Publisher: Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

Journal description

Current impact factor: 0.26

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 0.263
2013 Impact Factor 0.31
2012 Impact Factor 0.46
2011 Impact Factor 0.389
2010 Impact Factor 0.427
2009 Impact Factor 0.368
2008 Impact Factor 0.386
2007 Impact Factor 0.347
2006 Impact Factor 0.225
2005 Impact Factor 0.345
2004 Impact Factor 0.259
2003 Impact Factor 0.319
2002 Impact Factor 0.419
2001 Impact Factor 0.404
2000 Impact Factor 0.301
1999 Impact Factor 0.238
1998 Impact Factor 0.29
1997 Impact Factor 0.315
1996 Impact Factor 0.354
1995 Impact Factor 0.186
1994 Impact Factor 0.246
1993 Impact Factor 0.23
1992 Impact Factor 0.316

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.35
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.04
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.08
ISSN 1347-5231

Publisher details

Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

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  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
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    • Publisher's version/PDF must be used
    • On Institutional Repositories
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The influenza A virus genome consists of eight-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNAs. Each genomic viral RNA segment (vRNA) encodes different viral proteins that are necessary for efficient virus replication, and forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) together with viral nucleoproteins and an RNA polymerase complex. Later in infection, progeny virions, which are released from the plasma membrane of the infected cell, must incorporate the eight separate vRNAs to be infectious. However, the mechanism by which the segmented vRNAs are incorporated into each progeny virion remains unclear. To elucidate the genome packaging mechanism of influenza A virus, we examined the architecture of RNPs within progeny virions using several electron microscopic analyses. We demonstrated that each progeny virion incorporates eight RNPs arranged in a specific pattern, in which seven RNPs surround the central one. Such characteristic arrangement is found in all influenza A virus strains tested here, suggesting that the mechanism by which well-organized eight RNPs is incorporated into virion is common to influenza A viruses. In addition, there seem to be physical interactions among the eight RNPs via nucleic acid-like structures, suggesting that there are specific interactions among the eight vRNAs in the form of RNPs. These results indicate that influenza A virion selectively packages a complete set of eight separate vRNAs.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1011-3. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00175-2
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    ABSTRACT: Large individual variations in drug efficacy and safety could be explained in part by pharmacokinetics regulated by drug transporters and drug-metabolizing enzymes. However, expression and/or function of these proteins often fluctuate in pathological conditions, causing individual pharmacokinetic variability. To achieve a personalized pharmacotherapy after liver transplantation, our group has been investigating the pharmacokinetics of drugs and factors causing its variation based on molecular biological analysis using rats with liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury as a model for injuries immediately after liver transplantation. The first finding is that the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CsA), which is an immunosuppressant, was decreased by increased first-pass metabolism due to elevated CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) specifically in the upper small intestine after liver I/R. Expression of CYP3A in the small intestine was also elevated through transcriptional regulation by endogenous bile acids, whereas expression and function of intestinal P-gp were increased by post-transcriptional regulation via microRNA-145. Next, the pharmacokinetics of a cationic drug, cimetidine, which is eliminated from the kidney, and the expressional variation of drug transporters in the kidney after liver I/R were examined. Liver I/R decreased tubular secretion of cimetidine, mainly because of decreased expression of rat organic cation transporter 2 in the kidney. These findings provide useful information on the etiology of liver I/R injury and appropriate use of immunosuppressants and drugs eliminated from the kidney after liver transplantation.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1037-41. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00169
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    ABSTRACT: Functional multilayer thin films have been prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition for the development of sensors, separators, and drug delivery systems. In particular, glucose-sensitive LbL films have been widely studied for use as glucose sensors and in glucose-triggered drug delivery systems. In this work, I report on glucose-sensitive LbL films that consist of concanavalin A (ConA), phenylboronic acid (PBA), and glucose oxidase (GOx). ConA/glycogen LbL films were prepared by LbL deposition of ConA and glycogen through a lectin-sugar interaction. Similarly, PBA-modified poly(amidoamine) dendrimer/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) LbL films were prepared through cyclic boronate ester bonds. Both types of films decomposed in the presence of glucose, by the competitive binding of glucose, although these LbL films did not show a satisfactory response to millimolar concentrations of glucose under physiological conditions. PBA-modified poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and PVA films were prepared on a GOx-modified quartz slide. The LbL film was stable over a wide pH range, from 3.0 to 9.0, in the absence of glucose. In contrast, the film decomposed upon exposure to 0.1-10 mM glucose solutions for 60 min at pH 7.4. The glucose-induced decomposition of the film can be explained by the scission of the carbon-boron bond of the PBA residues by hydrogen peroxide, which was produced through the GOx-catalyzed oxidation of glucose. These results suggest this multilayer film may be useful for the development of glucose-sensitive drug delivery systems.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1029-35. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00182
