Brain Injury (Brain Inj )

Publisher: International Association for the Study of Traumatic Brain Injury; European Brain Injury Society, Taylor & Francis


This journal covers all aspects of brain injury from basic science, neurological techniques and outcomes to vocational aspects, with studies of rehabilitation and outcome of both patients and their families. It addresses both adult and pediatric issues and it embraces issues such as family and peer relationships, effects of alcohol and drugs, communication problems and management techniques and creating new programs. Brain Injury uses case studies to illustrate different approaches to a subject, and provides a forum for the appraisal of theories which may influence future research. Brain Injury is the official journal of the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA) and the European Brain Injury Society (EBIS).

Impact factor 1.51

  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Website
    Brain Injury website
  • Other titles
    Brain injury (Online), BI
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals or 18 months embargo for SSH journals
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • M J Killington, K Speck, J Kahlbaum, J Fabian, D Edwards, J Stobie
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Primary objective: To investigate how a vestibular deficit following an acquired brain injury (ABI) affects an individuals' quality-of-life. Research design: A qualitative exploratory design. Participants: Nine community dwelling individuals who experienced significant symptoms and limitations as a result of their vestibular deficits. Methods: The individuals participated in face-to-face interviews with open ended questions. Data was analysed initially using a case study research approach, exploring the experience for each individual and then cross-case analysis to determine common themes for the group with the assistance of nVivo 10 qualitative analysis software. Results: Thematic analysis determined four main themes arising from the interviews; (1) validation, (2) definitive diagnosis is more difficult amongst an array of ABI symptoms, (3) vestibular adaptation is more difficult in the presence of an ABI and (4) emotional and social. Conclusion: Individuals who suffer a brain injury and experience vestibular symptoms as part of their overall presentation are not diagnosed in a timely manner, with individuals, their families, associates and even health professionals feeling uncertain of the legitimacy of their reported symptoms. It is important that all patients who experience an acquired brain injury are screened for vestibular impairment and, if necessary, receive vestibular rehabilitation including explanation and education.
    Brain Injury 01/2015;
  • Brain Injury 01/2015; in press.
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    ABSTRACT: Primary objective: The aim of this literature review was to systematically describe the sequential metabolic changes that occur following concussive injury, as well as identify and characterize the major concepts associated with the neurochemical cascade. Research design: Narrative literature review. Conclusions: Concussive injury initiates a complex cascade of pathophysiological changes that include hyper-acute ionic flux, indiscriminant excitatory neurotransmitter release, acute hyperglycolysis and sub-acute metabolic depression. Additionally, these metabolic changes can subsequently lead to impaired neurotransmission, alternate fuel usage and modifications in synaptic plasticity and protein expression. The combination of these metabolic alterations has been proposed to cause the transient and prolonged neurological deficits that typically characterize concussion. Consequently, understanding the implications of the neurochemical cascade may lead to treatment and return-to-play guidelines that can minimize the chronic effects of concussive injury.
    Brain Injury 01/2015; 29(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sleep disturbances are a common symptom following concussions to include athletic concussion. Review: This review applies literature on sleep following traumatic brain injury and concussion to sport concussions and places these considerations in the context of sleep and athletic performance. It also includes a description of sleep abnormalities in sleep duration, quality and timing as well as recommended treatment approaches. Finally, it includes a brief discussion of emerging paradigms of sleep and concussion recovery.
    Brain Injury 01/2015; 29(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To assess whether, following a right-hemisphere stroke, the combined administration of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation and right hemifield eye-patching in patients with visuo-spatial neglect is more effective than computer-based cognitive rehabilitation alone. Methods: Twelve patients were randomized into two treatment groups: a single treatment group (n = 7) and a combination treatment group (n = 5). In both cases, the treatment consisted of a mean number of 15 sessions, each lasting 1 hour. Visuo-spatial neglect was assessed using a specific exploration protocol (Bell Cancellation Test, Figure Copying of Odgen, Line Bisection, Baking Tray Task and Reading Task). The functional effects of the treatment were assessed using the Catherine Bergego Scale. Results: Significant between-group differences were observed when comparing the pre- and post-treatment scores for the Reading Task. No differences were observed in either group in the Catherine Bergego Scale administered at baseline and at the final intervention. Conclusion: The results obtained do not allow one to conclude that the combination treatment with cognitive rehabilitation and right hemifield eye-patching is more effective than cognitive rehabilitation alone. Although partial improvement in the performance of neuropsychological tests was observed, this improvement is not present at functional level.
