Physics in Medicine and Biology (Phys Med Biol)

Publisher: Institute of Physics (Great Britain), IOP Publishing

Journal description

Subject coverage. The application of theoretical and practical physics to medicine, physiology and biology. Papers on physics with no obvious medical or biological applications, or papers which are almost entirely clinical or biological in their approach are not acceptable.

Current impact factor: 2.76

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.761
2013 Impact Factor 2.922
2012 Impact Factor 2.701
2011 Impact Factor 2.829
2010 Impact Factor 3.056
2009 Impact Factor 2.781
2008 Impact Factor 2.784
2007 Impact Factor 2.528
2006 Impact Factor 2.873
2005 Impact Factor 2.683
2004 Impact Factor 2.368
2003 Impact Factor 2.128
2002 Impact Factor 2.342
2001 Impact Factor 1.805
2000 Impact Factor 2.013
1999 Impact Factor 1.888
1998 Impact Factor 1.768
1997 Impact Factor 1.542
1996 Impact Factor 1.401
1995 Impact Factor 1.193
1994 Impact Factor 1.386
1993 Impact Factor 1.246
1992 Impact Factor 1.117

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.97
Cited half-life 7.40
Immediacy index 0.45
Eigenfactor 0.04
Article influence 0.97
Website Physics in Medicine and Biology website
Other titles Physics in medicine & biology (Online), Physics in medicine and biology
ISSN 1361-6560
OCLC 34482128
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

IOP Publishing

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    • Pre-print on author's personal website, repository or arXiv.
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
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    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
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    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'IOP Publishing'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Monte Carlo (MC) variance reduction technique is developed for prompt-γ emitters calculations in proton therapy. Prompt-γ emitted through nuclear fragmentation reactions and exiting the patient during proton therapy could play an important role to help monitoring the treatment. However, the estimation of the number and the energy of emitted prompt-γ per primary proton with MC simulations is a slow process. In order to estimate the local distribution of prompt-γ emission in a volume of interest for a given proton beam of the treatment plan, a MC variance reduction technique based on a specific track length estimator (TLE) has been developed. First an elemental database of prompt-γ emission spectra is established in the clinical energy range of incident protons for all elements in the composition of human tissues. This database of the prompt-γ spectra is built offline with high statistics. Regarding the implementation of the prompt-γ TLE MC tally, each proton deposits along its track the expectation of the prompt-γ spectra from the database according to the proton kinetic energy and the local material composition. A detailed statistical study shows that the relative efficiency mainly depends on the geometrical distribution of the track length. Benchmarking of the proposed prompt-γ TLE MC technique with respect to an analogous MC technique is carried out. A large relative efficiency gain is reported, ca. 10(5).
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/2015; 60(20):8067-8086. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/8067
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate hepatic tumor detection using ultrafast cone-beam computed tomography (UCBCT) cross-sectional and 3D post-processed image datasets.657 patients were examined using UCBCT during hepatic transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and data were collected retrospectively from January 2012 to September 2014. Tumor detectability, diagnostic ability, detection accuracy and sensitivity were examined for different hepatic tumors using UCBCT cross-sectional, perfusion blood volume (PBV) and UCBCT-MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) fused image datasets. Appropriate statistical tests were used to compare collected sample data.Fused image data showed the significantly higher (all P < 0.05) diagnostic ability for hepatic tumors compared to UCBCT or PBV image data. The detectability of small hepatic tumors (<5 mm) was significantly reduced (all P < 0.05) using UCBCT cross-sectional images compared to MRI or fused image data; however, PBV improved tumor detectability using a color display. Fused image data produced 100% tumor sensitivity due to the simultaneous availability of MRI and UCBCT information during tumor diagnosis.Fused image data produced excellent hepatic tumor sensitivity, detectability and diagnostic ability compared to other datasets assessed. Fused image data is extremely reliable and useful compared to UCBCT cross-sectional or PBV image datasets to depict hepatic tumors during TACE. Partial anatomical visualization on cross-sectional images was compensated by fused image data during tumor diagnosis.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/2015; 60(20):8109-8127. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/8109
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that a dual-layer, dual-color scintillator construct for microscopic CT, originally proposed to increase sensitivity in synchrotron imaging, can also be used to perform material quantification and classification when coupled with polychromatic illumination. We consider two different approaches to data handling: (1) a data-domain material decomposition whose estimation performance can be characterized by the Cramer-Rao lower bound formalism but which requires careful calibration and (2) an image-domain material classification approach that is more robust to calibration errors. The data-domain analysis indicates that useful levels of SNR (>5) could be achieved in one second or less at typical bending magnet fluxes for relatively large amounts of contrast (several mm path length, such as in a fluid flow experiment) and at typical undulator fluxes for small amount of contrast (tens of microns path length, such as an angiography experiment). The tools introduced could of course be used to study and optimize parameters for a wider range of potential applications. The image domain approach was analyzed in terms of its ability to distinguish different elemental stains by characterizing the angle between the lines traced out in a two-dimensional space of effective attenuation coefficient in the front and back layer images. This approach was implemented at a synchrotron and the results were consistent with simulation predictions.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(20):8025-8045. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/8025