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    ABSTRACT: For the prevention and control of infectious viral diseases, vaccines and antiviral drugs targeting viral proteins are of great importance. Amino acid substitutions in viral proteins occasionally cause the emergence of antibody-escape and drug-resistant mutants. With regard to this, we have studied the proteins of several viruses, especially the influenza A virus, by using techniques of computational chemistry and biology such as molecular modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulations. Influenza A virus is a zoonotic pathogen that is transmitted from animals to humans. This virus has two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA of influenza viruses plays a key role in the initiation of viral infection. And HA is also the major target of antibodies that neutralize viral infectivity. Some amino acid substitutions in the antigenic epitope on HA could decrease the interaction between HA and antibodies, leading to the generation of antigenic variants with novel antigenic structures of HA. In addition, HA protein seems to be a favorable target for anti-influenza drugs, but effective HA inhibitors have not been developed due to the emergence of drug-resistant viruses with amino acid substitutions on the HA. To understand how amino acid substitutions affect changes in drug susceptibility, we have been computationally analyzing the three-dimensional structures of influenza virus proteins. In this paper, we review the results obtained through our current analysis.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1015-21. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00175-3
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that chronic local inflammation and cellular stresses are the key steps in organ defects in obesity-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and fatty liver. We have shown that an excess energy state activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, a master transcription factor for fatty acid synthesis causing the accumulation of lipids leading to fatty liver, insulin resistance, insulin secretion defects, and dyslipidemia and we clarified their molecular mechanisms. Recently, we shifted focus to the quality aspect of accumulated lipids. It has long been known that saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids are atherogenic and anti-atherogenic, respectively. Besides desaturation, we found that the chain-length of fatty acids is another important factor. Elovl6 that we have cloned as an SREBP-1 target is a fatty acid elongase that catalises the last step of fatty acid synthesis. Elovl6 KO mice exhibit obesity and fatty liver on a high energy diet, but unexpectedly were immune to insulin resistance (Nat. Med., 13, 2007, Matsuzaka et al.), atherosclerosis (Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 31, 2011, Saito et al.) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathology including liver damage, ROS, and fibrosis (Hepatology, 56, 2012, Matsuzaka et al.). Elovl6 is crucial for protection against lung fibrosis (Nat. Commun., 4, 2013, Sunaga et al.). These data implicate that fatty acid composition is a new therapeutic target for a variety of chronic metabolic diseases. In this symposium review, a novel strategy for the prevention of life-related diseases will be discussed in the standpoint of application of wet-dry fusion strategies for theoretical and medicinal chemistry.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1003-9. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00175-1
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    ABSTRACT: A separation-oriented derivatization method combined with LC has been developed for the selective analysis of biogenic and related compounds. In this method, we utilized a specific affinity between perfluoroalkyl-containing compounds, i.e., 'fluorous' compounds (fluorophilicity). Our strategy involves the derivatization of target analytes with perfluoroalkyl reagents, followed by selective retention of the derivatives with a perfluoroalkyl-modified stationary phase LC column. The perfluoroalkylated derivatives are strongly retained on the column owing to their fluorophilicity, whereas non-derivatized species, such as sample matrices, are hardly retained. Therefore, utilizing this derivatization method, target analytes can be determined selectively without interference from matrices. This method has been successfully applied to the LC analysis of some biogenic and related compounds in complex biological samples.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1043-8. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00116
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common senile dementia. One of the pathological characteristics of AD is the appearance of senile plaques composed of amyloid-β (Aβ) depositions. Aβ is generated by consecutive cleavages of Aβ precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. The common pathogenesis for familial AD (FAD) is believed to involve misprocessing of APP by γ-secretase, resulting in increased Aβ42 peptide deposition. However, little is known about γ-secretase function in sporadic AD (SAD), which is the major type of AD. This may be because Aβ42 peptide has highly aggregative properties; therefore it is not easy to estimate the quantitative alteration of net Aβ42 in SAD patients. Alcadein is a family of neural type I membrane proteins. Processing of Alcadein by APP α- and γ-secretases results in secretion of non-aggregative peptide, p3-Alc, into CSF and blood. The C-terminuses of Aβ and p3-Alc are altered by FAD-linked genetic mutations in catalytic components of γ-secretase, in association with an increase in minor Aβ and p3-Alc species. Thus p3-Alcs are expected to behave as useful indicators of γ-secretase dysfunction in SAD brain. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of p3-Alcs raise the possibility that γ-secretase dysfunction may exist even in the absence of genetic mutations. p3-Alc peptides may be a novel biomarker for AD and an indicator of γ-secretase dysfunction for drug development.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1023-7. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00189