    Brain Injury 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Primary objective: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is observed in a sub-set of patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The neuroanatomical basis of PSH is poorly understood. It is hypothesized that PSH is linked to changes in connectivity within the central autonomic network. Research design: Retrospective analysis in a sub-set of patients from a multi-centre, prospective cohort study Methods and procedures: Adult patients who were <3 weeks after severe TBI were enrolled and screened for PSH using a standard definition. Patients underwent multimodal MRI, which included quantitative diffusion tensor imaging. Main outcomes and results: Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to resolve the set of tracts into components. Ability to predict PSH was evaluated via area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) and tree-based classification analyses. Among 102 enrolled patients, 16 met criteria for PSH. The first principle component was significantly associated (p = 0.024, AUROC = 0.867) with PSH status even after controlling for age and admission GCS. In a classification tree analysis, age, GCS and decreased FA in the splenium of the corpus callosum and in the right posterior limb of the internal capsule discriminated PSH vs no PSH with an AUROC of 0.933. Conclusions: Disconnection involving the posterior corpus callosum and of the posterior limb of the internal capsule may play a role in the pathogenesis or expression of PSH.
    Brain Injury 01/2015;
  • Brain Injury 01/2015; 29(2):127-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repetitive brain trauma (RBT). Initially described in boxers, CTE has now been found in other contact sport athletes with a history of RBT. In recent years, there has been tremendous media attention regarding CTE, primarily because of the deaths of high profile American football players who were found to have CTE upon neuropathological examination. However, the study of CTE remains in its infancy. This review focuses on research from the Centre for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy (CSTE) at Boston University. This study reviews the formation of the CSTE, major CSTE publications and current ongoing research projects at the CSTE. The neuropathology of CTE has been well-described. Current research focuses on: methods of diagnosing the disease during life (including the development of biomarkers), examination of CTE risk factors (including genetic susceptibility and head impact exposure variables); description of the clinical presentation of CTE; development of research diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome; and assessment of mechanism and pathogenesis. Current research at the BU CSTE is aimed at increasing understanding of the long-term consequences of repetitive head impacts and attempting to begin to answer several of the unanswered questions regarding CTE.
    Brain Injury 01/2015; 29(2):154-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Sports-related concussions are commonplace at all levels of play and across all age groups. The dynamic, evolving nature of this injury coupled with a lack of objective biomarkers creates a challenging management issue for the sports medicine team. Athletes who return to play following a concussion are known to be at higher risk for an additional brain injury, which necessitates a careful, informed return to play (RTP) process. The goal of this paper is to outline historical attempts at developing RTP guidelines and trace their evolution over time, culminating in a discussion of the process and outcomes of the most recent consensus statements/guidelines published by the international Concussion In Sport Group (CISG), the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, and the 2013 Team Physician Consensus Statement Update. An evaluation of the pros and cons of these guidelines is presented along with suggestions for future directions. In addition, the Institute of Medicine recently conducted a comprehensive report outlining the current state of evidence regarding youth concussions, which provides specific recommendations for future research. The different methodologies utilized in the development of consensus statements have distinct advantages and disadvantages, and both approaches add value to the everyday management of sports concussions. Importantly, the overall approach for management of sports concussion is remarkably similar using either consensus-based or formal evidence-based methods, which adds confidence to the current guidelines and allows practitioners to focus on accepted standards of clinical care. Moving forward, careful study designs need to be utilized to avoid bias in selection of research subjects, collection of data, and interpretation of results. Although useful, clinicians must venture beyond consensus statements to examine reviews of the literature that are published in much greater frequency than consensus statements.