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims at selecting and evaluating a ripple filter design compatible with non-isocentric proton and carbon ion scanning beam treatment delivery for a compact nozzle. The use of non-isocentric treatments when the patient is shifted as close as possible towards the nozzle exit allows for a reduction in the air gap and thus an improvement in the quality of scanning proton beam treatment delivery. Reducing the air gap is less important for scanning carbon ions, but ripple filters are still necessary for scanning carbon ion beams to reduce the number of energy steps required to deliver homogeneous SOBP. The proper selection of ripple filters also allows a reduction in the possible transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities that could appear in non-isocentric conditions in particular.A thorough review of existing ripple filter designs over the past 16 years is performed and a design for non-isocentric treatment delivery is presented. A unique ripple filter quality index (QIRiFi) independent of the particle type and energy and representative of the ratio between energy modulation and induced scattering is proposed. The Bragg peak width evaluated at the 80% dose level (BPW80) is proposed to relate the energy modulation of the delivered Bragg peaks and the energy layer step size allowing the production of homogeneous SOBP. Gate/Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been validated for carbon ion and ripple filter simulations based on measurements performed at CNAO and subsequently used for a detailed analysis of the proposed ripple filter design.A combination of two ripple filters in a series has been validated for non-isocentric delivery and did not show significant transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities. Non-isocentric conditions allow a significant reduction in the spot size at the patient entrance (up to 350% and 200% for protons and carbon ions with range shifter, respectively), and therefore in the lateral penumbra in the patients.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(20):7985-8005. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/7985
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been a lot of research interest in developing fast Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation methods on graphics processing unit (GPU) platforms. A good linear accelerator (linac) source model is critical for both accuracy and efficiency considerations. In principle, an analytical source model should be more preferred for GPU-based MC dose engines than a phase-space file-based model, in that data loading and CPU-GPU data transfer can be avoided. In this paper, we presented an analytical field-independent source model specifically developed for GPU-based MC dose calculations, associated with a GPU-friendly sampling scheme. A key concept called phase-space-ring (PSR) was proposed. Each PSR contained a group of particles that were of the same type, close in energy and reside in a narrow ring on the phase-space plane located just above the upper jaws. The model parameterized the probability densities of particle location, direction and energy for each primary photon PSR, scattered photon PSR and electron PSR. Models of one 2D Gaussian distribution or multiple Gaussian components were employed to represent the particle direction distributions of these PSRs. A method was developed to analyze a reference phase-space file and derive corresponding model parameters. To efficiently use our model in MC dose calculations on GPU, we proposed a GPU-friendly sampling strategy, which ensured that the particles sampled and transported simultaneously are of the same type and close in energy to alleviate GPU thread divergences. To test the accuracy of our model, dose distributions of a set of open fields in a water phantom were calculated using our source model and compared to those calculated using the reference phase-space files. For the high dose gradient regions, the average distance-to-agreement (DTA) was within 1 mm and the maximum DTA within 2 mm. For relatively low dose gradient regions, the root-mean-square (RMS) dose difference was within 1.1% and the maximum dose difference within 1.7%. The maximum relative difference of output factors was within 0.5%. Over 98.5% passing rate was achieved in 3D gamma-index tests with 2%/2 mm criteria in both an IMRT prostate patient case and a head-and-neck case. These results demonstrated the efficacy of our model in terms of accurately representing a reference phase-space file. We have also tested the efficiency gain of our source model over our previously developed phase-space-let file source model. The overall efficiency of dose calculation was found to be improved by ~1.3-2.2 times in water and patient cases using our analytical model.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(20):7941-7967. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/7941
