Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

Apoptosis is an international peer-reviewed journal published bimonthly. The Journal is devoted to the rapid publication of innovative basic and clinically-oriented investigations into programmed cell death. It aims to stimulate both research on the basis of mechanisms of apoptosis and on its role in various human disease processes including: cancer autoimmune disease viral infection AIDS cardiovascular disease neurodegenerative disorders osteoporosis and ageing. The Editor-In-Chief recognises the need to encourage the development of clinical therapies against apoptosis-related diseases.

Current impact factor: 3.61

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.614
2012 Impact Factor 3.949
2011 Impact Factor 4.788
2010 Impact Factor 4.397
2009 Impact Factor 4.066
2008 Impact Factor 3.971
2007 Impact Factor 3.043
2006 Impact Factor 3.421
2005 Impact Factor 4.497
2004 Impact Factor 4.54
2003 Impact Factor 4.563
2002 Impact Factor 3.421
2001 Impact Factor 0.909
2000 Impact Factor 0.949
1999 Impact Factor 1.585

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.16
Cited half-life 5.50
Immediacy index 0.63
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.24
Website Apoptosis website
Other titles Apoptosis (Online)
ISSN 1360-8185
OCLC 37773456
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract During embryonic development, melanoblasts, the precursors of melanocytes, emerge from a subpopulation of the neural crest stem cells and migrate to colonize skin. Melanomas arise during melanoblast differentiation into melanocytes and from young proliferating melanocytes through somatic mutagenesis and epigenetic regulations. In the present study, we used several human melanoma cell lines from the sequential phases of melanoma development (radial growth phase, vertical growth phase and metastatic phase) to compare: (i) the frequency and efficiency of the induction of cell death via apoptosis and necroptosis; (ii) the presence of neural and cancer stem cell biomarkers as well as death receptors, DR5 and FAS, in both adherent and spheroid cultures of melanoma cells; (iii) anti-apoptotic effects of the endogenous production of cytokines and (iv) the ability of melanoma cells to perform neural trans-differentiation. We demonstrated that programed necrosis or necroptosis, could be induced in two metastatic melanoma lines, FEMX and OM431, while the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis was prevalent in a vast majority of melanoma lines. All melanoma lines used in the current study expressed substantial levels of pluripotency markers, SOX2 and NANOG. There was a trend for increasing expression of Nestin, an early neuroprogenitor marker, during melanoma progression. Most of the melanoma lines, including WM35, FEMX and A375, can grow as a spheroid culture in serum-free media with supplements. It was possible to induce neural trans-differentiation of 1205Lu and OM431 melanoma cells in serum-free media supplemented with insulin. This was confirmed by the expression of neuronal markers, doublecortin and β3-Tubulin, by significant growth of neurites and by the negative regulation of this process by a dominant-negative Rac1N17. These results suggest a relative plasticity of differentiated melanoma cells and a possibility for their neural trans-differentiation without the necessity for preliminary dedifferentiation.
    APOPTOSIS 05/2015;
  • APOPTOSIS 04/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) exhibit a broad spectrum of antitumor activities, however, their molecular mechanisms of antitumor have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have synthesized a series of novel dithiocarbamate derivatives. These DTCs were examined for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. In this study, one of dithiocarbamate (DTC1) with higher potential for HeLa cells was chosen to investigate molecular mechanisms for its anti-tumor activities. DTC1 could inhibit proliferation, and highly induce apoptosis in HeLa cells by activating caspase-3, -6 and -9; moreover, activities of caspase-3, -6 and -9 were inhibited by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Furthermore, DTC1 decreased the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased expression of cytosol cytochrome c, Bak, Bax and p53 in a time-dependent manner but had no effect on the level of Rb. It was shown that DTC1 induced HeLa cells apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway as tested by the wild type p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α. Additionally, the relative expression of E6 and E7 were evaluated in HPV18-positive (HeLa cells) by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results firstly demonstrated that DTC1 suppressed both expression of E6 mRNA and E6 oncoprotein, but had no effect on the expression of E7 mRNA and protein in HPV18. Our results suggested that DTC1 may serve as novel chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cervical cancer and potential anti-HPV virus candidates that merit further studies.
    APOPTOSIS 03/2015; 20(6). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1114-4
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    ABSTRACT: Sphingolipids are a diverse class of signaling molecules implicated in many important aspects of cellular biology, including growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Autophagy and apoptosis are fundamental physiological processes essential for the maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. There is great interest into the investigation of sphingolipids and their roles in regulating these key physiological processes as well as the manifestation of several disease states. With what is known to date, the entire scope of sphingolipid signaling is too broad, and a single review would hardly scratch the surface. Therefore, this review attempts to highlight the significance of sphingolipids in determining cell fate (e.g. apoptosis, autophagy, cell survival) in the context of the healthy lung, as well as various respiratory diseases including acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. We present an overview of the latest findings related to sphingolipids and their metabolites, provide a short introduction to autophagy and apoptosis, and then briefly highlight the regulatory roles of sphingolipid metabolites in switching between cell survival and cell death. Finally, we describe functions of sphingolipids in autophagy and apoptosis in lung homeostasis, especially in the context of the aforementioned diseases.