    Brain Injury 01/2015; 29(2):185-94.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To assess the characteristics of current clinical trials investigating the treatment of concussion. Background: Recent systematic literature reviews have concluded that there is minimal evidence to support any specific treatment for concussion, including the principles of return-to-activity protocols such as type or duration of rest. Design/methods: Clinical trial data was extracted from and seven additional World Health Organization primary registries. The trial databases were accessed up until 3 October 2013. This study used search terms of 'concussion' or 'mild traumatic brain injury' (mTBI) and filtered for interventional trials. Trials that were terminated, already published or not interventional trials of concussion/mTBI were excluded. Results: Of the 142 concussion/mTBI interventional clinical trials identified, 71 met inclusion criteria. Trials had a median estimated enrolment of 60 participants. There was a wide-range of treatments studied, including cognitive/behavioural therapies (28.2%), medications (28.2%), devices (11.3%), dietary supplements (8.5%), return-to-activity/rest (1.4%) and others (22.4%). Heterogeneity among trials for concussion identification/diagnosis and primary outcomes utilized was evident. Symptom-based questionnaires (39.4%) and neuropsychological tests (28.2%) were the most common outcome measures. Conclusions: Diverse, potentially promising therapeutics are currently being studied for the treatment of concussion. However, several deficiencies were identified including a paucity of trials addressing return-to-activity principles. Also, small sample size and trial heterogeneity may threaten scientific evaluation and subsequent clinical application.
    Brain Injury 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Primary objective: A comparison between unitary and non-unitary views on minimal consciousness. Research design: First, unitary (all-or-none) and non-unitary (gradual or continuous) models of consciousness are defined as they have been developed in both philosophy and neurophysiology. Then, the implications of these ideas to the notion the minimally conscious state (MCS) are discussed. Methods and procedures: Review and analysis of theoretical conceptions and empirical data. Main outcome and results: Both kinds of models are compatible with the actual definitions of MCS. Although unitary views may seem to contradict the description of the MCS in ‘Neurology’ 2002, the apparent contradiction can easily be solved. Most recent data, particularly those obtained using fMRI and concerning learning, emotional responsiveness and pain and suffering, speak for non-unitary models. Conclusions: Most evidence speaks for non-unitary models of minimal consciousness. If these models are correct, patients with MCS may have, in addition to temporal fluctuations, a lower level of consciousness compared with fully conscious individuals. A still lower level could characterize patients diagnosed as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS). From this point of view, therefore, the difference between UWS and MCS is gradual rather than qualitative. However, due to methodological limitations of the available studies, the evidence for non-unitary models cannot be regarded as definite.
    Brain Injury 08/2014; 28(9).
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objectives of this research were to investigate the equity of brain injury rehabilitation services to rural and remote areas of the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and to describe the experience of people who access and who deliver these services. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information from people with acquired brain injury (ABI), their families and rural and remote NSW health, rehabilitation and support services staff who worked with people with a brain injury. Data analysis was guided by an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Findings: Fifty-nine service providers representing 35 organizations, six people with ABI and seven family members participated in the research. Three key issues emerged from the data: (1) Limited access to appropriate brain injury rehabilitation; (2) Difficulties funding, recruiting and retaining appropriately skilled health, rehabilitation and support staff; and (3) Inadequate current services resulting in a number of unmet needs. Conclusion: Current models of practice for ABI rehabilitation are not appropriate to address the significant inequalities and gaps in available services for people with brain injury in rural and remote NSW. Alternative innovative models are needed to reduce the disparity of access and outcomes for these people.
