Biocontrol Science and Technology

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


Biocontrol Science and Technology presents original research and reviews in the fields of biological pest, disease and weed control. The journal covers the following areas: animal pest control by natural enemies; biocontrol of plant diseases; weed biocontrol; 'classical' biocontrol; augmentative releases of natural enemies; quality control of beneficial organisms; microbial pesticides; properties of biocontrol agents, modes of actions and methods of application; physiology and behaviour of biocontrol agents and their interaction with hosts; pest and natural enemy dynamics, and simulation modelling; genetic improvement of natural enemies including genetic manipulation; natural enemy production, formulation, distribution and release methods; environmental impact studies; releases of selected and/or genetically manipulated organisms; safety testing; the role of biocontrol methods in integrated crop protection; conservation and enhancement of natural enemy populations; effects of pesticides on biocontrol organisms; biocontrol legislation and policy; registration and commercialization.

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    Biocontrol Science and Technology website
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    Biocontrol Science & Technology (En ligne)
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    Internet Resource, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Successful parasitism of a host partly depends on a female's assessment of its quality, including whether the host has already been parasitised or not. We conducted experiments to elucidate host discrimination by Dolichogenidea tasmanica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). It is the most commonly collected parasitoid of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). To assess the rate of superparasitism avoidance by D. tasmanica, female wasps were given choices between (1) unparasitised hosts versus freshly self-parasitised hosts, (2) unparasitised hosts versus hosts at 24 h post-self-parasitisation and (3) freshly self-parasitised hosts versus hosts freshly parasitised by a conspecific female. Results confirm that host discrimination occurs in D. tasmanica. Females avoid laying eggs in hosts that have been parasitised by themselves or conspecifics, even though the frequency of first encounter with either an unparasitised or a parasitised host was the same for all choices. Thus, it appears that females are not able to discriminate the host parasitisation status prior to contacting a host, but host acceptance is not random. Host discrimination is time-dependent, with greater avoidance of superparasitism after 24 h. The ability of female D. tasmanica to distinguish healthy from parasitised hosts suggests that it could be an effective biological control agent in regulation of host populations. It should also ensure production efficiency in parasitoid mass-rearing.
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 10/2014; 25(2):155-162.
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    ABSTRACT: Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) (hereafter Schinus), is one of the worst invasive species in Florida and Hawaii. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Schinus. Two populations of this thrips were collected in the weed’s native range; one from central-east Brazil (Ouro Preto thrips) and a second from north-east Brazil (Salvador thrips). Temperature requirements, adult fecundity and impact on different plant haplotypes by P. ichini were examined in the laboratory. Complete development of thrips from both populations occurred at temperatures ranging from 20 to 30° C. Two approaches were used to model the predicted distributions of the thrips populations in the USA: the physiological model (NAPPFAST) based on cold tolerance and the ecological niche model based on climatic variables (MaxEnt). The physiological model predicted that both populations of P. ichini may establish in similar areas of the USA, overlapping with the distribution of Schinus. However, the niche model predicted that only the Ouro Preto thrips could establish in the USA. The difference in model predictions suggests an apparent preadaptation of the Salvador thrips to lower temperatures than those experienced at the locations they were collected in Brazil. The Ouro Preto thrips had similar fecundity on two Florida Schinus haplotypes, whereas lower fecundity on haplotype A was found for the Salvador thrips. Based on these results, the Ouro Preto population may be better adapted to the climatic conditions and plant haplotypes found in Florida. Moreover, greenhouse studies indicated that Schinus growth was greatly reduced by thrips feeding, which may result in lower weed reproduction and densities in the field.
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 04/2014; 24(5):518-535.
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    ABSTRACT: Native range and life history studies of an agent provide critical information during the early stages of a weed biological control programme. Brazilian peppertree is considered to be one of the worst invasive trees of Florida uplands because of negative environmental impacts and lack of effective long-term control methods. A potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree, Calophya latiforceps Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), was recently discovered in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Leaf feeding by the nymphs of C. latiforceps stimulates the tree to form pit galls. The objectives of this study were to quantify gall densities in Bahia and to study the life history adaptations of C. latiforceps under greenhouse conditions. Densities of galls and their mortality sources were recorded in August 2012 and March 2013 from trees located along linear transects. Gall density per leaf ranged from 1.6 to 37.5 and 0.3 to 12.8, in August and March, respectively. Nymphal mortality due to parasitism and entomopathogens ranged from 1.2 to 13.8%. Greenhouse observations of host colonisation and evaluations of immature survival and adult performance were conducted using plants from Bahia. A critical step for host colonisation was gall initiation in response to nymphal feeding. Herbivory by C. latiforceps resulted in stunted growth, leaf deformation, yellowing and shedding of leaves. Immature survival and development time were influenced by tree, and ranged from 11 to 75% (average 40%), and 35 to 53 days (average 38.6 days), respectively. Adults lived in average for 9.3 ± 0.6 days; and females laid 85.8 ± 16.4 eggs. C. latiforceps appears to have characteristics of a promising candidate for biological control of Brazilian peppertree.
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 04/2014; 24(5):536-553.
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    ABSTRACT: The specific oxygen uptake rate (qO2) of stages of the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Steinernema carpocapsae CABA01 in liquid culture was measured. Nematodes were grown into previously pasteurised culture broths of their symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, in orbitally agitated flask cultures (VL = 125 mL) at N = 150 rpm and T = 25°C. The basal medium contained 3% (w/v) soy trypticase broth and 0.5% (w/v) yeast extract. The EPNs developed from the egg stage to the adult stage exhibiting qO2 values of 1.92, 5.48, 0.48, 0.28 and 0.0014 [10−1 mmolO2/(gnematode-wet base h)] for the egg-Juvenile 1 (J1), J2, J3, J4 and the adult stages, respectively.
