Publisher: Springer Verlag


Apoptosis is an international peer-reviewed journal published bimonthly. The Journal is devoted to the rapid publication of innovative basic and clinically-oriented investigations into programmed cell death. It aims to stimulate both research on the basis of mechanisms of apoptosis and on its role in various human disease processes including: cancer autoimmune disease viral infection AIDS cardiovascular disease neurodegenerative disorders osteoporosis and ageing. The Editor-In-Chief recognises the need to encourage the development of clinical therapies against apoptosis-related diseases.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound combined with endogenous protoporphyrin IX derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-SDT) is known to induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells and macrophages. Persistent retention of macrophages in the plaque has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the effects of inhibition of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) on ALA-SDT-induced THP-1 macrophages apoptosis. Cells were pre-treated with VDAC1 inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) disodium salt for 1 h or downregulated VDAC1 expression by small interfering RNA and exposed to ultrasound. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, and cell apoptosis along with necrosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Levels of cytochrome c release was assessed by confocal microscope and Western blot. The levels of full length caspases, caspase activation, and VDAC isoforms were analyzed by Western blot. Intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+)]i levels were measured with fluorescent probes. We confirmed that the pharmacological inhibition of VDAC1 by DIDS notably prevented ALA-SDT-induced cell apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages. Additionally, DIDS significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation and apoptotic biochemical changes such as inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, ALA-SDT elevated the [Ca(2+)]i levels and it was also notably reduced by DIDS. Furthermore, both of intracellular ROS generation and cell apoptosis were predominately inhibited by Ca(2+) chelating reagent BAPTA-AM. Intriguingly, ALA-treatment markedly augmented VDAC1 protein levels exclusively, and the downregulation of VDAC1 expression by specific siRNA also significantly abolished cell apoptosis. Altogether, these results suggest that VDAC1 plays a crucial role in ALA-SDT-induced THP-1 macrophages apoptosis, and targeting VDAC1 is a potential way regulating macrophages apoptosis, a finding that may be relevant to therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis.
    APOPTOSIS 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear lamins form the lamina on the interior surface of the nuclear envelope, and regulate nuclear metabolic events, including DNA replication and organization of chromatin. The current study is aimed at understanding the role of executioner caspase 6 on lamin A integrity in islet β-cells under duress of glucotoxic (20 mM glucose; 24 h) and diabetic conditions. Under glucotoxic conditions, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and metabolic cell viability were significantly attenuated in INS-1 832/13 cells. Further, exposure of normal human islets, rat islets and INS-1 832/13 cells to glucotoxic conditions leads to caspase 6 activation and lamin A degradation, which is also observed in islets from the Zucker diabetic fatty rat, a model for type 2 diabetes (T2D), and in islets from a human donor with T2D. Z-Val-Glu-Ile-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a specific inhibitor of caspase 6, markedly attenuated high glucose-induced caspase 6 activation and lamin A degradation, confirming that caspase 6 mediates lamin A degradation under high glucose exposure conditions. Moreover, Z-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a known caspase 3 inhibitor, significantly inhibited high glucose-induced caspase 6 activation and lamin A degradation, suggesting that activation of caspase 3 might be upstream to caspase 6 activation in the islet β-cell under glucotoxic conditions. Lastly, we report expression of ZMPSTE24, a zinc metallopeptidase involved in the processing of prelamin A to mature lamin A, in INS-1 832/13 cells and human islets; was unaffected by high glucose. We conclude that caspases 3 and 6 could contribute to alterations in the integrity of nuclear lamins leading to metabolic dysregulation and failure of the islet β-cell.
    APOPTOSIS 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin B is one of the major lysosomal cysteine proteases that plays an important role in apoptosis. Herein, we investigated whether Cathepsin B is involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by hyperthermic injury (HI) and heat shock protein (HSP)-70 protects these cells from HI-induced apoptosis mediated by Cathepsin. HI was produced in H9C2 cells by putting them in a circulating 43 °C water bath for 120 min, whereas preinduction of HSP-70 was produced in H9C2 cells by mild heat preconditioning (or putting them in 42 °C water bath for 30 min) 8 h before the start of HI. It was found that HI caused both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity in H9C2 cells. E-64-c, in addition to reducing Cathepsin B activity, significantly attenuated HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis (evidenced by increased apoptotic cell numbers, increased tuncated Bid (t-Bid), increased cytochrome C, increased caspase-9/-3, and decreased Bcl-2/Bax) in H9C2 cells. In addition, preinduction of HSP-70 by mild heat preconditioning or inhibition of HSP-70 by Tripolide significantly attenuated or exacerbated respectively both the cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity in H9C2 cells. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of pre-induction of HSP-70 by mild heat production in reducing both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity caused by HI can be significantly reduced by Triptolide preconditioning. These results indicate that Cathepsin B is involved in HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in H9C2 cells and HSP-70 protects these cells from HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through Cathepsin B pathways.
