Journal of Occupational Health

Publisher: Japan Society for Occupational Health

Journal description

Current impact factor: 1.10

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.096
2012 Impact Factor 1.634
2011 Impact Factor 1.55
2010 Impact Factor 1.701
2009 Impact Factor 1.252
2008 Impact Factor 1.209
2007 Impact Factor 1.597
2006 Impact Factor 1.848
2005 Impact Factor 1.5
2004 Impact Factor 0.791
2003 Impact Factor 1.047
2002 Impact Factor 1.067
2001 Impact Factor 0.935
2000 Impact Factor 0.892
1999 Impact Factor 0.934
1998 Impact Factor 1.417

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.80
Cited half-life 10.00
Immediacy index 0.14
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.53
ISSN 1348-9585
OCLC 66371254
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to compare Control of Substances Hazard to Health (COSHH) Essentials (a chemical risk assessment method in the UK) with Chemical Hazard Risk Management (CHARM) (a chemical risk assessment method in South Korea). The differences between the two processes were explored with a particular focus on their features and distinctions. The results obtained from applying COSHH Essentials and CHARM to 59 carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic (CMR) substances were analyzed. The outcomes of the working environment assessments and the collated information about the usage of CMR chemicals were used for the analysis. Among the 59 substances tested, 56 substances were rated at a risk level lower than 2, when evaluated with CHARM. However, with COSHH, all 59 substances were rated at risk level 3 or higher. With COSHH Essentials, the highest hazard group of 4 was automatically assigned to category E substances, regardless of the exposure level assessment. However, for CHARM, the risk could be adjusted according to the exposure level assessment, even for hazard group of 4. CHARM allocated lower risk levels to hazardous substances than COSHH Essentials. Ultimately, COSHH Essentials assesses exposure level through the physical properties and overall handling, and considers hazard with H-statements and R-phrases. COSHH Essentials was deemed more conservative than CHARM. CHARM may have underestimated the risk according to exposure level, even though the chemicals were highly hazardous. Therefore, CHARM can be used for the localized risk assessment of chemicals used in individual workplaces.
    Journal of Occupational Health 04/2015; DOI:10.1539/joh.14-0253-OA
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to reveal factors related to heat illness in radiation decontamination workers and determine effective preventive measures. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1,505 radiation decontamination workers. The questionnaire included age, sex, duration of decontamination work, previous occupation, education provided by employers regarding heat illness, preventive action against heat illness, and subjective symptoms of heat illness during work. We included 528 men, who replied and answered all questions, in the statistical analysis. Subjective symptoms of heat illness were categorized as "no symptoms," "Grade I" and "Grade II" according to severity. A multiple linear regression model was used to determine the factors associated with the severity of heat illness. The mean age of the subjects was 47.6 years old (standard deviation: 13.4). Of the 528 workers, 316 (59.8%) experienced heat illness symptoms (213 at Grade I and 103 at Grade II). The results of the stepwise selection revealed that age, outdoor manual labor, adequate sleep, use of a cool vest, and salt intake were selected as preventive factors, whereas living in a company dormitory or temporary housing, wearing light clothing, and consuming breakfast were selected as risk factors for heat illness. Both working conditions and living environment are associated with heat illness in radiation decontamination workers. Type of housing and sleep are also strongly related to heat illness during work. Employers should consider not only the working conditions of the employee but also the employee's daily living conditions, in order to prevent heat illness.
    Journal of Occupational Health 04/2015; DOI:10.1539/joh.14-0218-OA
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    ABSTRACT: Professional drivers are exposed to diesel engine exhaust and outdoor air pollution while driving. Diesel engine exhaust and outdoor air pollution are known carcinogens causing lung cancer. However, previous epidemiological studies examining lung cancer risk in professional drivers have not shown a consistent association. In the present study, we evaluated lung cancer risk among Korean professional drivers. Subjects consisted of male drivers aged 30-59 registered in the Korea Central Cancer Registry for lung cancer between 1999 and 2011. Proportionate cancer incidence ratios (PCIRs) for lung cancer were calculated and indirectly age standardized with the male general population. Additional PCIRs were calculated by indirectly adjusting for the effect of cigarette smoking. The PCIR for lung cancer in professional drivers during the study period increased significantly (1.20, 95% CI: 1.13-1.26). The increased risk was generally consistent throughout study years and age categories. Adjusting for the effect of cigarette smoking did not change the significance of the associations (1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.15). Our findings support an association between lung cancer and driver jobs in the Korean male population. However, the association should be further evaluated in a study with a longitudinal design and a quantitative exposure assessment.
