IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation

Publisher: Institution of Electrical Engineers

Description

Discontinued in 2006. Continued by IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation (1751-8784). Topics covered include: The theory and practice of systems involving the processing of signals for radar, radio location, radio navigation and surveillance purposes. Examples of the fields of application include radar, sonar, electronic warfare, avionic and navigation systems. Processing directed towards the above application areas includes advances in matched filters and wideband signal correlation for radar and sonar systems; algorithms and processor designs for adaptive array; bearing estimation; range/Doppler radar and acoustic image processing operations for SAR, sonar, seismic, target identification functions, etc.

  • Impact factor
    0.55
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  • 5-year impact
    0.00
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    0.00
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  • Website
    IEE Proceedings - Radar, Sonar and Navigation website
  • Other titles
    Radar, sonar, and navigation
  • ISSN
    1350-2395
  • OCLC
    29903951
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A periodic binary sequence that compresses a pulse to a width of several chips is proposed. In the region of relatively small compression ratios, many periodic binary sequences exist for which peak sidelobe levels are smaller than those of conventional codes such as m-sequences
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the statistical modelling of radar backscattering from sea surface at low-grazing angles in high resolution radar systems. High-resolution polarimetric data at different range resolutions (60, 30, 15, 9 and 3 m) are analysed to highlight the differences in clutter statistical behaviour due to changes of resolution and/or polarisation. The clutter data were recorded by the IPIX radar of McMaster University in Grimsby, Ontario, Canada
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Radar entomology has developed such that routine long-term monitoring of insect flight through the atmospheric boundary layer is now practical. Typical entomological radars use X-band (9.4 GHz) marine transceivers with a vertical pencil beam and rotate the plane of polarisation about the beam axis. Ideally, insect species and other parameters (mass etc.) should be estimated from the measured radar cross-section variation with polarisation angle. For this, a library of known insect cross-section polarisation signatures is required. Two models are currently used to parameterise the polarisation signature: the harmonic model and a model using the scattering matrix for symmetric targets (SM3). Data from the literature and a doctoral research project are presented and analysed to obtain parameters for both the harmonic and SM3 models. Knowledge of the measurement errors allows SM3 parameter uncertainties to be quantified in most cases using a maximum likelihood approach. Results for 68 insects representing 24 species are presented. These include several economically significant species (e.g. bees and locusts), with individual insect masses ranging from 9 mg to 3 g
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The design and analysis of a knowledge-aided detector for airborne space-time adaptive processing (STAP) applications are addressed. The proposed processor is composed of a training data selector, which chooses secondary cells best representing the clutter statistics in the cell under test, and an adaptive processor for detection processing. The data selector is a hybrid algorithm, which pre-screens training data through the use of terrain information from the United States Geological Survey. Then, in the second stage, a data-driven selector attempts to eliminate residual non-homogeneities. The performance of this new approach is analysed using measured airborne radar data, obtained from the multi-channel airborne radar measurements program, and is compared with alternative STAP detectors proposed in the open literature
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: A fast-matched filter algorithm in time domain is presented to correlate signals for optimal detection of signals in noise, to extract ranging measurements, for synchronisation, and so on. The matched filters are discussed in the context of global positioning system receivers, but the algorithms presented here can be directly used for other direct sequence spread spectrum receivers as no constraining assumptions are made in the derivations. The method proposed here outperforms the conventional time-domain method several times in arithmetic complexity. It is also competitive with transform-domain techniques based on fast Fourier transform (FFT). Unlike FFT-based methods, however, this approach is accurate and does not use rounding or scaling operations
