Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (J INT NEUROPSYCH SOC )

Publisher: International Neuropsychological Society, Cambridge University Press


Published for the International Neuropsychological Society JINS aims to further scientific and research activities in neuropsychology and enhance communication among its cognate member disciplines. The journal publishes scholarly peer-reviewed articles and includes original research timely review articles and transactions of the annual meetings of the International Neuropsychological Society. Contributions reflect the interest of all areas of neuropsychology including but not limited to: development of cognitive processes brain-behavior relationships adult neuropsychology child neuropsychology developmental neuropsychology disorders of speech and language and related topics such as behavioral neurology neuropsychiatry neuroimaging and electrophysiology. The journal also includes articles employing neuropsychological methods which use an experimental more applied or clinical approach.

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    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society website
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    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, JINS
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Cambridge University Press

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    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children and adolescents with critical cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for deficits in aspects of executive function (EF). The primary aim of this investigation was to compare EF outcomes in three groups of children/adolescents with severe CHD and controls (ages 10-19 years). Participants included 463 children/adolescents with CHD [dextro-transposition of the great arteries (TGA), n=139; tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), n=68; and, single-ventricle anatomy requiring Fontan procedure (SVF), n=145] and 111 controls, who underwent laboratory and informant-based evaluation of EF skills. Rates of EF impairment on D-KEFS measures were nearly twice as high for CHD groups (75-81%) than controls (43%). Distinct EF profiles were documented between CHD groups on D-KEFS tasks. Deficits in flexibility/problem-solving and verbally mediated EF skills were documented in all three CHD groups; visuo-spatially mediated EF abilities were impaired in TOF and SVF groups, but preserved in TGA. Parent, teacher, and self-report ratings on the BRIEF highlighted unique patterns of metacognitive and self-regulatory concerns across informants. CHD poses a serious threat to EF development. Greater severity of CHD is associated with worse EF outcomes. With increased understanding of the cognitive and self-regulatory vulnerabilities experienced by children and adolescents with CHD, it may be possible to identify risks early and provide individualized supports to promote optimal neurodevelopment. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-16).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamic Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (dWCST) examines the effects of brief training on test performance where pre- to post-test change reflects learning potential. The objective was to examine the validity of the dWCST as a measure of learning potential in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). A total of 104 patients with ABI completed the dWCST at rehabilitation admission. Performance of a subgroup (n=63) was compared to patients (n=28) who completed a repeated administration of the conventional WCST (rWCST). Furthermore, dWCST performance was compared between patients with ABI (n=63) and healthy controls (n=30) matched on gender, age, and education. Three learning potential indices were used: post-test score, gain score, and a group classification (decliners, poor learners, strong learners, high achievers). The median dWCST administration time was 30 min. The dWCST showed no floor or ceiling effects and the post-test and gain score were significantly intercorrelated. The pre-test score showed no significant associations with other neuropsychological tests. The learning potential indices were significantly associated with language and/or memory. In contrast to the dWCST group, the rWCST group showed no significant pre- to post-test improvement. There were significantly more poor learners in the rWCST group. Compared to controls, patients obtained similar gains, but significantly lower pre- and post-test scores for the dWCST. The ratio of poor learners between-groups was not significantly different. The results support the validity of the dWCST for assessing learning potential in patients with ABI. Further research is needed to investigate the predictive validity of the dWCST. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-11).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There is evidence that children after mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) suffer ongoing post-concussive symptoms (PCS). However, results concerning neuropsychological outcome after mTBI are controversial. Thus, our aim was to examine group differences regarding neuropsychological outcome and PCS. Additionally, we explored the influence of current and pre-injury everyday attention problems on neuropsychological outcome in children after mTBI. Method: In a prospective short-term longitudinal study, 40 children (aged 6-16 years) after mTBI and 38 children after orthopedic injury (OI) underwent neuropsychological, socio-behavioral and PCS assessments in the acute stage and at 1 week, at 4 weeks, and 4 months after the injury. Results: Parents of children after mTBI observed significantly more PCS compared to parents of children after OI, especially in the acute stage. Our results revealed no neuropsychological or socio-behavioral differences over time between both groups. However, in children after mTBI, we found negative correlations between elevated levels of everyday attention problems and reduced neuropsychological performance. Furthermore, there was a negative influence of pre-injury everyday attention problems on neuropsychological performance in children after mTBI. Conclusion: In accordance with earlier studies, parents of children after mTBI initially observed significantly more PCS compared to parents of children after OI. There were no neuropsychological or socio-behavioral group differences between children after mTBI and OI in the post-acute period. However, our exploratory findings concerning the influence of everyday attention problems on neuropsychological outcome indicate that current and pre-injury everyday attention problems were negatively associated with neuropsychological performance in children after mTBI. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-12).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 11/2014; 20:982-993.
