Breast Cancer (Breast Canc )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society.

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    Breast Cancer (Tokyo) website
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  • OCLC
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    Document, Periodical
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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Computer File

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • Breast Cancer 08/2014;
  • Breast Cancer 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Indication for chemotherapy in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancers is determined on the basis of Ki67 expression level. However, since Ki67-high cancers are not necessarily sensitive to chemotherapy, identification of such patients who do not need chemotherapy is an important issue.
    Breast Cancer 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although 8-73 % of breast cancer patients who receive adjuvant endocrine therapy discontinue it, discontinuation is little studied in Asian breast cancer patients.
    Breast Cancer 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is controversy about the value of clinical breast examination (CBE) in breast cancer screening programs that include mammography.
    Breast Cancer 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: One of the challenges for clinical use of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is how to transfer prone MRI information to the operating theater with a supine surgical position. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate tumor displacement in the breast by changing the patient position from prone to supine (prone-to-supine tumor displacement), using preoperative prone MRI and supine computed tomography (CT).
    Breast Cancer 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The remarkable increase that breast-conserving surgery has been experiencing throughout the last decades is as much undeniable as the imposition of the immediate reconstruction as the gold-standard treatment regarding breast reconstruction. Nevertheless, these trends conflict since we do not have a satisfactory immediate reconstruction method for breast-conserving surgery. This work shows the technique we have developed to solve this problem through autologous fat grafting ensuring the same oncological safety.
    Breast Cancer 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although progesterone receptor (PR) status, similarly to estrogen receptor status, is of prognostic importance in breast cancer, the involvement of the PR in breast cancer remains obscure. Studies were conducted to determine the function of the PR in neutrophils in the nitric oxide-induced synthesis of maspin, an anti-breast-cancer protein produced in nonmalignant mammary cells and in neutrophils in the circulation. METHODS: PR status was determined by immunohistochemistry. Maspin synthesis was determined by in-vitro translation of messenger RNA and quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nitric oxide was determined by the methemoglobin method. RESULTS: It was found that PR status in neutrophils was identical with that in malignant breast tissues. A Scatchard plot for progesterone binding to normal and PR-positive (PR+) neutrophils revealed that whereas normal neutrophils had 11.5 × 10(10) PR sites/cell with K (d) = 47.619 nM, PR+ neutrophils had 6.6 × 10(10) PR sites/cell with K (d) = 47.619 nM. The progesterone negative (PR-) neutrophils failed to bind to progesterone. Incubation of normal and PR+ neutrophils with 25 nM progesterone produced 1.317 μM NO and 2.329 nM maspin; the PR+ neutrophils produced 0.72 μM NO and 1.138 nM maspin. The PR- neutrophils failed to produce any NO or maspin in the presence of progesterone. Inhibition of progesterone-induced NO synthesis led to complete inhibition of maspin synthesis in all neutrophils. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that estrogen and progesterone complement each other in NO-induced maspin synthesis, and do not necessarily antagonize in the synthesis of the anti-breast-cancer protein.
    Breast Cancer 11/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is under evaluation in breast-conserving surgery because the feasibility of the IORT procedure including transportation of the patient under general anesthesia is not well established. Thus, this prospective single-center study aimed to test the feasibility of IORT at a single dose of 21 Gy in Japanese breast cancer patients. Methods The primary endpoint was early toxicity; the secondary endpoint was late toxicity. Patients with histologically or cytologically proven primary early breast cancer were eligible. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) T < 2.5 cm; (2) desire for breast-conserving surgery; (3) age >50 years; (4) surgical margin >1 cm; (5) intraoperative pathologically free margins; and (6) sentinel node negative. Exclusion criteria were (1) contraindications to radiation therapy; (2) past radiation therapy for the same breast or chest; (3) extensive intraductal component; and (4) a tumor located in the axillary tail of the breast. All patients gave written informed consent. Partial resection was performed with at least a margin of 1 cm around the tumor. The patient was transported from the surgical suite to the radiation room. Radiation (Clinac® 21EX, Varian Medical Systems, Inc.) at 21 Gy was delivered directly to the mammary gland. Toxicity was evaluated with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V4.0. Results Five patients were enrolled in this pilot study and received 21 Gy. Follow-up ranged from 7.8 to 11.0 months (median 10.2). Intraoperative transportation to the radiation room during the surgical procedure under general anesthesia was performed safely in all patients. Treatment-related toxicities within 3 months were deep connective tissue fibrosis (grade 1, n = 3) and pain (grade 1, n = 3). There was no case of wound infection, wound dehiscence, or soft tissue necrosis. Overall, there was no severe adverse event. Conclusions The procedure was tolerated very well in this first group of Japanese female patients treated with IORT, as was the case with European women. A longer follow-up is needed for the evaluation of any potential late side effects or recurrences. A phase II study is now being conducted for the next group of patients (UMIN000003578).