    Journal of Occupational Health 04/2015; DOI:10.1539/joh.14-0222-OA
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the economic impact of corporate wellness programs (CWPs) in Europe from the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to 2013. A review was undertaken by searching for RCTs with key words in the following databases: PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Business Source Premier. Only RCTs that evaluated the economic impact of CWPs, and included analyses performed in Europe with results converted into monetary values, were eligible for inclusion. An approach to economic analyses from both an employer's perspective and a societal perspective was also undertaken. Eleven RCTs were identified, and review of these studies determined that the economic impact of the majority of CWPs analyzed was mostly negative. We discuss a possible explanation for these discrepancies with regard to prior reviews in this area. Despite the fact that the RCT is the "gold standard" for investigating without bias, several limitations to the methodology may have influenced the results of the studies in this review and suggested the use of caution in the interpretation of the results. The findings of this review could be a "wake up call" for companies regarding the high probability of bias from non-RCT studies, the majority of which report a positive economic impact of these programs, and the risk of taking inappropriate decisions based on the results of such studies.
    Journal of Occupational Health 04/2015; DOI:10.1539/joh.14-0217-RA
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    ABSTRACT: Many employees working outside are exposed to the harmful effects of UV radiation. A growing problem is also sensitization to textile materials and allergic reactions to active compounds. Groups of inorganic UV blockers with nanoparticles may provide superior properties over organic UV absorbers with relatively less potential of provoking dermatitis. To assess acute dermal irritation and sensitization of nano UV absorbers. Five UV absorbers with nano-sized particles (Z11, TiO2-SiO2 [TDPK], TK44, TK11, A8G) and 2 vehicles (paste-based on 10% PEG, and dispersion with 1% HEC) were tested. Acute dermal irritation was tested using group of 3 rabbits for each absorber. The sensitization study was carried out on groups of 15 guinea pigs for each tested textile with a UV absorber showing an Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF)>40. This research was designed according to OECD Test Guideline No. 404 and 406, and 21 rabbits and 60 guinea pigs were used in the study. In acute dermal irritation, Z11and A8G modifiers and the analyzed paste gave results of 0.047 to 0.33 which classifies them as barely perceptible irritants, whereas the other analyzed modifiers and dispersion gave results of 0.00 and were classified as nonirritating. Only the textile with TK 11 did not have UPF>40. The analyzed barrier materials were classified as nonsenitizers (TDPK, A8G) or mild sensitizers (TK44, Z11). None of the analyzed materials or modifiers induced major skin reactions in animals. Therefore, they present low risk of provoking skin reactions in humans.
    Journal of Occupational Health 03/2015; DOI:10.1539/joh.14-0207-OA
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify whether arsenic (As) exposure could induce hippocampal neural apoptosis in vivo. Sixty-four mice were randomly divided into 4 groups of 16 each. Group 1 orally received drinking water alone as a control. Groups 2-4 were given arsenic trioxide (As2O3) orally at the doses of 1 ppm, 2 ppm and 4 ppm, respectively. All the treatments continued for 60?days. Morphological changes in the hippocampus were observed by HE staining. Apoptosis in the hippocampus was examined by TUNEL assay and transmission electron microscopy. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax genes and their proteins in the hippocampus were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The activity of caspase-3 was determined by spectrophotometry. Abnormal histopathological changes and apoptosis were found in the hippocampus of As-exposed mice. The expressions of the Bcl-2 gene and its protein in the hippocampus of As-exposed mice were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05). However, the expressions of the Bax gene and its protein, and the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were significantly higher in the groups exposed to As than in the control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the activity of caspase-3 in the hippocampus of mice exposed to As was higher than that in the control (p<0.05). These results indicate that subchronic exposure to As induces apoptosis in the hippocampus of mice by disturbing normal Bax/Bcl-2 regulatory pathways. Meanwhile, it is suggested that the induced apoptosis in the hippocampus may be at least partly responsible for As-induced neurotoxicity.