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined associations between different subcategories of cholesterol and cognitive function. We examined relationships between total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride levels and cognitive performance in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study, a community-based study of cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on data from 540 participants, aged 60 to 98 years, free of dementia and stroke. TC, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were obtained. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery, including domains of cognitive function indexed by multiple cognitive tests. The cognitive outcomes studied were as follows: Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Verbal and Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, a Global Composite score, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Significant positive associations were observed between HDL-cholesterol and the Global Composite score, Working Memory, and the MMSE after adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Participants with desirable levels of HDL (≥60 mg/dL) had the highest scores on all cognitive outcomes. There were no significant associations observed between TC, LDL, or triglyceride concentrations and cognition. In older individuals, HDL-cholesterol was related to a composite of Working Memory tests and for general measures of cognitive ability when adjusted for cardiovascular variables. We speculate that persons over 60 are survivors and thus less likely to show cognitive deficit in relation to TC, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine relations between specific cognitive abilities and the different subcategories of cholesterol. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-10).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 11/2014;
  • Yelena Bogdanova, Sarah M Kark, Ginette Lafleche, Vivian T Ho
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive difficulties are common in OEF/OIF veterans but the relation between these symptoms is not well understood. Alexithymia, an impairment of affective and cognitive emotional processing, have been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the expression of neuropsychiatric symptoms (alexithymia and PTSD) and their effect on cognitive and social functioning in returning veterans with blast-induced mild (m)TBI. Participants and Methods: Thirty-eight blast-exposed OEF/OIF veterans with mTBI (n=22) and without TBI (n=16) who presented with cognitive complaints were administered a series of neuropsychiatric measures, including Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), as well as standardized neuropsychological and functional status measures, including Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) and Social Connectedness Scale-Revised (SCS-R). Results: Forty-four percent of the blast-exposed veterans were categorized as alexithymic, which is three times higher than in the general population. There was a significant association between alexithymia level and number of blast exposures. Alexithymia levels were associated with TBI severity, and were significantly higher in TBI as compared to non-TBI group. Both, alexithymia and PTSD were strongly related to difficulties with executive control (DEX) and interpersonal connection (SCS-R). Regression analyses, however, indicated that alexithymia was the strongest predictor of dysexecutive symptoms and level of social connectedness. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the higher rate of alexithymia in veterans with blast TBI may reflect a direct consequence of the blast-related changes to the frontostriatal system and its cortical connections, resulting in neuropsychiatric deficits. In our study alexithymia was associated with dysexecutive symptoms and problems with interpersonal connectedness. These findings highlight the need for early identification and treatment of alexithymia in this population.