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Rihaczek and Hershkowitz have proposed that radar scattering from man-made targets is dominated by cavity-type reflectors that do not meet the assumptions of point scatterer theory. The effect of such dispersive scattering is to produce spurious bright responses in the radar image that can appear as a number of peaks lying along an arc. If such arc-type responses do exist in radar imagery then their removal would enhance the ability to focus moving target imagery and to perform automatic target recognition. Rihaczek and Hershkowitz have outlined a method for identifying such arc-type responses that use the image phase. Algorithms have been written to automate the outlined procedure and used to analyse a large number of synthetic and inverse synthetic aperture radar images. Arcs are present in most radar images of static and moving ground targets. To investigate whether the arcs are due to a physical mechanism or a chance occurrence, randomised target imagery was generated and also analysed. No significant differences are seen between the distributions of arc numbers obtained from randomised and real imagery. In conclusion, the arcs present in the real imagery are likely to occur by chance, rather than because of an underlying scattering mechanism
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Optimum space-time adaptive processing (STAP) requires knowledge of the true interference covariance matrix. In practice, this matrix is not known and must be estimated from training data, which must be target free and statistically homogeneous with respect to the range gate under test. These conditions are often not satisfied, which degrades the detection performance. Particularly for bistatic ground moving target indication radar, the clutter Doppler frequency depends on range for all array geometries. This range dependency leads to problems in clutter suppression through STAP techniques. The main aim in this paper is to access the relative merits of several strategies associated with STAP weight training for bistatic airborne radar applications. In particular, the issues associated with applying reduced-dimension conventional STAP and in-the-gate processing are studied. Simulation results show that, for a bistatic radar environment, in-the-gate processing approach performs better than conventional STAP approaches
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Coherent signal processing methods for combining the data that are collected via a multi-channel airborne radar system for moving target detection and image formation, are examined. Methods that convert multi-channel radar data into dual along-track monopulse synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signals of the radiated scene, are studied. A two-dimensional adaptive filtering method that projects the data in one synthesised SAR channel into the signal subspace of the other, is used for blind calibration of the monopulse SAR signals and generation of the moving target indication statistic. The merits of these algorithms are studied using the data from the multi-channel airborne radar measurement system that has been developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory at Rome, New York
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The launch of SAR satellites with high resolution and dual receive antenna capabilities opens new possibilities for traffic monitoring applications on a global scale. Thus it will be possible to detect cars and measure their speed from the acquired along track interferometric data. The development of vehicle detection algorithms requires the knowledge of the radar signatures of vehicles, especially under consideration of the geometry of the radar look direction and the vehicle orientation. In this paper the radar signatures of the non-moving cars are presented. They are estimated experimentally from airborne E-SAR multi-frequency and polarimetric data, which have been collected during a flight campaign in 2003. Radar signatures are estimated for a considerable part of aspect angles ranging from 0º to 180º. The large synthetic aperture length of the E-SAR radar sensor allows the look processing of data and therefore allows an increase of the aspect angle resolution. The radar signature analysis for one type of passenger cars showed that the largest radar cross section values and thus the greatest chance for high probability of detection are for cars standing in rear and front view of radar beam direction. This holds true for all frequencies and co-polarizations. Radar cross section values for cross-polarizations and diagonal views are much lower and are therefore less suitable for car detection. The radar signature profile over a considerable range of aspect angles in fine resolution can be used further for the verification of simulation studies and for the performance prediction for traffic monitoring with a coming German TerraSAR-X satellite.
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007; 1(2007-04-2):164-169.