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term clinical training based on a model core curriculum was conducted to nurture highly competent pharmacists in the clinical field. Pharmacists' responsibilities are expanding, and a system has been developed to help pharmacists gain accreditation, identify specialties, and improve their training. However, this system requires research competency. Therefore clinical research should be considered a part of clinical training to encourage high competency among pharmacists. Because the model core curriculum does not include a section on clinical research. Osaka City University Hospital introduced a hands-on clinical research experience program and evaluated its usefulness. A significant improvement in the level of knowledge and awareness of clinical research was seen among students who underwent the clinical research experience program. In addition, the level of student satisfaction was higher. These findings suggest that a clinical research experience program may be useful to nurture a greater awareness of clinical research and knowledge acquisition among pharmacists.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1077-82. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00083
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer patients often report a decreased quality of life due to cancer-related pain, especially neuropathic pain, which is difficult to manage and often develops resistance to morphine. Thus a supplementary analgesic can play an important role in the treatment of cancer-related pain. Carbamazepine (CBZ), for example, can be effective, but only if the patient can take medication orally because it is limited to oral administration. In this study we investigated the efficacy of a suppository containing CBZ tablet in hospital preparations. We selected a base for the suppository of either polyethylene glycol (P), Witepsol VOSCO(®) H-15 (H), or Witepsol VOSCO(®) S-55 (S). Six to eight in vitro and in vivo groups were divided randomly based on route of administration and treatment: intravenous (i.v.), per os (p.o.), and intrarectal administration (i.r.) (composed of CBZ powder and tablet formulations, CBZp and CBZt) prepared in either a base of P, H, or S (CBZp/P, CBZp/H, CBZp/S, CBZt/P, CBZt/H, and CBZt/S). The hardness levels of the CBZt suppository group were significantly lower than the CBZp suppository group. The drug release profiles of the CBZt suppository group were high in order of P, H, and S; there were no significant differences between these groups and the CBZp suppository group. The maximum drug concentration time levels of the CBZt suppository group significantly increased compared with the p.o. group. These two groups had equivalent maximum drug concentration and bioavailability levels. These results suggest that a suppository containing CBZ tablet can be useful for hospital preparations.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1049-55. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00005
  • YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1001-2. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00175-F
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    ABSTRACT: Despite an increase in the number of reports on medical safety interventions conducted by ward-based pharmacists, only a few reports have classified intervention cases in detail. We classified and compared the types of medical safety intervention conducted by ward-based pharmacists since the introduction of their services. The interventions were classified into: cases that were identified by pharmacists or through asking questions about physicians' prescriptions before dispensing medications (active interventions); and those in which pharmacy technicians could contribute to medical safety by receiving inquiries from patients or healthcare providers (passive interventions). The numbers of the two types of intervention were compared. The number of interventions significantly increased after the introduction of ward-based clinical pharmacy services. Especially, the numbers of cases identified during ward rounds conducted by ward-based pharmacists (active interventions) and those identified by receiving inquiries from physicians or nurses (passive interventions) significantly increased, possibly because the collection of patient information was performed more efficiently by conducting ward rounds, and an environment where physicians and nurses can easily make inquiries to pharmacists was established after increasing the time pharmacists spend on hospital wards. The results demonstrate that the introduction of ward-based clinical pharmacy services has improved communication with patients, facilitated information-sharing among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers, contributed to the safer management of pharmaceutical operations, and increased interest of patients.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 09/2015; 135(9):1069-76. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00008
  • YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 08/2015; 135(8):929-30. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00112-F