    Breast Cancer 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recently, interferon-inducible guanylate binding protein (GBP2) has been discussed as a possible control factor in tumor development, which is controlled by p53, and inhibits NF-Kappa B and Rac protein as well as expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9. However, the potential role that GBP2 plays in tumor development and prognosis has not yet been studied. Methods We analyzed whether GBP2 mRNA levels are associated with metastasis-free interval in 766 patients with node negative breast carcinomas who did not receive systemic chemotherapy. Furthermore, response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy was studied in 768 breast cancer patients. Results High expression of GBP2 in breast carcinomas was associated with better prognosis in the univariate (P < 0.001, hazard ratio 0.763, 95 % CI 0.650–0.896) as well as in the multivariate Cox analysis (P = 0.008, hazard ratio 0.731, 95 % CI 0.580–0.920) adjusted to the established clinical factors age, pT stage, grading, hormone and ERBB2 receptor status. The association was particularly strong in subgroups with high proliferation and positive estrogen receptor status but did not reach significance in carcinomas with low expression of proliferation associated genes. Besides its prognostic capacity, GBP2 also predicted pathologically complete response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy (P = 0.0037, odds ratio 1.39, 95 % CI 1.11–1.74). Interestingly, GBP2 correlated with a recently established T cell signature, indicating tumor infiltration with T cells (R = 0.607, P < 0.001). Conclusion GBP2 is associated with better prognosis in fast proliferating tumors and probably represents a marker of an efficient T cell response.
    Breast Cancer 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundAn exon deletion variant of estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA has been reported, as one of the possible mechanisms of loss of ER function. MethodsWe examined the expression of exons 3, 5, and 7 in ERα mRNA and the frequency of exon deletion variant expression in 64 cases of human breast cancers and in 8 non-cancerous breast tissues using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ResultsApproximately the same amount of wild-type (wt) mRNA was detected in all the noncancerous breast tissues. In cancers, expression of wild-type exon 3 (w3), exon 5 (w5), and exon 7 (w7) was detected in 93.5%, 93.5%, and 91.3% of ERα protein (pER) positive cases, respectively, and 27.8%, 38.9%, and 44.4% in negative cases, respectively (p<0.0001, p=0.0035, and p=0.0002). Although the variants for exon 5 (d5) and 7 (d7) were detected in both non-cancerous and cancerous tissues respectively, the variant for exon 3 was not detected at all. Comparatively, the ratio of d5/w5 was significantly higher in pER positive and progesterone receptor protein (pPgR) negative cases. ConclusionsWe suspect that the exon 5 deletion does not work as a dominant positive.
    Breast Cancer 04/2012; 7(1):27-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Axillary dissection has been considered essential for breast cancer staging because nodal metastasis is the most powerful predictive factor for recurrence. On the other hand, morbidity, such as lymphedema and shoulder dysfunction, may occur. Sentinel node biopsy is a good way to avoid unnecessary axillary dissection. We used tin colloid as a carrier of Tc99m tracer together with the blue dye method. The detection rate of the sentinel node was 27 cases out of 29 (90%) for the blue dye method, 10 cases out of 19 (53%) for the Rl method, and 27 out of 33 (82%) for the combined method. The detection rate of the Rl method was improved after adding the subcutaneous injection over the tumor from 45% before adding the subcutaneous injection to 82% after adding it. The false negative rate was 11% for the blue dye method, 0% for the R1 method, and 10% for the combined method. This yields a sensitivity of 89% for the blue dye method, 100% for the R1 method, and 90% for the combined method. Specificity was 100% for all three methods. Accuracy was 96% for the blue dye method, 100% for the R1 method, and 96% for the combined method. There were two false negative cases. The average number of sentinel lymph nodes was 2.12 for the dye method, 1.66 for the R1 method, and 1.95 for the combined method. There were three of 49 cases with identified parasternal lymph nodes by R1 imaging. Lymphatic mapping using tin colloid may be useful for detecting sentinel nodes.
    Breast Cancer 04/2012; 7(4):284-286.
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe temperature of the skin remains elevated long after breast-conserving treatment with irradiation, perhaps because evaporative cooling is impaired. We investigated physiological changes of the irradiated skin and reevaluated the radiosensitivity of sweat glands on a functional basis to determine whether severe complications can be predicted. MethodsBreast and axillary skin temperatures were measured with thermography and sweat production in response to local thermal stimuli was measured on the basis of changes in electrical skin resistance with a bridge circuit in 45 women before, during, and after breast irradiation for breast cancer. ResultsBreast and axillary skin temperatures were significantly increased after irradiation. In response to cutaneous thermal stimuli, the electric skin resistance of nonirradiated areas decreased significantly because of sweating, but that of irradiated areas was unchanged. ConclusionImpairment of sweating may play an important role in skin damage after irradiation. Although glandular tissue is not usually radiosensitive, the results of our functional assessment suggest that sweat glands are more radiosensitive than expected.