    Journal of Occupational Health 03/2015; DOI:10.1539/joh.14-0226-OA
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: There are high levels of global and national underemployment, but limited information is available on the impact of this phenomenon on the quality of employees' working lives. This study examines the relations among perceived employer support for creative work, different forms of underemployment and employee quality of life, including job satisfaction, perceived job security and job satisfaction. Methods: The study was performed using cross-sectional data from the Canadian 2010 Work and Lifelong Learning Survey (WALL), which included 1,042 randomly selected currently employed participants between the ages of 18 and 64 years of age. Results: The study found a significant inverse association between employer support for innovative work and different forms of underemployment. It also suggested a strong relationship between support for such work and participation in work-related informal learning. The results from this study confirmed the hypothesis that employer support for creative work is significantly associated with the quality of employees' working lives, as manifested through increased job security and job satisfaction. Employees experiencing greater support for workplace creativity report less job-related stress. The present study identified relatively low employer support for creative work and significant differences in the perception of support among managers and workers. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that employer support for innovative work can mitigate significant underutilization of employee knowledge and skills. Such support can contribute to the reduction of job-related stress, increased job satisfaction and perceived job security. This kind of support can also improve the quality of life of employees and facilitate creativity and overall organizational and social development.
    Journal of Occupational Health 05/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.12-0192-OA
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We evaluated the percutaneous absorption of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in DMF-exposed workers in the summer and winter by assessing their urinary levels of DMF metabolites. Methods: Breathing-zone concentrations of DMF and workers' urinary levels of N-methylformamide (NMF) and N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-cysteine (AMCC) were simultaneously measured in the summer and winter in 193 male workers wearing a respirator and chemical protective gloves. Results: The mean breathing-zone concentrations of DMF in both seasons were below the occupational exposure limit of 10 ppm. Although there was no significant seasonal difference in the breathing-zone concentrations of DMF, workers' urinary levels of NMF and AMCC were significantly higher in the summer than in the winter. Log-transformed urinary levels of the metabolites were significantly correlated with log-transformed breathing-zone concentrations of DMF in the summer, whereas no significant correlation between AMCC and DMF was found in the winter. The urinary levels of AMCC were dispersed more widely than those of NMF, suggesting that urinary AMCC reflected the cumulative exposure to DMF over a workweek. Conclusions: Percutaneous absorption was the principal route of exposure to DMF for the respirator-wearing workers. Increased urinary levels of NMF and AMCC in the summer were attributed to increased percutaneous absorption of DMF resulting from the increased amount of water-soluble DMF absorbed by sweaty skin caused by the increased summertime room temperature and humidity.
    Journal of Occupational Health 05/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0228-OA
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: We previously reported a cluster of cholangiocarcinoma patients among proof-printing workers who were exposed to 1,2-DCP for a long term. The present study was conducted to evaluate blood parameters in these proof-printing workers during and after exposure. Methods: Health examination records during employment and after retirement were obtained for ten cholangiocarcinoma patients to analyze their blood parameters. The patients and/or their relatives were also interviewed about lifestyle and occupational history. Results: All study patients were exposed to 1,2-DCP for 6-17 years. Red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose were within the standard ranges for almost all patients, but the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) levels exceeded the standard range during 1,2-DCP exposure for six patients. Two of the six patients were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma during 1,2-DCP exposure, and the other four patients were diagnosed 1-9 years after termination of exposure. The remaining four patients had γ-GTP levels within the standard range during 1,2-DCP exposure, but had increased γ-GTP levels thereafter, and were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma 4-10 years after termination of exposure. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels started to increase following the increase in γ-GTP levels. Conclusion: Workers exposed to 1,2-DCP should be provided with periodic health examinations during and after exposure. In the examination, even small increases in γ-GTP levels should be considered a signal of early development of cholangiocarcinoma.
    Journal of Occupational Health 05/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0263-OA
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma was recently reported at a high incidence rate among the employees working for an offset printing company in Osaka, Japan. 1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and dichloromethane (DCM) are suspected to be the causes of the cancer, as they had been used as ink cleaners in large amounts. However, it is not clear whether these chlorinated organic solvents played a role in the occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma or why the incidence rate is so high among the workers in this industry. To provide possible evidence for this severe occupational problem, we investigated the genotoxic effects of 1,2-DCP and DCM. Methods: Male B6C3F1 and gpt Delta C57BL/6J mice were exposed by inhalation to the individual solvents or both solvents at multiple concentrations including the levels that were possibly present in the workplaces. The genotoxicity was analyzed by Pig-a gene mutation and micronuclei assays in peripheral blood and gpt mutation and comet assays in the livers of mice after repeated inhalation of 1,2-DCP or/and DCM. Results: The Pig-a mutant frequencies and micronuclei incidences were not significantly increased by exposure of either 1,2-DCP or/and DCM at any concentration, suggesting there was no genotoxic potential in bone marrow for both solvents. In the liver, DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay, was dose dependently increased by 1,2-DCP but not by DCM. The gpt mutant frequency was 2.6-fold that of the controls in the co-exposure group. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1,2-DCP showed stronger genotoxicity in the liver and that the genotoxic effects were greatly enhanced by simultaneous exposure to DCM.