    APOPTOSIS 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The canonical role of p53 in preserving genome integrity and limiting carcinogenesis has been well established. In the presence of acute DNA-damage, oncogene deregulation and other forms of cellular stress, p53 orchestrates a myriad of pleiotropic processes to repair cellular damages and maintain homeostasis. Beside these well-studied functions of p53, recent studies in Drosophila have unraveled intriguing roles of Dmp53 in promoting cell division in apoptosis-induced proliferation, enhancing fitness and proliferation of the winner cell in cell competition and coordinating growth at the organ and organismal level in the presence of stress. In this review, we describe these new functions of Dmp53 and discuss their relevance in the context of carcinogenesis.
    APOPTOSIS 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to elucidate the roles of inhibition of related JAK/STAT pathways in regulating cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell. We treated five non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines with cisplatin alone or with cisplatin and Jak2 inhibitor (ruxolitinib) and assessed cell viability, expression of Jak2 and STAT3 and cell apoptosis. We also investigated the effect of combination treatment inhibited tumor xenograft growth in two human NSCLC xenograft models bearing the cisplatin resistant (H1299) and sensitive (A549) cells. Different cell lines with different genetic background showed half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of cisplatin from 4.66 to 68.28 µmol/L. They could be divided into cisplatin intrinsic resistant and cisplatin sensitive cell lines. In cisplatin-resistant cells with higher Jak2 and STAT3 expression, cisplatin and ruxolitinib combination dramatically suppressed the cell growth, down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated STAT3 and induced cleaved caspase-3 expression. Moreover combination with cisplatin and ruxolitinib also significantly inhibited the growth of resistant cell H1299, A549/DDP and H2347 in soft agar model. Finally, combination group significant inhibited the tumor growth and induced the caspase-3 expression compared with either single agent alone (P < 0.05) on the resistant cell xenografts model. The present study indicates that further study is warranted to determine the effectiveness of combination treatment with cisplatin and Jak2/stat3 pathway inhibitor for platinum-resistant NSCLC.
    APOPTOSIS 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-proteasome system is one of the main proteolytic pathways. It inhibits apoptosis by degrading pro-apoptotic regulators, such as caspases or the tumor suppressor p53. However, it also stimulates cell death by degrading pro-survival regulators, including IAPs. In Drosophila, the control of apoptosis by Bcl-2 family members is poorly documented. Using a genetic modifier screen designed to identify regulators of mammalian bax-induced apoptosis in Drosophila, we identified the ubiquitin activating enzyme Uba1 as a suppressor of bax-induced cell death. We then demonstrated that Uba1 also regulates apoptosis induced by Debcl, the only counterpart of Bax in Drosophila. Furthermore, we show that these apoptotic processes involve the same multimeric E3 ligase-an SCF complex consisting of three common subunits and a substrate-recognition variable subunit identified in these processes as the Slimb F-box protein. Thus, Drosophila Slimb, the homologue of β-TrCP targets Bax and Debcl to the proteasome. These new results shed light on a new aspect of the regulation of apoptosis in fruitfly that identifies the first regulation of a Drosophila member of the Bcl-2 family.
    APOPTOSIS 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation (IR) can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS have the potential to damage cellular macromolecules including DNA, proteins, and lipids and eventually lead to cell death. In this study, we evaluated the potential of arbutin, a drug chosen from a series of traditional herbal medicine by measuring intracellular hydroxyl radical scavenging ability in X-irradiated U937 cells. Arbutin (hydroquinone-β-D-glucopyranoside), a naturally occurring glucoside of hydroquinone, has been traditionally used to treat pigmentary disorders. However, there are no reports describing the effect of arbutin on IR-induced apoptosis. We confirmed that arbutin can protect cells from apoptosis induced by X-irradiation. The combination of arbutin and X-irradiation could reduce intracellular hydroxyl radical production and prevent mitochondrial membrane potential loss. It also could down-regulate the expression of phospho-JNK, phospho-p38 in whole cell lysate and activate Bax in mitochondria. Arbutin also inhibits cytochrome C release from mitochondria to cytosol. To verify the role of JNK in X-irradiation-induced apoptosis, the cells were pretreated with a JNK inhibitor, and found that JNK inhibitor could reduce apoptosis induced by X-irradiation. Taken together, our data indicate that arbutin plays an anti-apoptotic role via decreasing intracellular hydroxyl radical production, inhibition of Bax-mitochondria pathway and activation of the JNK/p38 MAPK pathway.
