Addiction (Addiction )

Publisher: Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs, Blackwell Publishing


Addiction was established in 1884 and has been in continuous publication ever since the longest established journal in its field. It has built up a reputation in that time for scientific quality for the diversity of material it publishes and for its pioneering role in stimulating and leading debate. It is committed to promoting communication - between disciplines between cultures and between scientists practitioners and policy-makers. Addiction has been successful in these goals because of the huge cast of top specialists throughout the world who contribute to its work through their rigorous peer reviewing writing advice and support in many other ways. We have strengthened commitment to internationalism and to our authors by recently establishing regional offices for the Americas and for Australasia to speed the handling of papers and bring authors and editors closer. Addiction also receives wide media coverage internationally.

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    Addiction website
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    Addiction (Abingdon, England: Online)
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Blackwell Publishing

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    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimsThe objective of this study was to examine factors that predict antiretroviral therapy (ART) access among eligible, HIV-positive methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients. We also tested the hypothesis that sustained MMT participation increases the likelihood of accessing ART.DesignA nation-wide cohort study conducted from 1 March 2004 to 31 December 2011.SettingMMT clients were followed from the time of their enrolment in China's national MMT programme until their death or the study end date.ParticipantsOur cohort comprised 7111 ART-eligible, HIV-positive MMT clients, 49.2% of whom remained ART-naive and 50.8% of whom received ART.MeasurementsDemographic variables, drug use history, MMT programme participation and HIV-related clinical characteristics of study participants who remained naive to ART and those who accessed ART were compared by univariate and multivariable analysis.FindingsPredictors of accessing ART among this cohort included being retained in MMT at the time of first meeting ART eligibility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.84, confidence interval (CI) = 1.54–2.21, P < 0.001] compared to meeting ART eligibility before entering MMT (AOR = 0.98, CI = 0.80–1.21, P = 0.849) or previously entering MMT and dropping out before meeting ART eligibility. Additional predictors were CD4 ≤200 cells/μl when ART-eligibility requirement was first met (AOR = 1.81, CI = 1.61–2.05, P < 0.001 compared to CD4 = 201–350 cells/μl), and being in a stable partner relationship (married/cohabitating: AOR = 1.14, CI = 1.01–1.28, P = 0.030).Conclusions Retained participation in methadone maintenance treatment increases the likelihood that eligible clients will access antiretroviral therapy. These results highlight the potential benefit of colocalization of methadone maintenance treatment and antiretroviral therapy services in a ‘one-stop-shop’ model.
    Addiction 01/2015; 110(S1).
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1).
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1).
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1).
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimsSteady increases in alcohol consumption and related problems are likely to accompany China's rapid epidemiological transition and profit-based marketing activities. We reviewed research on health promotion interventions and policies to address excessive drinking and to guide health-care reform.Methods We searched Chinese- and English-language databases and included 21 studies in China published between 1980 and 2013 that covered each policy area from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. We evaluated and compared preventive interventions to the global alcohol literature for cross-national applicability.ResultsIn contrast with hundreds of studies in the global literature, 11 of 12 studies from mainland China were published in Chinese; six of 10 in English were on taxation from Taiwan or Hong Kong. Most studies demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excessive drinking, and some reported the reduction of health problems. Seven were randomized controlled trials. Studies targeted schools, drink-driving, work-places, the health sector and taxation.Conclusions China is the world's largest alcohol market, yet there has been little growth in alcohol policy research related to health promotion interventions over the past decade. Guided by a public health approach, the WHO Global Strategy and health reform experience in Russia, Australia, Mexico and the United States, China could improve its public health response through better coordination and implementation of surveillance and evidence-based research, and through programmatic and legal responses such as public health law research, screening and early intervention within health systems and the implementation of effective alcohol control strategies.
    Addiction 01/2015; 110(S1).
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1):109-10.
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimTo estimate the prevalence of, and identify factors associated with, depression and anxiety among community-based methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients in China.DesignA cross-sectional survey.SettingNine MMT clinics, three each from three Chinese provinces (Yunnan, Anhui and Jiangsu) between October 2008 and February 2009.ParticipantsA total of 1301 MMT clients.MeasurementsA questionnaire, including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and on-site urine drug testing.FindingsThe prevalence of depression (SDS score ≥ 53) and anxiety (SAS score ≥ 50) in our sample was 38.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 35.7, 40.9] and 18.4% (95% CI = 16.3, 20.5), respectively, with 14.2% (95% CI = 12.3, 16.1) displaying symptoms of both. Sample prevalence rates for depression [mean = 49.69, standard deviation (SD) = 10.34] and anxiety (mean = 40.98, SD = 10.66) were higher than the national average for each (t(0.05/2, 1300) = 19.2, P < 0.001 and t(0.05/2, 1300) = 8.0, P < 0.001, respectively). Employing multi-level modelling techniques, gender (P = 0.03) and employment status (P < 0.001) were found to be associated significantly with depression in a single-level model; however, in a multi-level mixed model, only employment status (P < 0.001) was associated with depression. Gender (P = 0.03), education level (P = 0.02), marital status (P = 0.04), employment status (P < 0.001), positive urine drug test results (P = 0.02) and daily methadone dose (P < 0.001) were found to be associated significantly with anxiety in a single-level model, while only employment status (P < 0.01) and positive results for the urine drug test (P = 0.04) were associated with anxiety in a multi-level mixed model.ConclusionsA considerable proportion of methadone maintenance treatment clients in China have experienced depression and anxiety during treatment. There is a need to provide tailored mental health interventions for this high-risk population.