    Journal of Occupational Health 04/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0236-OA
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To clarify effort-reward imbalance among eldercare workers in nursing homes and to examine the association between the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and low back pain (LBP) among them. Methods: A total of 549 questionnaires were distributed to a random sample comprising 23% of the 79 special elderly nursing homes in Kagawa in 2013. A total of 467 eldercare workers (response rate 85%) participated in this study. Of the 467 eligible respondents, 372 (80%) completed all items of the ERI questionnaire. Complete data were available for 342 (73%) eldercare workers. Results: Of the 342 respondents, 215 (63%) had LBP at the time of the study, and 291 (85%) showed a critical "high cost/low gain" condition as determined by an effort-reward ratio >1. Multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, previous LBP experience, high-risk work and K6 score showed that eldercare workers with a high ERI had a higher risk for LBP than workers with a low ERI (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.02-3.77). Conclusion: Most eldercare workers have a high ERI, and their LBP is associated with their ERI. Balancing effort and reward may be an important factor for improving LBP among eldercare workers in nursing homes.
    Journal of Occupational Health 04/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0295-OA
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: In order to safely manage nuclear power plants, their workforce should be mentally healthy. This study clarifies the coping strategies of radiation control personnel and nondestructive inspectors engaged in the periodic inspection of nuclear power plants, the effect of the coping strategies on their mental health, as well as any effect based on whether or not they had worked after the nuclear disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. Methods: A questionnaire survey was administered to 133 technicians attending a certification course, and among them, our subjects of analysis were 104 people with work experience in radiation control and/or nondestructive inspection. Results: The results indicated that even among workers of the same company who were assigned to similar duties in the periodic inspections of nuclear power plants, the group that had worked at a nuclear plant after the disaster had a tendency to use coping strategies, such as giving up and avoidance-like thinking, which was dissimilar to the group that had not worked at a nuclear plant after the disaster. Further, the former group had higher levels of distress than those who tended to use other coping strategies. In addition, the results suggested that the plan-drafting strategy adopted by the group that had not worked after the disaster did not result in stress reduction. Discussion: Based on these results, we propose a stress management program specifically for radiation workers.
    Journal of Occupational Health 04/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0065-FS
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    ABSTRACT: Backgrounds: Two-component acrylic resin used in nail art and dentistry can cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but only a few reports from Japan have been published. Cases: A 35-year-old female manicurist (case 1) and 30-year-old female dental hygienist (case 2) were diagnosed with ACD caused by ethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate in a liquid monomer of two-component acrylic resin respectively. Case 1 was sensitized from direct skin contact with nail art acrylic products, which could have been avoided, and gave up both being a manicurist and a user. Onset in case 2 occurred when she started to work as an apprentice. She had believed that the cause of her symptoms was use of disposable natural rubber gloves, not a liquid monomer penetrating through her gloves, until she was patch tested positive to (meth)acrylates and liquid monomer. Conclusions: To prevent sensitization, it should be emphasized in occupational training in both specialties that there should be no direct contact with acrylic products and that disposable gloves do not have sufficient protecting properties.
    Journal of Occupational Health 04/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0244-CS
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop standardized cost estimation tools that provide information to employers about occupational safety and health (OSH) activities for effective and efficient decision making in Japanese companies. Methods: We interviewed OSH staff members including full-time professional occupational physicians to list all OSH activities. Using activity-based costing, cost data were obtained from retrospective analyses of occupational safety and health costs over a 1-year period in three manufacturing workplaces and were obtained from retrospective analyses of occupational health services costs in four manufacturing workplaces. We verified the tools additionally in four workplaces including service businesses. Results: We created the OSH and occupational health standardized cost estimation tools. OSH costs consisted of personnel costs, expenses, outsourcing costs and investments for 15 OSH activities. The tools provided accurate, relevant information on OSH activities and occupational health services. Conclusions: The standardized information obtained from our OSH and occupational health cost estimation tools can be used to manage OSH costs, make comparisons of OSH costs between companies and organizations and help occupational health physicians and employers to determine the best course of action.