    APOPTOSIS 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1112-6
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    ABSTRACT: The amyloid precursor like protein-1 (APLP1) belongs to the amyloid precursor protein family that also includes the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the amyloid precursor like protein-2 (APLP2). Though the three proteins share similar structures and undergo the same cleavage processing by α-, β- and γ-secretases, APLP1 shows divergent subcellular localization from that of APP and APLP2, and thus, may perform distinct roles in vivo. While extensive studies have been focused on APP, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the functions of APLP1 remain largely elusive. Here we report that the expression of APLP1 in Drosophila induces cell death and produces developmental defects in wing and thorax. This function of APLP1 depends on the transcription factor dFoxO, as the depletion of dFoxO abrogates APLP1-induced cell death and adult defects. Consistently, APLP1 up-regulates the transcription of dFoxO target hid and reaper-two well known pro-apoptotic genes. Thus, the present study provides the first in vivo evidence that APLP1 is able to induce cell death, and that FoxO is a crucial downstream mediator of APLP1's activity.
    APOPTOSIS 03/2015; 20(6). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1097-1
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogens stimulate growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer but paradoxically induce tumor regress under certain circumstances. We have shown that long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) enhances the sensitivity of hormone dependent breast cancer cells to estradiol (E2) so that physiological concentrations of estradiol induce apoptosis in these cells. E2-induced apoptosis involve both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways but precise mechanisms remain unclear. We found that exposure of LTED MCF-7 cells to E2 activated AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, E2 inhibited AMPK activation in wild type MCF-7 cells where E2 prevents apoptosis. As a result of AMPK activation, the transcriptional activity of FoxO3, a downstream factor of AMPK, was up-regulated in E2 treatment of LTED. Increased activity of FoxO3 was demonstrated by up-regulation of three FoxO3 target genes, Bim, Fas ligand (FasL), and Gadd45α. Among them, Bim and FasL mediate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis respectively and Gadd45α causes cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. To further confirm the role of AMPK in apoptosis, we used AMPK activator AICAR in wild type MCF-7 cells and examined apoptosis, proliferation and expression of Bim, FasL, and Gadd45α. The effects of AICAR on these parameters recapitulated those observed in E2-treated LTED cells. Activation of AMPK by AICAR also increased expression of Bax in MCF-7 cells and its localization to mitochondria, which is a required process for apoptosis. These results reveal that AMPK is an important factor mediating E2-induced apoptosis in LTED cells, which is implicative of therapeutic potential for relapsing breast cancer after hormone therapy.
    APOPTOSIS 02/2015; 20(6). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1111-7
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is one of severe cellular stress and it is well known to be associated with a worse outcome since a lack of oxygen accelerates the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy, an important and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is closely related to the apoptosis caused by hypoxia. Generally autophagy blocks the induction of apoptosis and inhibits the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase which could reduce cellular injury. However, in special cases, autophagy or autophagy-relevant proteins may help to induce apoptosis, which could aggravate cell damage under hypoxia condition. In addition, the activation of apoptosis-related proteins-caspase can also degrade autophagy-related proteins, such as Atg3, Atg4, Beclin1 protein, inhibiting autophagy. Although the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis has been known for rather complex for more than a decade, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been clearly understood. This short review discusses and summarizes the dual role of autophagy and the interaction and molecular regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and apoptosis under hypoxia.
    APOPTOSIS 02/2015; 20(6). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1110-8
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and gangliosides that have the property to segregate and concentrate proteins. Lipid and protein composition of lipid rafts differs from that of the surrounding membrane, thus providing sorting platforms and hubs for signal transduction molecules, including CD95 death receptor-mediated signaling. CD95 can be recruited to rafts in a reversible way through S-palmitoylation following activation of cells with its physiological cognate ligand as well as with a wide variety of inducers, including several antitumor drugs through ligand-independent intracellular mechanisms. CD95 translocation to rafts can be modulated pharmacologically, thus becoming a target for the treatment of apoptosis-defective diseases, such as cancer. CD95-mediated signaling largely depends on protein-protein interactions, and the recruitment and concentration of CD95 and distinct downstream apoptotic molecules in membrane raft domains, forming raft-based supramolecular entities that act as hubs for apoptotic signaling molecules, favors the generation and amplification of apoptotic signals. Efficient CD95-mediated apoptosis involves CD95 and raft internalization, as well as the involvement of different subcellular organelles. In this review, we briefly summarize and discuss the involvement of lipid rafts in the regulation of CD95-mediated apoptosis that may provide a new avenue for cancer therapy.