    Brain Injury 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Primary objective: Cerebral oedema is a common complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The use of Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) imaging in combination with Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) has the potential to distinguish between cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema. This study hypothesized a significant relationship between cytotoxic lesion volume and outcome. Research design: This observational study reports on a convenience sample where MRI was obtained for clinical purposes. Methods and procedures: Clinical post-TBI FLAIR and DWI images were analysed. For this study, lesions were defined as primarily cytotoxic oedema if the ratio of FLAIR to DWI lesion volume was comparable, defined as a ratio <2. If the ratio of FLAIR to DWI lesion volume was ≥2, oedema was considered predominantly of vasogenic origin. Main outcomes and results: The sample consisted primarily of males with TBIs whose injury severity ranged from complicated mild to severe. Analysis revealed that both oedema types are common after TBI and both are associated with functional deficits 6 months after injury. Conclusions: Acute MRI may be useful to assess pathology at the tissue after traumatic brain injury. Clinical trials targeting cytotoxic and vasogenic mechanisms of oedema formation may benefit from using DWI and FLAIR MRI as a means to differentiate the predominant oedema type after TBI.
    Brain Injury 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To formally evaluate the written discharge advice for people with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Eleven publications met the inclusion criteria: (1) intended for adults; (2) ≤two A4 pages; (3) published in English; (4) freely accessible; and (5) currently used (or suitable for use) in Australian hospital emergency departments or similar settings. Two independent raters evaluated the content and style of each publication against established standards. The readability of the publication, the diagnostic term(s) contained in it and a modified Patient Literature Usefulness Index (mPLUI) were also evaluated. Results: The mean content score was 19.18 ± 8.53 (maximum = 31) and the mean style score was 6.8 ± 1.34 (maximum = 8). The mean Flesch-Kincaid reading ease score was 66.42 ± 4.3. The mean mPLUI score was 65.86 ± 14.97 (maximum = 100). Higher scores on these metrics indicate more desirable properties. Over 80% of the publications used mixed diagnostic terminology. One publication scored optimally on two of the four metrics and highly on the others. Discussion: The content, style, readability and usefulness of written mTBI discharge advice was highly variable. The provision of written information to patients with mTBI is advised, but this variability in materials highlights the need for evaluation before distribution. Areas are identified to guide the improvement of written mTBI discharge advice.
    Brain Injury 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This preliminary study explored differences between adults with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) for speech processing accuracy, processing speed and effort in various conditions of interference. Methods: Ten adults with TBI and six adults without TBI participated. Speech processing was studied using sentence repetition in six listening conditions with different types of interference, including noise and two simultaneous talkers. Participants repeated sentences and rated effort. Participants also completed standardized tests of cognition, including working memory and processing speed measures. Results: Sentence repetition accuracy did not differ between groups. However, the TBI group demonstrated slower processing speed than the control group and also reported significantly greater effort in the two-talker condition. Faster processing speed was also correlated with higher accuracy in the two-talker condition. Conclusions: Results of this study show group similarities in repetition accuracy across listening conditions, but group differences in speed and effort. This preliminary finding, as well as the relationship between processing speed and repetition accuracy, suggests that it is only in the most complex listening conditions that the effects of brain injury may be detectable.
    Brain Injury 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Epidemiology of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly defined in the Pacific region, including in New Caledonia. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, causes and outcome of hospital-admitted severe TBI in the whole population of New Caledonia. Methods: A retrospective study on patients with severe TBI admitted to the only trauma centre during the 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The electronic patient register was searched for diagnoses of intracranial injuries to identify patients. Severe TBI was defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale Score ≤ 8 during the first 24 hours after injury. Results: The annual incidence ranged from 10/100 000 in 2010 to 15/100 000 in 2011. Road traffic accidents (n = 109; 71%), falls (n = 26; 17%) and assaults (n = 19; 12%) were causes of severe TBI. Young Melanesian adults (median age = 26 [19-36]) were the most affected. In ICU, the overall case-fatality rate was 25%. The mortality rate was the highest among victims of assaults (47%). Conclusions: The high incidence of hospital-admitted patients with severe TBI in this study combined with high in-ICU mortality rates supports the need for targeted public health action to prevent assaults and traffic road accidents in this vulnerable population.
    Brain Injury 06/2014;