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cells generated during development and immune responses in animals are rapidly engulfed by phagocytes, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. When the engulfment process malfunctions, the apoptotic cells undergo secondary necrosis, which results in the release of noxious cellular components into the extracellular space. Thus, the efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is indispensable for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the engulfment of apoptotic cells remain largely unknown. To identify the molecules that are involved in this process, we developed a functional screening strategy using a retrovirus cDNA library. Using this assay, we isolated cDNA clones encoding RhoG and Rab5 which enhanced the engulfment of apoptotic cells. In addition, we found that Rac1, which is very similar to RhoG, and Rab5 are necessary for engulfment; their activities were successfully visualized by a combination of fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology with time-lapse imaging techniques. We further determined that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6), originally identified as a kinase responsible for the desensitization and downregulation of G-protein-coupled receptors, activates Rac1 independent of the two known intracellular engulfment pathways in phagocytes. GRK6-deficient macrophages exhibited impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Consequently, GRK6-deficient mice developed autoimmune phenotypes such as an increase in the amount of anti-dsDNA in serum and the deposition of immune complexes in the kidney. Thus, our findings contributed to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate apoptotic engulfment in phagocytes.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 08/2015; 135(8):949-54. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00110
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    ABSTRACT: A generic drug is defined as a drug product that is comparable to a brand name drug in terms of dosage, form, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics, and indicated use. Generic drugs for topical use, in the case of sheet-like products, are required to be the same as the original drug in terms of application area and dosage form. The composition of such generic drug formulations may differ from that of the original product. The adhesive of any pharmaceutically-active tape that directly contacts the skin plays a role in delivering the active ingredient into the skin, and affects the sensation and ease of handling. Therefore, adhesives are an important ingredient in these products. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize original and generic lidocaine tape products, and to evaluate the adhesive properties of each. The tack force, peel strength and shear adhesion were measured as adhesive properties. In addition, in vitro drug releasing profiles and skin permeation profiles of the products were evaluated. In vivo transdermal absorption was also evaluated to predict the possibility of adverse effects. Adhesive properties differed among the three analyzed products. These differences may have been caused by differences in the adhesives. Drug-releasing profiles and skin permeation profiles also differed among the three products, even though the pharmacokinetics were not significantly different. By obtaining an adequate understanding of the characteristics of original and generic products, we will be able to provide better tailor-made medications for drug therapies for patients.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 08/2015; 135(8):977-85. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00066
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of biological compounds is important for the clarification of biological phenomena. For the quantification of trace amounts of biological compounds, efficient separation and sensitive analytical methods are necessary. The present author developed HPLC-fluorescence and chemiluminescence detection methods for biological compounds such as catecholamines, amino acids, and thiols. In this review article, two studies are summarized: one on the development of an on-chip liquid chromatography method using pillar array columns with low-dispersion turns; and another on the development of simultaneous analytical method of biothiols by HPLC with fluorescence detection under hydrophilic interaction chromatography conditions.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 08/2015; 135(8):955-60. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00117
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    ABSTRACT: Severe stomatitis caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy is accompanied by severe pain and results in a poor quality of life. We used a spray preparation of indomethacin (IM; 0.25% IM dissolved in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to control the pain associated with stomatitis at the University of Tsukuba Hospital. This review specifically aimed to collect information on the use of the IM spray preparation, from our previous studies, to facilitate its proper use in a hospital setting. On studying the stability of the IM spray preparation, we concluded that the preparation should be kept in the refrigerator for daily use, and that it can be stored for at least 2 months at 4°C, and for 24 months at -20°C. To evaluate the efficacy of the IM spray preparation, we retrospectively surveyed its analgesic effects. Using the 10-grade Visual Analogue Scale in 23 patients, we found that pain associated with stomatitis was reduced from 10 to 4.7 after application of the spray. In conclusion, our study results on the stability and efficacy of the IM spray preparation have led to the proper use of the spray in cancer patients with stomatitis caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 08/2015; 135(8):931-5. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00112-1
