulated 1 day post-LFP. p75 mutant mice as well as mice treated with the p75 antagonist or the TrkB agonist exhibited reduced neuronal death and degeneration and less astrocytosis. The cells undergoing apoptosis appear to be neurons rather than glia. There was improved motor function and spatial learning in p75 mutant mice and mice treated with the p75 antagonist. Conclusions: Many of the pathological and behavioural consequences of TBI might be due to activation of the pro-neurotrophin/p75 toxic pathway overriding the protective mechanisms of the mature neurotrophin/Trk pathway. Targeting p75 can be a novel strategy to counteract the damaging effects of TBI.
    Brain Injury 11/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1088963
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The goal of this study was to investigate if S100B serum protein could predict secondary intracranial haemorrhagic events (SIHEs) after mild head injury (mHI) in patients taking low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LDA), making routinely repeated head computed tomography (RRHCT) scans unnecessary. Methods: Three hundred and eight-two patients with mHI, older than 60 years and taking LDA prophylaxis were enrolled. Primary head CT and RRHCT scans within 3 and 48 hours to trauma were performed. Additionally, S100B serum protein levels were evaluated at admission and predictive power for SIHEs was analysed. Results: Fifty-nine per cent were female and the mean age of all included patients was 81.8 ± 8.9 years. In four patients SIHEs were diagnosed. Sensitivity and the negative predictive value of S100B serum protein (cut-off value 0.10 µg l(-1)) were 75.0% and 98.6%, respectively. Specificity was 19.0% and the positive predictive value 1.0% (306 false positive values). In patients without bleeding, the median S100B value was 0.18 (IQR = 0.12-0.34) and in the ones with SIHEs, the median was 0.11 (IQR = 0.10-1.16) (p > 0.05). The discriminatory power of S100B in the ROC analysis was 0.399 (95% CI = 0.079-0.720; p > 0.05). Conclusion: S100B cannot be considered as an effective diagnostic tool in the prediction or exclusion of SIHE in older patients with mHIs taking LDA prophylaxis.
    Brain Injury 11/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1087593
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Brain injury is an important, potentially devastating, complication in cardiac surgery. A significant number of patients suffer perioperative complications involving the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations of brain injury are associated with significantly increased mortality, morbidity and health resource utilization. Serum biomarkers have been studied in cardiac surgery to measure the degree and incidence of brain injury and to improve patient management. Methods: All relevant studies were identified by computerized searches of PubMed using the following Medical Subject Headings and keywords term: biomarker, cardiac surgery, brain injury and neurological complication. Results: The biomarkers that appear to be better indicators of brain injury severity in cardiac surgery and its consequences are S100B protein, neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, tau protein, matrix metalloproteinase-9, ubiquitin C terminal hydroxylase-L1 and neurofilaments. Conclusions: These biomarkers, independently of clinical and radiological findings, show global cerebral situation at the cellular level and the degree of brain dysfunction. However, up to date, there is no biomarker entirely suitable for the detection of brain injury after cardiac surgery.
    Brain Injury 11/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1079733
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a 30-70% mortality rate. Nevertheless, in clinical practice there are no effective biomarkers for the prediction of fatal outcome following severe TBI. Therefore, the aim was to determine whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels are associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in patients with severe TBI. Methods: This prospective study enrolled 120 male patients who suffered severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale 3-8 at emergency room admission). The plasma BDNF level was determined at ICU admission (mean 6.4 hours after emergency room admission). Results: Severe TBI was associated with a 35% mortality rate and 64% of the patients presented severe TBI with multi-trauma. The mean plasma BDNF concentration among the severe TBI victims was 704.2 ± 63.4 pg ml(-1) (±SEM). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between BDNF levels in the survivor (700.2 ± 82.8 pg ml(-1)) or non-survivor (711.6 ± 97.4 pg ml(-1)) groups (p = 0.238) or in the isolated TBI (800.4 ± 117.4 pg ml(-1)) or TBI with multi-trauma groups (650.5 ± 73.9 pg ml(-1)) (p = 0.109). Conclusions: Plasma BDNF concentrations did not correlate with either short-term fatal outcome or type of injury following severe TBI.