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 10/2014; 20(S2):1-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Memory impairment affects 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has been observed in the default network (DN) of MS patients. No study to date has examined the association of DN FC to its behavioral concomitant, memory. The approach of the present study represents a methodological shift allowing straightforward interpretation of FC alterations in MS, as it presupposes specificity of a network to its paired cognitive function. We examined FC from fMRI collected during rest in the DN of 43 MS patients with and without memory-impairment. Memory-intact patients showed increased DN FC relative to memory-impaired patients. There were no regions of higher FC in memory-impaired patients. DN FC was positively correlated with memory function, such that higher FC was associated with better memory performance. Results were unchanged after controlling for cognitive efficiency, supporting specificity of the DN to memory and not cognitive status more generally. These findings support DN FC as a marker of memory function in MS patients that can be targeted by future treatment interventions. Pairing a functional network with its behavioral concomitant represents a straightforward method for interpreting FC alterations in patients with MS. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-8).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Psychomotor slowing has been documented in depression. The digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) provides: (i) a novel technique to assess both cognitive and motor aspects of psychomotor speed within the same task and (ii) the potential to uncover subtleties of behavior not previously detected with non-digitized modes of data collection. Using digitized pen technology in 106 participants grouped by Age (younger/older) and Affect (euthymic/unmedicated depressed), we recorded cognitive and motor output by capturing how the clock is drawn rather than focusing on the final product. We divided time to completion (TTC) for Command and Copy conditions of the dCDT into metrics of percent of drawing (%Ink) versus non-drawing (%Think) time. We also obtained composite Z-scores of cognition, including attention/information processing (AIP), to explore associations of %Ink and %Think times to cognitive and motor performance. Despite equivalent TTC, %Ink and %Think Command times (Copy n.s.) were significant (AgeXAffect interaction: p=.03)-younger depressed spent a smaller proportion of time drawing relative to thinking compared to the older depressed group. Command %Think time negatively correlated with AIP in the older depressed group (r=-.46; p=.02). Copy %Think time negatively correlated with AIP in the younger depressed (r=-.47; p=.03) and older euthymic groups (r=-.51; p=.01). The dCDT differentiated aspects of psychomotor slowing in depression regardless of age, while dCDT/cognitive associates for younger adults with depression mimicked patterns of older euthymics. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-9).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study was to determine if self-reported lifetime marijuana use moderates the relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and neurocognitive performance. Participants included 161 African American adults (50.3% women), with a mean age of 45.24 (SD=11.34). Serum was drawn upon entry into the study and participants completed a demographic questionnaire, which included drug use history, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Using multiple regression analyses and adjusting for demographic covariates, the interaction term comprised of IL-6 and self-reported lifetime marijuana use was significantly associated with poorer performance on the Written (β=-.116; SE=.059; p=.049) and Oral trials (β=-.143; SE=.062; p=.022) of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, as well as the Trail Making Test trial A (β=.157; SE=.071; p=.028). Current findings support previous literature, which presents the inverse relationship between IL-6 and neurocognitive dysfunction. The potential protective properties of marijuana use in African Americans, who are at increased risk for inflammatory diseases, are discussed. (JINS, 2014, 20, 773-783).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 09/2014; 20(8):773-83.
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have demonstrated that prospective memory (PM) abilities are impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI). PM refers to the ability to remember to complete a planned action following a delay. PM post-TBI has been shown to be related to performance on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and retrospective episodic memory (RM). However, the relative influence of impairments in RM versus executive functioning on PM performance post-TBI remains uninvestigated. In the current study, PM and neuropsychological test performance were examined in 45 persons with a history of moderate to severe TBI at least 1 year before enrollment. Regression analyses examined the relative contributions of RM and executive functioning in the prediction of PM performance on the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). Results indicated that scores on tests of delayed RM and rule monitoring (i.e., ability to avoid making errors on executive measures) were the strongest predictors of PM. When the interaction between RM impairment and rule monitoring was examined, a positive relationship between PM and rule monitoring was found only in TBI participants with impaired RM. Results suggest that PM performance is dependent upon rule monitoring abilities only when RM is impaired following TBI. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-11).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment is often reported in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS). Using serial cognitive data from 35 individuals with pediatric-onset MS, this study examined how age at disease-onset and proxies of cognitive reserve may impact cognitive maturation over the course of childhood and adolescence. Neuropsychological evaluations were conducted at baseline and up to four more assessments. Of the 35 participants, 7 completed only one assessment, 5 completed two assessments, 13 completed three assessments, 10 completed four or more assessments. Growth curve modeling was used to assess longitudinal trajectories on the Trail Making Test-Part B (TMT-B) and the Symbol Digit Modalities (SDMT; oral version) and to examine how age at disease onset, baseline Full Scale IQ, and social status may moderate rate of change on these measures. Mean number of evaluations completed per patient was 2.8. Younger age at disease onset was associated with a greater likelihood of cognitive decline on both the TMT-B (p=.001) and SDMT (p=.005). Baseline IQ and parental social status did not moderate any of the cognitive trajectories. Findings suggest that younger age at disease-onset increases the vulnerability for disrupted performance on measures of information processing, visual scanning, perceptual/motor speed, and working memory. Proxies of cognitive reserve did not protect against the progression of decline on these measures. Young patients with MS should be advised to seek follow-up cognitive evaluation to assess cognitive maturation and to screen for the potential late emergence of cognitive deficits. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-9).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 07/2014;