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    ABSTRACT: Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs play an important role in self-medication. To ensure patient safety, pharmacists should ask patients to pay attention to possible adverse events (AE) associated with OTC drugs and educate patients about the symptoms related to those AEs. The aims of the present study were as follows: (1) to assess the tendency of AEs to occur with OTC drug use in Japan; (2) to detect a safety signal for OTC drugs using the reporting odds ratio (ROR); and (3) to evaluate clustery features, which include suspected drugs and therapeutic classifications, and safety signal indices (number of reports and the ROR), using cluster analysis. The number of reports of AEs following use of combination cold remedy, antipyretic and analgesic remedy, and herbal medicine was 1007, 566, and 221, respectively. We set the cluster number at five; clustery features obtained were as follows: (1) high reporting rate for skin and subcutaneous tissue disorder AEs was the largest group related to combination cold remedy; (2) high reporting rate for nervous system disorder AEs including dizziness was the second largest group. The same medicinal ingredient may demonstrate similar tendencies of the occurrence of AEs and similar clustery features in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. Our analysis of AEs associated with OTC drugs may be useful for pharmacists and patients alike. Further studies are required to draw better-informed conclusions.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 08/2015; 135(8):991-1000. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.14-00231
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    ABSTRACT: Translational research is important for applying the outcomes of basic research studies to practical medical treatments. In exploratory early-phase clinical trials for an innovative therapy, researchers should generally manufacture investigational agents by themselves. To provide investigational agents with safety and high quality in clinical studies, appropriate production management and quality control are essential. In the Department of Pharmacy of Kyoto University Hospital, a manufacturing facility for sterile drugs was established, independent of existing manufacturing facilities. Manuals on production management and quality control were developed according to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for Investigational New Drugs (INDs). Advanced clinical research has been carried out using investigational agents manufactured in our facility. These achievements contribute to both the safety of patients and the reliability of clinical studies. In addition, we are able to do licensing-out of our technique for the manufacture of investigational drugs. In this symposium, we will introduce our GMP grade manufacturing facility for sterile drugs and discuss the role of GMP grade hospital preparation in translational research.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 08/2015; 135(8):943-7. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00112-3
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    ABSTRACT: A decrease in nitric oxide (NO) production may induce pathological conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction and diabetes. Although a decrease in NO production caused by impaired Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthesis (eNOS) signaling has been demonstrated at the aorta in the presence of diabetic vascular complications, little is known regarding the details of the mechanism. We identified G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) as a critical factor in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. GRK2 plays a role in many physiological functions including regulation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We found that the vasculature affected by type 2 diabetes expresses high levels of GRK2, which may induce endothelial dysfunction caused by impaired Akt/eNOS signaling. GRK2 activation also induces changes in the subcellular localization of GRK2 and β-arrestin 2, a downstream protein, from the cytosol to membrane. In mouse aorta GRK2 may be, on translocation, a key negative regulator and an important regulator of β-arrestin 2/Akt/eNOS signaling, which has been implicated in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, in the aortic membrane of type 2 diabetic model mice under insulin stimulation, the impaired Akt/eNOS signaling was improved by a selective GRK2 inhibitor. These results suggest that in diabetes the GRK2 inhibitor ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction via Akt/eNOS signaling by inhibiting GRK2 activity and enhancing β-arrestin 2 translocation to the membrane under GPCR or non-GPCR stimulation, thereby contributing to blood pressure- and blood glucose-lowering effects. We propose that the GRK2 inhibitor may be a promising therapeutic target for cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 08/2015; 135(8):961-7. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00119
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM) is a severe adverse event resulting from cancer chemotherapy. Toxic free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by anticancer drugs have been reported to be associated with CIOM. Rebamipide has been shown to increase gastric endogenous prostaglandin E2 and I2, to promote gastric epithelial mucin, and to behave as an oxygen free-radical scavenger in addition to other anti-inflammatory actions. We developed a gargle solution of rebamipide, adding ultrahydrogel for mucosal protection and to maintain rebamipide on the oral mucosa. A 300 mL rebamipide gargle solution combines 600 mg rebamipide, 3 g high molecular-weight polyethylene oxide, 1.2 g carrageenan, pineapple flavoring, and water. The efficacy of the rebamipide gargle was evaluated in 175 patients with CIOM from November 2009 to December 2012, each instructed to use the rebamipide gargle 5-6 times daily. The severity of CIOM was assessed according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 4.0). Their CTCAE scores (3/2/1/0) changed from n=13/64/98/0 to 0/10/103/62, respectively, after initiation of the rebamipide gargle (p<0.01; paired t-test). The median duration to best response was 14 days (range: 1-49). CTCAE scores decreased in 132 patients (75.4%), including 62 (35.4%) who achieved grade 0. There were no unexpected safety events. Rebamipide gargle was well tolerated and demonstrated to have significant therapeutic efficacy against CIOM.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 08/2015; 135(8):937-41. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.15-00112-2