    Breast Cancer 04/2012; 7(2):142-148.
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe purpose of this study is to determine and recommend the optimal radiation source according to breast size for tangential irradiation in breast conserving therapy. MethodsTwenty-eight patients treated at our department from January 1994 to January 1996 were studied. The dose distribution within the irradiated breast was calculated using ap60Co-gamma ray and 6 MV-X ray. Then we compared 3-D dose distributions of thep60Co-gamma ray and 6 MV-X ray in differentsized breasts. Three parameters (breast volume, chest wall separation, and breast height) were adopted as representative of breast size. We also examined correlations among the three parameters. ResultsWhen the breast size was large (breast volume>400 cmp3, chest wall separation >19.5 cm, or breast height>6.5 cm), the average volume of normal tissue which received more than 110% of the isocenter dose (“hot spot”) was significantly greater with thep60Co-gamma ray than with the 6 MV-X ray (p<0.05). A similar result was obtained with regard to hot spots in the clinical target volume. The cold area that received less than 95% of the isocenter dose was greater using a 6 MV-X ray when the breast size was small (breast volume <200 cmp3, chest wall separation< 17.5 cm, or breast height <5.0 cm). However, the difference was not significant. There was a significant correlation between breast volume and chest wall separation (r=0.849, p< 0.001). Breast volume and breast height were also significantly correlated (r=0.813, p<0.001). ConclusionsSince breast volume and shape are different in each patient, the optimal energy should be selected for each case to obtain uniform dose distribution in breast-conserving therapy. Chest wall separation or breast height, which are measurable without a 3-D planning system, can substitute for breast volume as parameters for breast size. We recommend that thep60Co-gamma ray not be used for treating large breasts, those with chest wall separation>/= 19.5 cm or breast height>/=6.5 cm.
    Breast Cancer 04/2012; 7(3):231-236.
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    ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man presented with a firm tumor in his right breast first noticed eight years ago. The tumor had enlarged gradually and had produced an ulcer with bleeding. On physical examination, a huge tumor entirely occupied the right breast and extensively had infiltrated the chest wall. Chest X-ray and CT showed massive pleural effusion and multiple small nodular lesions in the lung. Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed by incisional biopsy, confirming advanced breast cancer with lung metastases and bilateral pleural effusion (T4cN2Ml, Stage IV). Because ER and PgR levels were 110 fmol/mg and 190 fmol/mg, respectively, and because his general condition was poor, we selected medical treatment with tamoxifen (TAM). Thirty-two weeks later, the tumor had showed pronounced reduction with scarring. The patient underwent local excision of the scar tissue. The quality of life of the patient was favorably improved and no severe adverse events were observed. The tumor in the chest wall recurred two months after the end of TAM treatment, possibly because the patient did not accept continuous TAM therapy. The patient died from complications of brain metastasis 32 months after the start of TAM treatment. We report a rare case of advanced male breast cancer and on the effectiveness of continuous TAM treatment.
    Breast Cancer 04/2012; 7(3):256-260.
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundAngiogenesis plays an important role in the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. Several angiogenic factors have been identified, and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is thought to be one such factor. To date, little information is available on the relationship between TP and other clinicopathological variables. MethodsFormalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded materials from 116 primary breast carcinomas were used. The expression of TP, estrogen receptor, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, c-erbB-2 and MIB-1 was examined by immunohistochemical methods. ResultsNuclear and/or cytoplasmic TP expression was observed in the neoplastic cells, and accentuation of TP was often present at the infiltrating tumor edge and intraductal spread region. Tumor cell TP expression was significantly inversely correlated with histological grade (p<0.05) and positively correlated with Bcl-2 expression, but no association with other tumor variables was found. ConclusionsTP is associated with Bcl-2 expression and tumor differentiation in breast cancer. TP may be a new prognostic parameter for breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer 04/2012; 7(3):210-214.
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of axillary disease remains a challenge in the management of breast cancer and is a subject of controversy. In 1998, the Japanese Breast Cancer Society conducted a study assessing axillary lymph node involvement in breast cancer. The study included (a) clinical assessment by preoperative imaging modalities, (b) histologic assessment for peritumoral lymphatic invasion, (c) biologic assessment by gelatinolytic activity using film in situ zymography, and (d) sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. Clinical assessments by CT, PET, and US as well as biologic assessment were limited in their ability to detect axillary lymph node disease, although these imaging techniques may be useful to exclude node-positive patients from the need for SLN biopsy. Histologic assessment for peritumoral lymphatic invasion was useful, particularly for detecting false-negative cases by SLN biopsy. Never-theless, the utility of SLN biopsy in assessing axillary nodal status was confirmed. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) can be avoided in patients with a small tumor and a negative SLN. However, further studies will be required to investigate the value of SLN biopsy for predicting regional control and survival before it can replace routine ALND as the optimal staging procedure for operable breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer 04/2012; 7(2):114-123.