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the lack of signal from solid bone in normal MR sequences for the purpose of MR-based attenuation correction, investigators have proposed using the ultrashort echo time (UTE) pulse sequence, which yields signal from bone. However, the UTE-based segmentation approach might not fully capture the intra- and inter-subject bone density variation, which will inevitably lead to bias in reconstructed PET images. In this work, we investigated using the water- and fat-suppressed proton projection imaging (WASPI) sequence to obtain accurate and continuous attenuation for bones. This approach is capable of accounting for intra- and inter-subject bone attenuation variations. Using data acquired from a phantom, we have found that that attenuation correction based on the WASPI sequence is more accurate and precise when compared to either conventional MR attenuation correction or UTE-based segmentation approaches.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(20):N369-N381. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/N369
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    ABSTRACT: Heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia can be treated by catheter-based thermal ablation. However, clinically available systems based on radio-frequency or cryothermal ablation suffer from limited energy penetration and the lack of lesion's extent monitoring. An ultrasound-guided transesophageal device has recently successfully been used to perform High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) ablation in targeted regions of the heart in vivo. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a dual therapy and imaging approach on the same transesophageal device. We demonstrate in vivo that quantitative cardiac shear-wave elastography (SWE) can be performed with the device and we show on ex vivo samples that transesophageal SWE can map the extent of the HIFU lesions.First, SWE was validated with the transesophageal endoscope in one sheep in vivo. The stiffness of normal atrial and ventricular tissues has been assessed during the cardiac cycle ([Formula: see text]) and mapped ([Formula: see text]). Second, HIFU ablation has been performed with the therapy-imaging transesophageal device in ex vivo chicken breast samples (n = 3), then atrial (left, [Formula: see text]) and ventricular (left [Formula: see text], right [Formula: see text]) porcine heart tissues. SWE provided stiffness maps of the tissues before and after ablation. Areas of the lesions were obtained by tissue color change with gross pathology and compared to SWE.During the cardiac cycle stiffness varied from 0.5 ± 0.1 kPa to 6.0 ± 0.3 kPa in the atrium and from 1.3 ± 0.3 kPa to 13.5 ± 9.1 kPa in the ventricles. The thermal lesions were visible on all SWE maps performed after ablation. Shear modulus of the ablated zones increased to 16.3 ± 5.5 kPa (versus 4.4 ± 1.6 kPa before ablation) in the chicken breast, to 30.3 ± 10.3 kPa (versus 12.2 ± 4.3 kPa) in the atria and to 73.8 ± 13.9 kPa (versus 21.2 ± 3.3 kPa) in the ventricles. On gross pathology, the size of the lesions ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 cm(2) in the imaging plane area. Elasticity-estimated depths and widths of the lesions differed respectively with a median of 0.2 mm (first quartile Q1: -0.8 mm; third quartile Q3: 2.6 mm) for a mean squared error (MSE) of 5.1 mm(2) and a median of 0.2 mm (Q1: -2.7 mm; Q3: 2.7 mm) for a MSE of 11.1 mm(2) from gross pathology.We have demonstrated the feasibility of the HIFU thermal ablation monitoring using a dual therapy and imaging transesophageal device. The combination of HIFU, ultrasound imaging and SWE on the same transesophageal system could lead to a new clinical device for a safer and controlled treatment of a wide variety of cardiac arrhythmias.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(20):7829-7846. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/7829
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    ABSTRACT: Two collapsed cone (CC) superposition algorithms have been implemented for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry of photon emitters. The straight CC (SCC) superposition method uses a water energy deposition kernel (EDKw) for each electron, positron and photon components, while the primary and scatter CC (PSCC) superposition method uses different EDKw for primary and once-scattered photons. PSCC was implemented only for photons originating from the nucleus, precluding its application to positron emitters. EDKw are linearly scaled by radiological distance, taking into account tissue density heterogeneities. The implementation was tested on 100, 300 and 600 keV mono-energetic photons and (18)F, (99m)Tc, (131)I and (177)Lu. The kernels were generated using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP and EGSnrc. The validation was performed on 6 phantoms representing interfaces between soft-tissues, lung and bone. The figures of merit were γ (3%, 3 mm) and γ (5%, 5 mm) criterions corresponding to the computation comparison on 80 absorbed doses (AD) points per phantom between Monte Carlo simulations and CC algorithms. PSCC gave better results than SCC for the lowest photon energy (100 keV). For the 3 isotopes computed with PSCC, the percentage of AD points satisfying the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion was always over 99%. A still good but worse result was found with SCC, since at least 97% of AD-values verified the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion, except a value of 57% for the (99m)Tc with the lung/bone interface. The CC superposition method for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry is a good alternative to Monte Carlo simulations while reducing computation complexity.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(20):7861-7876. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/7861
