Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus
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Article: Agriculturae Conspectus ScientificusAgriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 06/2014; 77(4):177-183.
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ABSTRACT: Use of saline water for crop irrigation leads to rhizosphere salinization, which affects plant element uptake, as well as trace elements (TEs) accumulation in plant tissue. Moreover, imbalance in crop element uptake may reflect on crop productivity. Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in soil biogeochemical processes and especially affects trace element mobility and bioavailability. Therefore, it is an important factor for assessment of plant responses under varying ecological conditions, including salinity. A greenhouse pot experiment was set up to study the effects of saline irrigation and increased SOM on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) salt stress response. Soil from arable land of Croatian coastal region was used for the trial. One half of the bulk of soil provided for the experiment was mixed with commercial peat (4:1) and two trial variants, unmodified and increased SOM content, were investigated. Two weeks after transplanting faba bean seedlings into pots, treatment with two levels of NaCl salinity (50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively) was applied in a nutrient solution. Control plants were included in the measurements as well. Saline irrigation as well as increased SOM affected certain element accumulation in bean plant (leaf, pod and/or seed), although no significant interaction between rhizosphere salinization and SOM was revealed.Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 01/2014; 79(1):13-18.
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ABSTRACT: A highly promising energy crop for biogas production can be Miscanthus * giganteus. It has multiple advantages, which include low soil requirements and the existence of genotypes adapted to dry conditions in comparison to other energy crops. Miscanthus cannot be used in the biogas plant without a pretreatment due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses. One of the most efficient pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass is steam explosion. This includes heating the biomass at high temperature values, followed by mechanical disruption of the biomass fibres by a rapid pressure drop. The objective of this study is to analyse the effect of the steam explosion pretreatment on the specific biogas and methane production of miscanthus. In addition methane hectare yields are calculated and compared to those of maize. Steam explosion pretreatment was carried out in a laboratory scale facility in As, Norway. The miscanthus was mixed with water and heated up to the desired temperature. After a defined pretreatment time the pressure in the reaction vessel was reduced rapidly, which caused the liquid water to vaporize immediately. The material was cooled down in a flushing tank and was then stored at 5°C until further analytical procedures. Pretreatment temperatures were 190°C and 210°C; holding times were 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Determination of the specific methane yield was done in triplicate using batch tests according to VDI 4630. The material was inoculated with the liquid fermentation residue of a biogas plant. The produced gas was collected in eudiometers and then analysed for the CH 4 and CO 2 content.Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 01/2014; 79(1):19-22.
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