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 04/2014; 24(7):723-733.
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of naturally occurring entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) on Thaumatotibia leucotreta was studied in a citrus orchard in Nelspruit, South Africa. Fruit infestation by T. leucotreta was 58.6% lower (P < 0.05) in an orchard block where EPN was conserved compared to a block where EPN was suppressed by nematicide (cadusafos) application.
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 01/2014; 24(2):241-245.
  • Biocontrol Science and Technology 01/2014; 24:597–610.
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    ABSTRACT: This research investigated factors that affect the performance of Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) slow release sachets, focusing on dispersal in environments with non-continuous canopies and high exposure to greenhouse environmental conditions. When released from a central plant in a tray, the distribution of N. cucumeris across all other plants was uneven with the majority of mites recovered at the release point. Shading by a plant canopy reduced the mean internal temperature of the sachets, temperature peaks were less pronounced and the relative humidity was higher than in exposed sachets. Most N. cucumeris left the exposed sachets in the first week, followed by reduced emergence and no signs of breeding were observed in the sachets. Sachets in a plant canopy had low emergence during the first week, increasing thereafter. Overall, plant canopy sachets released more N. cucumeris than exposed sachets. Emergence patterns of N. cucumeris from sachets under greenhouse and ideal conditions were variable, with sachets generally performing better under ideal conditions. Even under constant ideal conditions, the number of N. cucumeris released from sachets varied among batches and some produced a suboptimal number of predators. Results demonstrate that exposed greenhouse conditions can seriously affect the performance of N. cucumeris sachets and that good coverage is needed to compensate for limited dispersal in non-continuous plant canopies.
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 01/2014; 24(10):1153-1166.
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    ABSTRACT: Intraguild predation of the mealybug parasitoids Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault), and Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encrytidae) by Nephus kreissli Fürsch & Uygun (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied. The latter is a native predator of the important pest Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grapevines in Turkey. For this purpose, P. ficus of different ages parasitised by A. pseudococci or L. dactylopii, or by both A. pseudococci and L. dactylopii, were served to fourth instars and adults of N. kreissli as food. Experiments were conducted using two different treatments: no-choice (served unparasitised or only one stage of parasitised mealybug) and choice (served unparasitised and only one age of parasitised mealybug together), under controlled environmental conditions. Both fourth instars and adult predators were fed on two- and four-day-old mealybugs parasitised by A. pseudococci or on two-, four- and six-day-old mealybugs parasitised by L. dactylopii or by either A. pseudococci or L. dactylopii. The predators could not consume six-day-old mealybugs parasitised by A. pseudococci, eight-day-old mealybugs parasitised by L. dactylopii, or those parasitised by either of these parasitoids which had become mummified. While it was found that the adult predators preferred parasitised mealybugs to unparasitised, the larvae did not show a pronounced preference between parasitised and unparasitised mealybugs (except for mealybugs parasitised by A. pseudococci). Keywords: biological control; consumption; intraguild predation; parasitoid; predator; vine mealybug
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 01/2014; 24(3):257-269.
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    ABSTRACT: Root-knot nematodes (RKN) (Meloidogyne spp.) are economically the most important pathogens of agricultural products. The aim of the present study was to control Meloidogyne javanica by using Arthrobotrys oligospora and salicylic acid (SA) and to analyse the kinetics of enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenolic compounds accumulation in the root system of tomato after inoculation with M. javanica, A. oligospora and SA. The ability of A. oligospora to produce extracellular proteases was also examined. In greenhouse studies, we used soil drenching of A. oligospora (106 spores/ml) and soil drenching or leaf spraying of SA (5 mM) in six-leaf stage, separately and in combination. Experiments were performed in a completely randomised design. The efficiencies of treatments were appraised by using diameter of galls, number of galls per plant, number of egg masses per plant, number of eggs per egg mass, root and foliage fresh weight. The results showed that the combined application of A. oligospora and SA provided the best nematode control. The activity of the enzymes and phenolic compounds increased in comparison with the control. The nematophagous fungus A. oligospora produced extracellular proteases in the broth culture. Using A. oligospora and SA could be effective in control of M. javanica in tomato.
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 12/2013; 24(2):203-215.
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    ABSTRACT: The understanding of tick physiology and immune system is important to improve the effective control of this ectoparasite. Invertebrates' innate immune response is activated when the organism is challenged with pathogens. The present study describes the changes of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) and in the number of circulating hemocytes involved in cellular immune defense of Rhipicephalus microplus engorged females challenged with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae or Beauveria bassiana, or with the non-entomopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The cell-free hemolymph was separated from hemocytes by centrifugation and cells were re-suspended in phosphate buffer pH 7.2. The proteins of hemocytes were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and the segments of the 1D gel were submitted to protein digestion with trypsin. The peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The analysis by mass spectrometry allowed the identification of several proteins through the search in the database built based on public banks of Ixodidae and Argasidae. In hemocytes, many proteins were identified highlighting serpins. The results showed that the entomopathogenic fungi M. anisopliae or B. bassiana reduced the amount of serpins, while F. oxysporum increased. The present study reports, for the first time, the variation of serpins in hemocytes of R. microplus engorged females infected by fungi.
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 11/2013;