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    ABSTRACT: Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) work well for radiation dosimetry. However, they show some temperature dependence, and a priori knowledge of the temperature surrounding the PSD is required to correct for this dependence. We present a novel approach to correct PSD response values for temperature changes instantaneously and without the need for prior knowledge of the temperature value. In addition to rendering the detector temperature-independent, this approach allows for actual temperature measurement using solely the PSD apparatus. With a temperature-controlled water tank, the temperature was varied from room temperature to more than 40 °C and the PSD was used to measure the dose delivered from a cobalt-60 photon beam unit to within an average of 0.72% from the expected value. The temperature was measured during each acquisition with the PSD and a thermocouple and values were within 1 °C of each other. The depth-dose curve of a 6 MV photon beam was also measured under warm non-stable conditions and this curve agreed to within an average of -0.98% from the curve obtained at room temperature. The feasibility of rendering PSDs temperature-independent was demonstrated with our approach, which also enabled simultaneous measurement of both dose and temperature. This novel approach improves both the robustness and versatility of PSDs.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(20):7927-7939. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/7927
  • R W Bouwman · R E van Engen · K C Young · G J den Heeten · M J M Broeders · S Schopphoven · C R L P N Jeukens · W J H Veldkamp · D R Dance
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    ABSTRACT: For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last decades the automatic exposure control (AEC) increased in complexity and became more sensitive to (local) differences in breast composition. The question is how well the AGD estimated using these simple dosimetry phantoms agrees with the average patient AGD. In this study the AGDs for both dosimetry phantoms and for patients have been evaluated for 5 different x-ray systems in DM and DBT modes. It was found that the ratios between patient and phantom AGD did not differ considerably using both dosimetry phantoms. These ratios averaged over all breast thicknesses were 1.14 and 1.15 for the PMMA and PMMA-PE dosimetry phantoms respectively in DM mode and 1.00 and 1.02 in the DBT mode. These ratios were deemed to be sufficiently close to unity to be suitable for dosimetry evaluation in quality control procedures. However care should be taken when comparing systems for DM and DBT since depending on the AEC operation, ratios for particular breast thicknesses may differ substantially (0.83-1.96). Although the predictions of both phantoms are similar we advise the use of PMMA + PE slabs for both DM and DBT to harmonize dosimetry protocols and avoid any potential issues with the use of spacers with the PMMA phantoms.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(20):7893-7907. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/7893
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    ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8 × 8, 4 × 4 and 1 × 1 mm (width × length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman's rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D surface profile parameters investigated were capable of reliably differentiating healthy from early-degenerative cartilage, while scan area sizes considerably affected parameter values. In conclusion, cartilage surface integrity may be adequately assessed by 3D surface profile parameters, which should be used in combination for the comprehensive and thorough evaluation and overall improved diagnostic performance. OCT- and image-based surface assessment could become a valuable adjunct tool to standard arthroscopy.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(19):7747-7762. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/19/7747
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    ABSTRACT: The multi-gradient echo MR thermometry (MGE MRT) method is proposed to use at the interface of the muscle and fat layers found in the abdominal wall, to monitor MR-HIFU heating. As MGE MRT uses fat as a reference, it is field-drift corrected. Relative temperature maps were reconstructed by subtracting absolute temperature maps. Because the absolute temperature maps are reconstructed of individual scans, MGE MRT provides the flexibility of interleaved mapping of temperature changes between two arbitrary time points. The method's performance was assessed in an ex vivo water bath experiment. An ex vivo HIFU experiment was performed to show the method's ability to monitor heating of consecutive HIFU sonications and to estimate cooling time constants, in the presence of field drift. The interleaved use between scans of a clinical protocol was demonstrated in vivo in a patient during a clinical uterine fibroid treatment. The relative temperature measurements were accurate (mean absolute error 0.3 °C) and provided excellent visualization of the heating of consecutive HIFU sonications. Maps were reconstructed of estimated cooling time constants and mean ROI values could be well explained by the applied heating pattern. Heating upon HIFU sonication and subsequent cooling could be observed in the in vivo demonstration.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(19):7729-7746. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/19/7729
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory and cardiac motions are inevitable during the relatively long acquisition time of cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan. The correction of the resultant motion blur has become a significant challenge due to recent spatial resolution improvement of the PET scanners. The majority of current motion compensation algorithms are based on gating as a primary step. A new approach based on temporal basis functions is developed to correct respiratory and cardiac motion simultaneously in cardiac PET within the normal scanning time (NAMC-CPET). Simulation and experimental studies are conducted to evaluate and validate the final outputs in comparison to the existing gating methods. A dynamic digital phantom is used to simulate realistic human thorax and abdomen with respiratory and cardiac motions. GATE simulation was run at China National Grid Center to obtain realistic PET data in a reasonable time. Moreover, Tibet minipig experiments were conducted using a preclinical small animal PET scanner developed at HUST to validate the performance of the NAMC-CPET in real data. The results reveal that NAMC-CPET outperformed the existing gating methods (respiratory, cardiac, and dual) in cardiac imaging in term of noise reduction and contrast, especially in short acquisition duration. NAMC-CPET obtained better results in the conducted experiments in terms of contrast and the visibility of the heart. In contrast, the dual gating failed to obtain valuable images in the normal scan time due to the low (18)F-FDG uptake. NAMC-CPET is advantageous in the low-statistic situation. The results are promising with great potential implications in cardiac PET imaging in terms of the radioactive dose and scan time reduction.