    Brain Injury 11/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1077993
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature relating to the neuropsychiatric symptoms at presentation and outcome of childhood brain tumours. Methods: Seven online databases pertaining to the neuropsychiatric presentation and outcomes of childhood CNS tumours were searched and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Temporal limits were not applied to the searches. Results: There were 1879 relevant search results in total. After discovering the large body of both primary and secondary research in the field of cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes of brain tumours in children, these studies were excluded. Quality-of-life studies were excluded for the same reason. Thirty-one papers were chosen for discussion in this review. Conclusion: This timely systematic review concluded that neuropsychiatric presentations are common in children with CNS tumours-with the presence of behavioural and psychological symptoms in up to 57% of cases, their frequency varies according to age of onset and is strongly associated with time since diagnosis. The findings highlight the necessity for routine psychological and psychiatric screenings of children with suspected brain tumours and at follow-up and a number of clinical recommendations to this effect are listed.
    Brain Injury 11/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075590
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study explored using the FIT as a measure of performance validity among veterans undergoing neuropsychological evaluation for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Background: The Rey Fifteen-Item Memory Test (FIT) is a performance validity measure criticized for poor sensitivity. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-seven veterans completed the FIT and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition, Digit Span (DS); 109 of whom completed the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). FIT cut-offs of <9, <8 and stricter cut-offs were examined using DS and/or TOMM as criterion performance validity measures. Results: Only four participants scored below the standard cut score of 9 on the FIT. Among the 13 veterans failing both criterion tests, only two scored below 9 on the FIT. Regardless of which FIT cut-off was used, the FIT had poor diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: Despite its popularity, the FIT is not supported as an appropriate measure of performance validity in veterans undergoing evaluation for possible mTBI. Therefore, inferences regarding neuropsychological data reliability with adequate statistical certainty require use of other measures of performance validity with greater sensitivity.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075249
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: A large cranial defect following decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a common sequela in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Such a defect can cause severe disturbance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. This study investigated the impact of cranioplasty on CBF in these patients. Methods: Patients who underwent DC and secondary cranioplasty were prospectively studied for a severe TBI. CT perfusion was used to measure CBF before and after cranioplasty. The basal ganglia, parietal lobe and occipital lobe on the decompressed side were chosen as zones of interest for CBF evaluation. Results: Nine patients representing nine cranioplasty procedures were included in the study. Before cranioplasty, CBF on the decompressed side was lower than that on the contralateral side. During the early stage (10 days) after cranioplasty, CBF on the decompressed side was increased and this increase was significant in the parietal and occipital lobe. CBF was also increased on the contralateral side. In addition, the difference in CBF between the contralateral side and the decompressed side was reduced after cranioplasty. Further, the CT perfusion showed that the CBFs decreased again 3 months post-cranioplasty among four cases, but was still higher than those before cranioplasty. Conclusions: This study indicates that cranioplasty may increase CBF and benefit the recovery in patients with DC for TBI.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075248
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study explored whether acute serum marker S100B is related with post-concussive symptoms (PCS) and neuropsychological performance 4 months after paediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Research design and methods: This prospective short-term longitudinal study investigated children (aged 6-16 years) with mTBI (n = 36, 16 males) and children with orthopaedic injuries (OI, n = 27, 18 males) as a control group. S100B in serum was measured during the acute phase and was correlated with parent-rated PCS and neuropsychological performance 4 months after the injury. Main outcomes and results: The results revealed no between-group difference regarding acute S100B serum concentration. In children after mTBI, group-specific significant Spearman correlations were found between S100B and post-acute cognitive PCS (r = 0.54, p = 0.001) as well as S100B and verbal memory performance (r = -0.47, p = 0.006). In children after OI, there were insignificant positive relations between S100B and post-acute somatic PCS. In addition, insignificant positive correlations were found between neuropsychological outcome and S100B in children after OI. Conclusions: S100B was not specific for mild brain injuries and may also be elevated after OI. The group-specific association between S100B and ongoing cognitive PCS in children after mTBI should motivate to examine further the role of S100B as a diagnostic biomarker in paediatric mTBI.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075250