    APOPTOSIS 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancer (HNC), one of the most common cancers worldwide, frequently involves mutation of the TP53 gene and dysregulation of the p53 pathway. Overexpression of MDM2 or MDM4 inactivates the tumor-suppressive function of p53. Restoration of p53 function that counteracts these p53 repressors can lead to in vivo tumor regression. Therefore, the present study assessed the ability of the small molecule p53 activator XI-011 (NSC146109) to induce apoptosis in HNC by restoring p53 function. We tested the effects of XI-011 treatment in HNC cell lines, either individually or in combination with cisplatin and assessed growth suppression, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. The drug effects on in vivo growth of HNC cells were examined in mice xenograft model. XI-011 exerted the highest growth suppression in tumor cells that overexpress MDM4, in which p53 is degraded. XI-011 treatment downregulated MDM4 mRNA and protein levels, and upregulated expression of proapoptotic genes and promoted apoptosis, in a dose-dependent manner. The apoptotic response was blocked by inhibition of p53 or expression of MDM4, demonstrating that the effects of XI-011 depend on p53 and MDM4. In combination treatments, XI-011 acted synergistically with cisplatin to inhibit growth of HNC cells in vitro and in vivo. MDM4 inhibition and functional restoration of p53 by XI-011 effectively enhanced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HNC cells, an activity that suggests a promising strategy for treating HNC.
    APOPTOSIS 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Because multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious impediment to the use of chemotherapy in treating cancer patients, great efforts have been made to search for effective MDR-reversing agents. We have developed a brand new synthetic ardeemin derivative, 5-N-formylardeemin, and investigated the activity of which in reversing MDR in MDR cancer cell lines derived from human breast cancer (MCF-7-R) or lung cancer (A549-R). 5-N-formylardeemin strongly enhanced the anti-cancer efficacy of doxorubicin, vincristine through potentiation of apoptosis in both MCF-7-R and A549-R at relatively noncytotoxic concentrations in vitro. Mechanistic studies showed that 5-N-formylardeemin inhibited the expression of MDR-1 (P-gp) and increased the intracellular accumulation of cytotoxic drugs in the MDR cells, suggesting that 5-N-formylardeemin reverses MDR activities through inhibiting MDR-1 expression. Interestingly, 5-N-formylardeemin also sensitized the parent wild-type cancer cells toward these chemotherapeutic agents to various extents. Importantly, in vivo studies demonstrated that 5-N-formylardeemin significantly improved the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in nude mice bearing A549-R xenografts, which was associated with reduced expression of MDR-1 protein level and increased apoptosis in tumor tissues. These results underscore 5-N-formylardeemin as a potential sensitizer for chemotherapy against multidrug resistant cancers.
    APOPTOSIS 08/2014; 19(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers, displays potent anti-neoplastic activity in a wide array of human cancer cells. The present manuscript examines the signaling pathways underlying the apoptotic activity of capsaicin in human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in vitro and in vivo. Studies in neuronal cells show that capsaicin exerts its biological activity via the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) superfamily of cation-channel receptors. The TRPV family is comprised of six members (TRPV1–6). Capsaicin is a known agonist of the TRPV1 receptor. We observed that capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human SCLC cells was mediated via the TRPV receptor family; however it was independent of TRPV1. Surprisingly, the apoptotic activity of capsaicin required the TRPV6 receptor. Depletion of TRPV6 receptor by siRNA methodology abolished the apoptotic activity of capsaicin in SCLC cells. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that TRPV6 receptor was robustly expressed on human SCLC tissues (from patients) and SCLC cell lines but almost absent in normal lung tissues. This correlates with our results that capsaicin induced very little apoptosis in normal lung epithelial cells. The pro-apoptotic activity of capsaicin was mediated by the intracellular calcium and calpain pathway. The treatment of human SCLC cells with capsaicin increased the activity of calpain 1 and 2 by threefold relative to untreated SCLC cells. Such calpain activation, in response to capsaicin, was downstream of the TRPV6 receptor. Taken together, our data provide insights into the mechanism underlying the apoptotic activity of capsaicin in human SCLCs.