    Addiction 01/2015; 110(S1).
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1):185-186.
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimsTo describe the data collected by the Chinese methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) system and the characteristics of clients entering the programme.DesignDescriptive study using routinely collected data from the MMT data management system for the period March 2004 and March 2010.SettingAll MMT clinics in China.ParticipantsClients who enrolled for services between March 2004 and March 2010.MeasurementsRoutinely collected data included: demographic information; drug use, sexual and criminal behaviours; status of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis; random urine-opiate test results; and the daily methadone dose received. Differences among clients by year were examined.FindingsDuring the period examined, there were 251 974 clients attending 684 clinics in 27 provinces. Overall, the mean age was 34.4 years, 83.8% were male, 70.2% were unemployed, 75% had ever injected drugs, 17% had shared needles and 7.4% were HIV-positive. The profile of clients changed over time, with fewer HIV-positive individuals, fewer injecting drug users, fewer needle-sharers, fewer females and fewer unemployed. Half the clients dropped out within 6 months. The average final dose received was 49.4 mg. The estimated probability of interrupting treatment before 6 months was 52.5%.Conclusions The profile of clients enrolling in methadone maintenance treatment in China is continually changing and appears to be associated with reduced risk of HIV. High dropout in the programme may limit its effectiveness. The availability of a centralized, real-time data system was extremely useful for monitoring the progress of the Chinese methadone maintenance treatment programme.
    Addiction 01/2015; 110(S1).
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimTo investigate the characteristics of the different club drugs and associated high-risk sexual behaviours in China.DesignMulticentre cross-sectional study.SettingDrug Detoxification and Rehabilitation Centres in six provinces, China.ParticipantsA total of 1434 eligible club drug users were included.MeasurementsParticipants were investigated by trained interviewers using a self-designed structured questionnaire to collect information on club drug use and associated behaviours.FindingsMethamphetamine was the most commonly abused drug in participants (73.92%), who used it in their or their friends' homes by non-injection for the purpose of feeling euphoria. Among participants with sexual behaviours after club drug use, 75.21% reported having engaged in sex with multiple partners after club drug use during the past year and 79.84% had unprotected sex after using club drug during the past year. A two-level logistic model showed that male gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.17–12.5], unmarried (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.04–2.79), long duration of club drug use during their life-time (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.28–2.42) and severe acute intoxication after using club drugs during the past year (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.07–4.15) were independent risk factors of multiple sex partners during the past year. Another two-level model showed that the club drug users who were female (AOR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.03–3.11) and had polydrug use during their lifetime (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.01–2.34) had more risk for unprotected sex during the past year than without these characteristics.Conclusion High-risk sexual behaviours are common among club drug users in China. The prevention and intervention of club drug use could decrease the risk of sexual behaviours which further prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections in China.
    Addiction 01/2015; 110(S1).
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1).
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(1):11-3.
  • Addiction 01/2015; 110(S1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization (WHO), and a growing number of other organizations, have adopted the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system in order to both assess the quality of research evidence and develop clinical practice guidelines. In 2009 WHO published a guideline on psychosocially assisted pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence, based on the results of Cochrane Reviews summarized using the GRADE methodology. The main features of this system are an a priori definition of outcomes and their relevance, and distinction between the quality of evidence (also referred to as confidence in the estimate of intervention effect) and the strength of recommendations. We consider how successful this approach has been. We discuss the merits and limitations of using Cochrane Reviews and GRADE framework in developing guidelines in the field of drug addiction. In 2009 a panel of multi-disciplinary international experts identified 15 clinical questions and eight relevant outcomes. Cochrane reviews were available for each clinical question and four outcomes. The panel formulated 15 recommendations. Eight recommendations were classified as strong, two of which were based on high-quality evidence and three on very low-quality evidence. For example, the strong recommendation to use methadone in adequate doses in preference to buprenorphine was based on high-quality evidence, while the strong recommendation not to use the combination of opioid antagonists with heavy sedation in the management of opioid withdrawal was based on low-quality evidence. An explicit stepwise process of moving from evaluation of the quality of evidence to the definition of the strength of recommendations is important in providing practical and clear clinical guidance for practitioners and policy-makers in addiction. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
    Addiction 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point-of-sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012 SETTINGS: Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom PARTICIPANTS: 2,270 children aged 11-16 from eight schools in Nottinghamshire MEASUREMENTS: We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year, and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Among non-susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was independently associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking (adjusted RRR = 1.74; 99% CI 1.13-2.69), but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non-susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not significantly associated with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Noticing tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is positively associated with an increased risk of smoking uptake. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Addiction 12/2014;
  • Addiction 12/2014;