    APOPTOSIS 02/2015; 20(5). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1104-6
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis and autophagy are two evolutionary conserved processes that exert a critical role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. While apoptosis is a tightly regulated cell program implicated in the removal of damaged or unwanted cells, autophagy is a cellular catabolic pathway that is involved in the lysosomal degradation and recycling of proteins and organelles, and is thereby considered an important cytoprotection mechanism. Sphingolipids (SLs), which are ubiquitous membrane lipids in eukaryotes, participate in the generation of various membrane structures, including lipid rafts and caveolae, and contribute to a number of cellular functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis and, as suggested more recently, autophagy. For instance, SLs are hypothesized to be involved in several intracellular processes, including organelle membrane scrambling, whilst at the plasma membrane lipid rafts, acting as catalytic domains, strongly contribute to the ignition of critical signaling pathways determining cell fate. In particular, by targeting several shared regulators, ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate, dihydroceramide, sphingomyelin and gangliosides seem able to differentially regulate the autophagic pathway and/or contribute to the autophagosome formation. This review illustrates recent studies on this matter, particularly lipid rafts, briefly underscoring the possible implication of SLs and their alterations in the autophagy disturbances and in the pathogenesis of some human diseases.
    APOPTOSIS 02/2015; 20(5). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1102-8
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    ABSTRACT: As a glycol-protein located in extracellular matrix (ECM), tenascin-C (TNC) is absent in most normal adult tissues but is highly expressed in the majority of malignant solid tumors. Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an abundant fibrous tissue rich in TNC. Although it was reported that TNC's expression increased in the progression from low-grade precursor lesions to invasive cancer and was associated with tumor differentiation in human pancreatic cancer, studies on the relations between TNC and tumor progression in pancreatic cancer were rare. In this study, we performed an analysis to determine the effects of TNC on modulating cell apoptosis and chemo-resistance and explored its mechanisms involving activation in pancreatic cancer cell. The expressions of TNC, ERK1/2/p-ERK1/2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Then the effects of exogenous and endogenous TNC on the regulation of tumor proliferation, apoptosis and gemcitabine cytotoxicity were investigated. The associations among the TNC knockdown, TNC stimulation and expressions of ERK1/2/NF-κB/p65 and apoptotic regulatory proteins were also analyzed in cell lines. The mechanism of TNC on modulating cancer cell apoptosis and drug resistant through activation of ERK1/2/NF-κB/p65 signals was evaluated. The effect of TNC on regulating cell cycle distribution was also tested. TNC, ERK1/2/p-ERK1/2, and apoptotic regulatory proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 were highly expressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues. In vitro, exogenous TNC promoted pancreatic cancer cell growth also mediates basal as well as starved and drug-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. The effects of TNC on anti-apoptosis were induced by the activation state of ERK1/2/NF-κB/p65 signals in pancreatic cell. TNC phosphorylate ERK1/2 to induce NF-κB/p65 nucleus translocation. The latter contributes to promote Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 protein expressions and reduce caspase activity, which inhibit cell apoptotic processes. TNC mediated gemcitabine chemo-resistance via modulating cell apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. TNC resulted in the enrichment of pancreatic cancer cells in S-phase with a concomitant decrease in number of cells in G1 phase. The present study indicated TNC in cellular matrix induces an activation of ERK1/2/NF-κB/p65 signaling cascade and thereby mediates resistance to apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. TNC could serve as a diagnostic marker and predictor of gemcitabine response and potentially as a target for chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer.
    APOPTOSIS 02/2015; 20(6). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1106-4
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    ABSTRACT: Maintenance of cellular homeostasis requires tight and coordinated control of numerous metabolic pathways, which are governed by interconnected networks of signaling pathways and energy-sensing regulators. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway by which the cell self-digests its own components, has over the past decade been recognized as an essential part of metabolism. Autophagy not only rids the cell of excessive or damaged organelles, misfolded proteins, and invading microorganisms, it also provides nutrients to maintain crucial cellular functions. Besides serving as essential structural moieties of biomembranes, lipids including sphingolipids are increasingly being recognized as central regulators of a number of important cellular processes, including autophagy. In the present review we describe how sphingolipids, with special emphasis on ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate, can act as physiological regulators of autophagy in relation to cellular and organismal growth, survival, and aging.