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    ABSTRACT: On the basis of likelihood ratio test (LRT) theory, a new method for radar target identification with matching pursuits, including the estimation method for target scattering response and the extraction technique for the reference atom dictionary to characterise the target scattering, is introduced. When compared with the generalised LRT (GLRT) target identification method, there is a very important contribution in our method that the whole scattering waveform, not only a few main poles, is used to identify targets without any prior parameterisation model hypothesis. Furthermore, the identification to candidate targets can be performed in an almost aspect-independent manner over a full aspect angle in white Gaussian noise through a finite size reference atom dictionary. Simulation results using scattered responses synthesised from weighted sums of some exponentially damped sinusoids and calculated scattering signatures of three thin wires through a time-domain electric field integral equation are presented to contrast the performance of our method to the GLRT and the best LRT target identification method as a function of signal-to-noise ratio
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Single-cycle time-difference-of-arrival estimator utilises signal's cyclostationarity property of only one cycle frequency. A new approach exploiting the signal's cyclostationarity property of more than one cycle frequency is introduced. Compared with the single-cycle estimator, the method can reduce more estimation variance. The qualitative discussion of the performance of multi-cycle estimator is given and the performances of different estimators in various environments are quantitatively measured in terms of root-mean-squared errors from Monte Carlo simulations. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of multi-cycle estimator in comparison with the single-cycle estimator and the conventional cross-correlation one
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 11/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Radar signal detection is a complex task that is generally based on conventional statistical methods. In real applications, these methods require a lot of computing to estimate the clutter parameters and that they are optimal only for one type of clutter distribution. Recently, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used as a means of signal detection. Following on from this work, the authors consider the problem of radar signal detection using ANNs in a K-distributed environment. Two training algorithms are tested, namely, the back-propagation algorithm, and genetic algorithms for a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) architecture and also for the radial basis function architecture. The simulation results show that the MLP architecture outperforms the classical cell-averaging constant false alarm rate and order statistics constant false alarm rate detectors
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 11/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: In ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB SAR) imaging, scatterers often perform the frequency- and aspect angle-dependent reflectivity characteristic, which is usually neglected in traditional imaging processing. A novel UWB SAR time-frequency representation image formation (TFRIF) is proposed to retrieve the frequency- and aspect angle-dependent information, which is valuable in target detection. Based on the TFRIF, two fusion schemes are studied: pixel level fusion (PLF) and decision level fusion (DLF). Based on the analytical expressions, it is concluded that TFRIF can extract the reflectivity pattern information with high precision and little sacrifice of the spatial resolutions. Quantitative analyses of spatial resolutions and detectability improvement of the proposed fusion schemes are tested on airborne UWB SAR data. The real data results validate the proposed TFRIF and its associated PLF and DLF schemes
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 11/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: A radar range resolution is generally determined by its transmitted pulse width and is thus a constant parameter unrelated to the detection range. However, a method has been proposed for greatly improving a radar range resolution by using signal-processing techniques to reduce the received pulse width at the expense of a high target signal-to-noise ratio. In this method, an autocorrelation output is first obtained from a time-series representation of the received signal, and this autocorrelation output is then processed using a least-squares error-shaping filter. This creates a corresponding increase in the bandwidth of the principal frequency spectrum, thereby improving the range resolution. The relationship between this spectral distribution and the range side-lobes in cases where the transmitted signal is a simple pulse or a plain phase-modulated wave is investigated. The interference cancelling effect achieved when a radar based on the proposed scheme receives interference is also investigated
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 11/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: A common sonobuoy configuration comprises two horizontal dipoles mounted orthogonally together with an omnidirectional sensor. Under the assumption that, within a narrow frequency band of interest, the acoustic power impinging on the sonobuoy consists of uncorrelated Gaussian noise processes, the author examines how data collected by the sensor can be used to infer the directional distribution of the incident power, as characterised by its spherical harmonic coefficients. The results cover arbitrary directional distributions and are applicable to small, as well as large, sample sizes. The form of the likelihood function for the spherical harmonic coefficients, as required for Bayesian inference methods such as particle filtering, is particularly examined. Specific attention is given to the case of a single point source superimposed on azimuthally isotropic noise. In this case it is shown that the maximum likelihood estimator for target bearing differs from, and can be considerably more efficient than, the bearing estimator traditionally used for this sensor configuration
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 11/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of jamming signals emitted by electronic countermeasure (ECM) systems after phase quantisation, performed by radio frequency digital memory devices, and after introduction of increasing time delay, is approached. The analysis shows the exact expression of the spectrum of a phase-quantised jamming signal when the quantisation levels are equally spaced. The spectrum of the signal presents a main term that is simply an attenuated version of the signal received by the ECM system, and spurious terms whose amplitude and position depend on the number of quantisation levels. The effect of time delay quantisation introduced by range gate pull-off devices is analytically evaluated, in combination to the phase quantisation. Results show that this second distortion can be generally neglected with respect to the spurious terms because of the phase quantisation, particularly when the number of phase quantisation bits is low
    IEE Proceedings - Radar Sonar and Navigation 11/2006;