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(19):7779-7804. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/19/7779
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced ultrasound (US) imaging of vascular flow and morphological features in the prediction of a pathologic complete response (pCR) and a partial response (PR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer.Twenty-nine consecutive patients with T2 breast cancer treated with six courses of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler US with high-definition flow (HDF) technology was used to investigate the blood flow in and morphological features of the tumors. Six vascularity quantization features, three morphological features, and two vascular direction features were selected and extracted from the US images. A support vector machine was used to evaluate the changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and pCR and PR were predicted on the basis of these changes.The most accurate prediction of pCR was achieved after the first chemotherapy cycle, with an accuracy of 93.1% and a specificity of 85.5%, while that of a PR was achieved after the second cycle, with an accuracy of 79.31% and a specificity of 72.22%.Vascularity data can be useful to predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Determination of changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 3D power Doppler US with HDF can generate accurate predictions of the patient response, facilitating early decision-making.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(19):7763-7778. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/19/7763
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    ABSTRACT: The use of grating based Talbot-Lau interferometry permits the acquisition of differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging with a conventional medical x-ray source and detector. However, due to the limited area of the gratings, limited area of the detector, or both, data truncation image artifacts are often observed in tomographic DPC acquisitions and reconstructions, such as tomosynthesis (limited-angle tomography). When data are truncated in the conventional x-ray absorption tomosynthesis imaging, a variety of methods have been developed to mitigate the truncation artifacts. However, the same strategies used to mitigate absorption truncation artifacts do not yield satisfactory reconstruction results in DPC tomosynthesis reconstruction. In this work, several new methods have been proposed to mitigate data truncation artifacts in a DPC tomosynthesis system. The proposed methods have been validated using experimental data of a mammography accreditation phantom, a bovine udder, as well as several human cadaver breast specimens using a bench-top DPC imaging system at our facility.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(19):7713-7728. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/19/7713
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    ABSTRACT: To develop an automated approach for 3D quantitative assessment and measurement of alpha angles from the femoral head-neck (FHN) junction using bone models derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hip joint.Bilateral MR images of the hip joints were acquired from 30 male volunteers (healthy active individuals and high-performance athletes, aged 18-49 years) using a water-excited 3D dual echo steady state (DESS) sequence. In a subset of these subjects (18 water-polo players), additional True Fast Imaging with Steady-state Precession (TrueFISP) images were acquired from the right hip joint. For both MR image sets, an active shape model based algorithm was used to generate automated 3D bone reconstructions of the proximal femur. Subsequently, a local coordinate system of the femur was constructed to compute a 2D shape map to project femoral head sphericity for calculation of alpha angles around the FHN junction. To evaluate automated alpha angle measures, manual analyses were performed on anterosuperior and anterior radial MR slices from the FHN junction that were automatically reformatted using the constructed coordinate system.High intra- and inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.95) was found for manual alpha angle measurements from the auto-extracted anterosuperior and anterior radial slices. Strong correlations were observed between manual and automatic measures of alpha angles for anterosuperior (r = 0.84) and anterior (r = 0.92) FHN positions. For matched DESS and TrueFISP images, there were no significant differences between automated alpha angle measures obtained from the upper anterior quadrant of the FHN junction (two-way repeated measures ANOVA, F < 0.01, p = 0.98).Our automatic 3D method analysed MR images of the hip joints to generate alpha angle measures around the FHN junction circumference with very good reliability and reproducibility. This work has the potential to improve analyses of cam-type lesions of the FHN junction for large-scale morphometric and clinical MR investigations of the human hip region.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 09/2015; 60(19):7601-7616. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/19/7601