    APOPTOSIS 02/2015; 20(5). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1108-2
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    ABSTRACT: Gangliosides are a diverse group of sialic acid containing glycosphigolipids that are abundantly present in an outer plasma membrane of some cells. Biological roles of gangliosides and other lipids in cell fate regulation are being extensively studied. Gangliosides are well known to be involved in interactions between cells and in signal transduction to regulate growth, adhesion and motility. Moreover, many gangliosides are tumor-associated antigens over-expressed on several tumor types. As a result, monoclonal antibodies binding gangliosides can be used to diagnose, monitor and to treat cancer patients. In the review, we gather and discuss data of various research groups on direct cytotoxic effects elicited by several ganglioside-specific antibodies, which bind to GM2, N-acetyl-GM2, N-glycolyl-GM2, GM3, GD3, GD2, O-acetyl-GD2, without involvement of immunological mechanisms. Thus, in cultures of numerous human and mouse cancer cell lines, the antibodies were reported to cause morphological changes, aggregation and detachment of cells, inhibition of proliferation and cell death involving necrosis, apoptosis and oncosis-like mechanisms. Additionally, data on proteome alterations were reviewed that encompass, among others, changes in kinome (P38, JNK, c-MET, ERK1/2, PI3K, AKT, FAK, aurora A, B, C), protein levels of transcription factors (P53, MYCN, HSF1) and pro-apoptotic proteins (caspase 3, BAX). Next, we collected data on application of the antibodies to enhance cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs and small molecule inhibitors. Finally, further research perspectives on the topic are discussed.
    APOPTOSIS 02/2015; 20(5). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1103-7
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    ABSTRACT: High linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion beam (CIB) is becoming very promising tool for various cancer treatments and is more efficient than conventional low LET gamma or X-rays to kill malignant or radio-resistant cells, although detailed mechanism of cell death is still unknown. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a key player in DNA repair and its inhibitors are well-known as radio-sensitizer for low LET radiation. The objective of our study was to find mechanism(s) of induction of apoptosis by CIB and role of PARP-1 in CIB-induced apoptosis. We observed overall higher apoptosis in PARP-1 knocked down HeLa cells (HsiI) compared with negative control H-vector cells after irradiation with CIB (0-4 Gy). CIB activated both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via caspase-9 and caspase-8 activation respectively, followed by caspase-3 activation, apoptotic body, nucleosomal ladder formation and sub-G1 accumulation. Apoptosis inducing factor translocation into nucleus in H-vector but not in HsiI cells after CIB irradiation contributed caspase-independent apoptosis. Higher p53 expression was observed in HsiI cells compared with H-vector after exposure with CIB. Notably, we observed about 37 % fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and mild activation of caspase-8 without any detectable apoptotic body formation in un-irradiated HsiI cells. We conclude that reduction of PARP-1 expression activates apoptotic signals via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in un-irradiated cells. CIB irradiation further intensified both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis synergistically along with up-regulation of p53 in HsiI cells resulting overall higher apoptosis in HsiI than H-vector.
    APOPTOSIS 02/2015; 20(4). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1107-3
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    ABSTRACT: Human (HN) prevents stress-induced apoptosis in many cells/tissues. In this study we showed that HN ameliorated chemotherapy [cyclophosphamide (CP) and Doxorubicin (DOX)]-induced male germ cell apoptosis both ex vivo in seminiferous tubule cultures and in vivo in the testis. HN acts by several putative mechanisms via binding to: an IL-12 like trimeric membrane receptor; BAX; or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, a proapoptotic factor). To understand the mechanisms of HN on male germ cell apoptosis, we studied five HN analogues including: HNG (HN-S14G, a potent agonist), HNG-F6A (no binding to IGFBP-3), HN-S7A (no self-dimerization), HN-C8P (no binding to BAX), and HN-L12A (a HN antagonist) on CP-induced male germ cell apoptosis in mice. CP-induced germ cell apoptosis was inhibited by HN, HNG, HNG-F6A, HN-S7A, and HN-C8P (less effective); but not by HN-L12A. HN-L12A, but not HN-S7A or HN-C8P, blocked the protective effect of HN against CP-induced male germ cell apoptosis. HN, HN-S7A, and HN-C8P restored CP-suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation. These results suggest that HN: (1) decreases DOX (ex vivo) and CP (in vivo) induced male germ cell apoptosis; (2) action is mediated by the membrane receptor/STAT3 with minor contribution by BAX-binding pathway; (3) self-dimerization or binding to IGFBP-3 may not be involved in HN's effect in testis. HN is an important molecule in the regulation of germ cell homeostasis after injury and agonistic analogues may be developed for treating male infertility or protection against chemotherapy side effects.
    APOPTOSIS 02/2015; 20(4). DOI:10.1007/s10495-015-1105-5