    APOPTOSIS 08/2014; 19(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Apelin, which is an endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, was reported to be up-regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α) in hypoxia- and insulin-treated cell systems. However, a negative transcriptional regulator of apelin has not yet been identified. In this study, we showed that apelin is down-regulated by ATF4 via the pro-apoptotic p38 MAPK pathway under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. First, we analyzed the human apelin promoter to characterize the effects of ER stress on apelin expression in hepatocytes. Treatment with thapsigargin, an inducer of ER stress, and over-expression of ATF4 decreased apelin expression in hepatocytes. This work identified an ATF4-responsive region within the apelin promoter. Interestingly, ATF4-mediated repression of apelin was dependent upon the N-terminal domain of ATF4. C/EBP-β knockdown experiments suggest that C/EBP-β, which acts as an ATF4 binding partner, is critical for the ER stress-induced down-regulation of apelin. We also demonstrated that ATF4 regulates apelin gene expression via p38 pathways. Ectopic expression of constitutively active MKK6, an upstream kinase of p38, suggested that activation of the p38 pathway is sufficient to induce ATF4-mediated repression of apelin. Moreover, apelin enhanced cell migration in a wound healing assay in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of caspase-3 activation indicated that ATF4 knockdown up-regulated apelin expression, leading to the inability of MKK6 (CA) to exert pro-apoptotic effects. Taken together, our results suggest that ATF4-mediated repression of apelin contributes substantially to the pro-apoptotic effects of p38.
    APOPTOSIS 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K), encoded by the EEF2K gene, is well-known to be a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase which can negatively modulate protein synthesis. It is highly conserved among eukaryotes from mammals to invertebrates, of which human and mouse may have 99 % overall amino acid identity. This kinase can phosphorylate eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) or undergo the process of autophosphorylation at multiple sites to inhibit its function in translation elongation. Due to the fact that regulation of eEF2 by eEF2K is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, eEF2K activity may confer tumor cell adaption to metabolic stress under acute nutrient depletion, and the high expressed level of eEF2K has been found in several types of malignancies. eEF2K may modulate the expression of some apoptotic proteins such as XIAP, c-FLIPL, Bcl-XL, PI3KCI and p70(S6K) to inhibit apoptotic process in cancer. On the other hand, it plays a regulatory role in autophagy involved in mTORC1, AMPK and Atg8, thereby promoting cancer cell survival. Additionally, eEF2K may play a crucial role in the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in cancer. Collectively, these findings have led to the conclusions that eEF2K may contribute to carcinogenesis, and thus being utilized as a potential target for future cancer therapy.
    APOPTOSIS 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced DNA damage activates the Chk1-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and cell cycle checkpoints to facilitate cell survival. Numerous attempts have been made to identify specific Chk1 inhibitors to enhance the efficiency of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of LY2603618, a potent and selective small molecule inhibitor of Chk1 protein kinase, in human lung cancer cells. Treatment of cancer cells with LY2603618 caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. A marked induction of DDR, including the phosphorylation of ATM, Chk2, p53 and histone H2AX, was observed after LY2603618 treatment. LY2603618 inhibited Chk1 autophosphorylation (S296 Chk1) and increased DNA damage-mediated Chk1 phosphorylation (S345 Chk1). In addition, LY2603618-treated lung cancer cells transitioned from LC3-I to LC3-II, a hallmark of autophagy. Blocking autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) further enhanced LY2603618's inhibitory effect on cell viability/proliferation. LY2603618 also significantly increased p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor reduced cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP levels in LY2603618-treated cells. These results suggest the following: (i) the biological consequences of LY2603618 in lung cancer cells is associated with both inhibition of Chk1 phosphorylation on S296 and activation of the DNA damage response network; and (ii) the anticancer property of LY2603618 might be increased by inhibiting autophagy.