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary objective: To test whether a curriculum-based advocacy training programme improves advocacy behaviour when compared to a matched group engaged in self-directed advocacy activities. Research design: Community-based randomized practical behavioural trial. Methods and procedures: Adults with moderate-severe TBI 1 or more years post-injury and their family members were recruited in Minnesota (4 years), Iowa and Wisconsin (each 3 years) and randomized into a curriculum-based or self-directed advocacy training group. Both groups met on the same day, at separate locations in the same city, once per month for 4 consecutive months. Main outcomes and results: Pre-post written and video testimony were rated using the Advocacy Behaviour Rating Scale (ABRS). Mean ABRS scores increased after intervention in both groups (curriculum n = 129, self-directed n = 128), but there was no significant difference in this increase between groups. When groups were combined, a significant pre-post improvement in mean ABRS scores was observed. Conclusions: Curriculum-based advocacy training was not superior to a self-directed approach in improving ABRS scores. A significant improvement in expression of an advocacy message was observed when intervention groups were combined. These findings suggest that bringing together like-minded motivated individuals is more important than programme structure or content in changing advocacy behaviour.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075173
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: To evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the High-level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT) in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare the mobility skills of children with TBI to those of healthy peers. Method: The mobility skills of 52 children with moderate and severe TBI (36 males; mean age = 12 years, range = 6-17) were assessed using the HiMAT and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Inter-rater reliability, re-test reliability and responsiveness of the HiMAT were evaluated in sub-groups by comparing results scored at several time-points. The HiMAT scores of children with TBI were compared with those of a healthy comparative cohort. Results: The HiMAT demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.93), re-test reliability (ICC = 0.98) and responsiveness to change (p = 0.002). The PEDI demonstrated a ceiling effect in mobility assessment of ambulant children with TBI. The HiMAT scores of children with TBI were lower than those of their healthy peers (p < 0.001). Interpretation: The HiMAT is a reliable, valid and sensitive measure of high-level mobility skills following childhood TBI. The high-level mobility skills of children with TBI are less proficient than their peers.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075174
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary objectives: To measure common psychiatric conditions after military deployment with blast exposure and test relationships to post-concussion syndrome (PCS) symptoms and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. Research design: Cross-sectional. Methods and procedures: Service members or Veterans (n = 107) within 2 years of blast exposure underwent structured interviews for mTBI, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and multiple mood and anxiety diagnoses. Main outcomes and results: MTBI history and active PTSD were both common, additionally 61% had at least one post-deployment mood or anxiety disorder episode. Psychiatric diagnoses had a high degree of comorbidity. Most dramatically, depression was 43-times (95% CI = 11-165) more likely if an individual had PTSD. PCS symptoms were greater in those with post-deployment PTSD or mood diagnosis. However, neither mTBI nor blast exposure history had an effect on the odds of having PTSD, mood or anxiety condition. Conclusions: These findings support that psychiatric conditions beyond PTSD are common after military combat deployment with blast exposure. They also highlight the non-specificity of post-concussion type symptoms. While some researchers have implicated mTBI history as a contributor to post-deployment mental health conditions, no clear association was found. This may partly be due to the more rigorous method of retrospective mTBI diagnosis determination.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075151