    Journal of Occupational Health 04/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0277-FS
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study evaluated the levels of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their relationship with oxidative DNA damage among Vietnamese coke-oven workers. Methods: We collected urine from 36 coke-oven workers (exposed group) at the beginning and end of the shift on 2 consecutive days. We also collected urine from 78 medical staff (control group). Information was collected by questionnaire about smoking status, drinking habit, and working position. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) were measured using HPLC. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 19. Results: Urinary 1-OHP was significantly higher in the coke-oven workers than in the control group (p<0.05). Top-oven workers had the highest levels of internal exposure to PAHs, followed by side-oven and then bottom-oven workers (5.41, 4.41 and 1.35 ng/mg creatinine, respectively, at the end of the shift on day 2). Urinary 8-OH-dG was significantly higher in top- and side-oven workers at the end of the shift on day 2 (4.63 and 5.88 ng/mg creatinine, respectively) than in the control group (3.85 ng/mg creatinine). Based on a multi-regression analysis, smoking status had a significant effect on urinary 8-OH-dG (p=0.049). Urinary 1-OHP tended to have a positive correlation with urinary 8-OH-dG (p=0.070). Conclusions: Vietnamese coke-oven workers were exposed to PAHs during their work shift. Urinary 1-OHP exceeded the recommended limit, and elevated oxidative DNA damage occurred in top- and side-oven workers on the second day of work. A tendency for positive correlation was found between urinary 1-OHP and urinary 8-OH-dG.
    Journal of Occupational Health 03/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0222-OA
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Hairdressers have a high incidence of occupational diseases, owing to excessive wet work and exposure to chemical substances. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of occupational diseases in a population of self-employed hairdressers, matched for age and sex with a control group of wage-earning hairdressers. Method: A health questionnaire was administered to both groups by an occupational health practitioner. Results: Irritative skin diseases were reported by 1.5% of the self-employed hairdressers versus 9.1% of the wage earners. Conversely, the rates of respiratory diseases and cumulative musculoskeletal injuries were much higher among self-employed hairdressers. Conclusions: This study shows that the overall health of self-employed hairdressers is lower than that of their wage-earning counterparts. This can be attributed to several aspects of work exposure, organization, including longer working hours, fewer protective measures and the absence of preventive medicine in the workplace.
    Journal of Occupational Health 03/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0139-FS
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Asbestos causes lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma, and chronic inflammation is considered to participate in carcinogenesis. However, biomarkers to evaluate its carcinogenic risk have not been established. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species are generated in biological systems under inflammatory conditions and may contribute to carcinogenesis by causing DNA damage. In this study, we examined the relationship between the formation of 8-nitroguanine (8-nitroG), a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation, and asbestos contents in human lung tissues. Methods: We obtained non-tumor lung tissues from patients with (n=15) and without mesothelioma (n=21). The expression of 8-nitroG and related molecules was examined by immunohistochemistry, and their staining intensities were semiquantitatively evaluated. Asbestos contents in lung tissues were analyzed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Results: In subjects without mesothelioma, staining intensities of 8-nitroG and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) were significantly correlated with total asbestos and amphibole contents (p<0.05), but not with chrysotile content. In mesothelioma patients, their staining intensities were not correlated with asbestos contents. The double immunofluorescence technique revealed that APE1 was expressed in 8-nitroG-positive cells, suggesting that abasic sites were formed possibly due to the removal of 8-nitroG. The staining intensities of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative DNA lesion, and its repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase were correlated with age (p<0.05), but not with asbestos contents in subjects without mesothelioma. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that 8-nitroG formation is associated with asbestos contents in human lung tissues. This finding raises a possibility that 8-nitroG serves as a biomarker that can be used to evaluate asbestos exposure and carcinogenic risk.
    Journal of Occupational Health 03/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0231-OA
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between skill underutilization, a psychological job stressor proposed in the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) job stress model, and the prevalence of hypertension. Methods: We studied sitting blood pressure and fasting blood laboratory parameters in 3,429 inhabitants of the town of Watari during annual health check-ups in 2010. A questionnaire was administered to examine job status, weekly working hours and degree of skill utilization. We divided subjects into tertiles according to skill utilization score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using prevalent hypertension as the dependent variable. Results: Questionnaires were collected from 2,550 individuals. After excluding those who were not in paid employment and those with missing data, 1,075 permanent or part-time workers were included in the final analysis. The odds ratio for the presence of hypertension was significantly higher in the lowest tertile of skill utilization score compared with the highest tertile (1.776; 95% confidence interval, 1.137-2.796) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, current smoking status and daily alcohol intake. Conclusion: Skill underutilization was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension in a working population including various kinds of occupations.
    Journal of Occupational Health 03/2014; DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0146-BR