    APOPTOSIS 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Adhesion of normal epithelial cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for survival. Cell detachment from ECM induces a specific form of programmed cell death (PCD) termed anoikis. BRCA2, a tumor suppressor gene whose mutations confer predisposition to cancer, has been implicated in the regulation of DNA repair, transcription, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the potential role of BRCA2 in the regulation of anoikis has not been investigated. Here, we found that suppression of BRCA2 expression by short hairpin RNA promoted resistance to anoikis in prostate, breast and thyroid normal epithelial cells, which was accompanied by reduced caspases 3/7 levels and activity. Using yeast as a model, we assessed that expression of human BRCA2 does not induce cell death by itself but it can promote acetic acid-induced PCD (AA-PCD). Induction of BRCA2 expression decreased cell survival and increased the number of cells positive to different apoptotic markers, including DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine externalization en route to AA-PCD. A higher increase in ROS levels occurred in the early phase of AA-PCD in BRCA2-expressing yeast cells compared with non-expressing cells. Accordingly, a delay in the initial burst of ROS levels was observed in BRCA2-knockdown anoikis-resistant human cells. Treatment with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or ascorbic acid reduced sensitivity to anoikis in human cells and inhibited AA-PCD in yeast cells expressing BRCA2. Taken together, these results show a new function of BRCA2 protein as modulator of anoikis sensitivity through an evolutionarily-conserved molecular mechanism involving regulation of ROS production and/or detoxification by BRCA2 during PCD processes.
    APOPTOSIS 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 (AGGF1) is a newly identified proangiogenic protein, which plays an important role in vascular disease and angiogenesis. However, its role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. This study investigated whether AGGF1 is involved in the pathogenesis of mouse myocardial I/R injury and the underlying mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 J mice were treated at 30 min prior to I/R injury with anti-AGGF1 neutralizing antibody (3 mg/kg) or recombinant human AGGF1 (rhAGGF1, 0.25 mg/kg). After I/R injury, the infarct size, the number of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, inflammatory cytokine expression and angiogenesis were markedly increased as compared with sham control. Treatment of WT mice with anti-AGGF1 neutralizing antibody resulted in exaggeration of myocardial I/R injury but reducing angiogenesis. In contrast, administration of rhAGGF1 markedly reversed these effects. Furthermore, anti-AGGF1- or rhAGGF1-mediated effects on I/R-induced cardiac apoptosis, inflammation and angiogenesis were dose dependent. In addition, the protective effects of AGGF1 on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inflammation were confirmed in cultured cardiomyocytes after I/R. Finally, these effects were associated with activation of ERK1/2, Stat3 and HIF-1α/VEGF pathways and inhibition of activation of NF-κB, p53 and JNK1/2 pathways. In conclusion, we report the first in vivo and in vitro evidence that AGGF1 reduces myocardial apoptosis and inflammation and enhances angiogenesis, leading to decreased infarct size after I/R injury. These results may provide a novel therapeutic approach for ischemic heart diseases.
    APOPTOSIS 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A high plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) is an important pathogenic factor that leads to ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows. NEFAs may be associated with oxidative stress in dairy cows with ketosis or fatty liver and the subsequent induction of hepatocyte damage. However, the molecular mechanism of NEFAs-induced oxidative stress and whether NEFAs cause apoptosis of hepatocytes are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of NEFAs-induced oxidative liver damage in bovine hepatocytes. The results showed that NEFAs increased oxidative stress, resulting in p38 phosphorylation. High activated p38 increased the expression, nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of p53 and decreased the nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in bovine hepatocytes treated with high concentrations of NEFAs. High concentrations of NEFAs also promoted the apoptosis of bovine hepatocytes. Both N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and glucose (GLU) could attenuate the NEFA-induced apoptotic damage. These results indicate that NEFAs activate the ROS–p38–p53/Nrf2 signaling pathway to induce apoptotic damage in bovine hepatocytes.
    APOPTOSIS 06/2014; 19(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Involvement of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein in neuronal deregulation and in the development of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has been amply explored; however the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In search for the mechanisms, we demonstrated that Tat deregulates neuronal functions through a pathway that involved p73 and p53 pathway. We showed that Tat uses microRNA-196a (miR-196a) to deregulate the p73 pathway. Further, we found that the Abelson murine leukemia (c-Abl) phosphorylates p73 on tyrosine residue 99 (Tyr-99) in Tat-treated cells. Interestingly, Tat lost its ability to promote accumulation and phosphorylation of p73 in the presence of miR-196a mimic. Interestingly, accumulation of p73 did not lead to neuronal cell death by apoptosis as obtained by cell viability assay. Western blot analysis using antibodies directed against serine residues 807 and 811 of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein was also used to validate our data regarding lack of cell death. Hyperphosphorylation of RB (S807/811) is an indication of cell neuronal viability. These results highlight the key role played by p73 and microRNA in Tat-treated neurons leading to their deregulation and it deciphers mechanistically one of the pathways used by Tat to cause neuronal dysfunction that contributes to the development of HAND.
    APOPTOSIS 05/2014;