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is classified into mild, moderate and severe, based on the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). However, TBI patients are often influenced by ethanol, which in itself can attenuate the level of consciousness. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on the GCS group classification in TBI patients. Methods: The Oslo University Hospital trauma database was searched for all patients admitted with a head injury where the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) had been measured (n = 1004). The effect of BEC on GCS groups was analysed using multivariate ordinal logistic regression. Results: This study identified 546, 142 and 316 patients in the mild, moderate and severe groups, respectively. Increasing BEC by 1 g kg(-1) and pre-hospital intubation had OR = 1.34 and 16.34 for being in a more severe GCS group, respectively. Increasing head abbreviated injury scale (head-AIS) was significantly associated with being in a more severe GCS group. The modelled probability of detecting a head-AIS of 4 or 5 in a patient with BEC of 2.0 g kg(-1) was 20%, 38% and 65% in the mild, moderate and severe groups, respectively. Conclusions: Increasing BEC was associated with increasing odds of being in a more severe GCS group. However, because the modelled probability of significant brain injury was high in patients with high levels of BEC, a reduced level of consciousness in intoxicated patients mandates further radiological investigations.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075154
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Intracranial hypertension (ICH) and hyperthermia are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and associated with worse neurological outcomes. This study sets out to determine the combined power of temperature and intracranial pressure (ICP) for predicting neurologic outcomes and prolonged length of stay (LOS) following severe TBI. Methods: High resolution (every 6 seconds) temperature and ICP data were collected in adults with severe TBI from 2008-2010. Temperatures were plotted against concurrent ICP and divided based on breakpoints (Temperature: <36, 36-38.5 or >38.5 °C, ICP: <20, 20-30 or >30 mmHg). The percentage of time spent in each section, as well as several pooled unfavourable conditions (hyperthermia ± ICH), were then evaluated for predictive value for ICU-LOS > 7 days and short-term (<6 months) vs. long-term (>6 months) dichotomized neurologic outcomes. Results: Fifty patients were included for analysis with severe TBI. Evaluation of the area under the operating receiver curve (AUC) showed significant periods of fever and high ICP (<30 mmHg) had a strong association with poor long-term neurological outcomes (Day 3, AUC = 0.71, p = 0.04) and were higher than either condition alone. ICU-LOS > 7 days was increased when hyperthermia and/or ICH remained uncontrolled by Day 5 (AUC = 0.82, p = 0.02). Summary: Hyperthermia combined with ICH were shown to be significant prognostic indicators of future poor neurologic outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075157
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Several studies using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) have demonstrated injury of the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) in various brain pathologies. However, no study on traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been reported. This case study attempted to demonstrate injury of the DRTT in a patient with mild TBI, using DTT. Case description: A 41-year-old female patient suffered from head trauma resulting from flexion-hyperextension injury by being hit from behind by a running car while stopped at an intersection. The patient lost consciousness and experienced post-traumatic amnesia for ∼1minute from the time of the car-accident. The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15. No specific lesion was observed on brain MRI. At 2 weeks after onset, the patient began to show resting and intentional tremor (more severe in the right upper and lower extremities) and ataxic gait. Her symptoms had been aggravated with the passage of time. On 1-month DTT, the left DRTT, which originated from the left dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, was thinner than the right DRTT. Conclusions: This study demonstrated injury of the DRTT in a patient with tremor and ataxia following mild TBI, using DTT. It is believed that analysis of the DRTT using DTT would be useful in elucidating the cause of post-traumatic abnormal movements.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075170
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary objective: To evaluate the behavioural and neural effects of TBI on the hemispheric integrity of three components of visuospatial attention: alerting, orienting and executive control. Method: Behavioural performance and high density event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired while a sample of 12 patients with chronic moderate-to-severe TBI and 12 controls performed the Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT). Neural indices of attention (posterior N1 amplitude to alerting and orienting cues, midline P3 amplitude during conflict resolution) were examined. Results: Patients with TBI exhibited smaller N1 amplitude to alerting cues, but comparable behavioural performance to controls. Participants with TBI also demonstrated poorer orienting performance to the left hemispace relative to the right. A corresponding reduction in right hemisphere N1 was found during left orienting to spatial cues in the TBI group. No group differences were observed on behavioural measures of executive control; however, patients with TBI exhibited reduced P3 amplitude overall. Conclusions: TBI may have an enduring effect on the orienting system at both neural and behavioural levels. Assessment of attention in chronic TBI can be improved by the integration of hemispheric findings that suggest disproportionate vulnerability in leftward orienting. Results may enhance clinical sensitivity to detection of subtle signs of neglect.
    Brain Injury 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/02699052.2015.1075155