Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences

Description

  • Impact factor
    0.74
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
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  • ISSN
    1319-562X

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Mushrooms are known to complement chemotherapy and radiation therapy by countering the side effects of cancer. Recently, there has been great interest in isolation of novel bioactive compounds from mushrooms due to their numerous health beneficial effects. Chemically water-extractable polysaccharide (MFKF-AP1β), with a molecular weight of 12 kDa, was isolated from fruiting bodies of mushroom Fomes fomentarius. In this research, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of MFKF-AP1β on human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Results showed that MFKF-AP1β markedly inhibited A549 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner based on the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released and morphological alterations. In addition, MFKF-AP1β induced cellular apoptosis by causing single-stranded DNA breakage, as evidenced by apoptosis assay. Furthermore, MFKF-AP1β (25–100 μg/ml) significantly induced single-stranded DNA breakage in A549 cells, as shown by comet assay. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MFKF-AP1β has strong anti-tumor effects mediated through induction of apoptosis. Therefore, MFKF-AP1β could be useful in lung chemotherapy.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from drainage canals in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia and the concentration of four heavy metals; zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) in both fish muscles and the water collected from this environment were assessed across the four seasons. The body composition was found to change with the seasons, with the best body composition being recorded in autumn and winter, where higher levels of protein (17.24, 17.65%) and fat (0.58, 0.71%) and lower water content (80.15, 79.86%) respectively were noted. The concentration of heavy metals in both fish muscles and the water body also varied significantly with the seasons. In the fish muscles, the highest content of Zn (0.409 mg/kg dry weight) and Cd (4.140 mg/kg dry weight) were recorded in winter, however, the highest concentration of Co (0.318 mg/kg dry weight) and Pb (1.96 mg/kg dry weight) were observed in spring and summer respectively. On the other hand, the water samples collected in autumn showed the maximum concentration of Cd (1.385 mg/L), Co (0.762 mg/L) and Pb (0.18 mg/L) however, the maximum concentration of Zn (0.0041 mg/L) was recorded in winter. With the exception of Cd, the accumulation of the studied heavy metals in fish muscles was within the safe limits for seafood recommended by various organizations.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Methyl esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitute for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide an alternate and sustainable source for fuel with more benign environmental properties. In the present study biodiesel was prepared from sunflower seed oil by transesterification by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. The fuel properties of sunflower oil biodiesel were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 standards for biodiesel. The sunflower oil biodiesel was chemically characterized with analytical techniques like FT-IR, NMR (1H and 13C). The chemical composition of sunflower oil biodiesel was determined by GC-MS. Various fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified by retention time data and verified by mass fragmentation patterns. The percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl esters determined by 1H-NMR was 87.33% which was quite in good agreement with the practically observed yield of 85.1%.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, purine de novo synthesis pathway consists of multi-functional enzymes. Nucleotide metabolism enzymes are potential drug targets for treating cancer and autoimmune diseases. Glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase (GART) is one of the most important trifunctional enzyme involved in purine synthesis. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of folate inhibitors against tumor activity. In this present study, three components of GART enzyme were targeted as receptor dataset and in silico analysis was carried out with the folate ligand dataset. To accomplish the task, Autodock 4.2 was used for determining the docking compatibilities of ligand and receptor dataset. Taken together, it has been suggested that folate ligands could be potentially used as inhibitors of GART.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bee products have been used since ancient times to treat many diseases, including respiratory ailments. The present study aimed to examine the modulatory effect of honey, royal jelly, and propolis extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in a mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model. The mice in Group I were not sensitised or treated; they were kept as controls. The mice Group II were sensitised and challenged with conalbumin. Twenty-four hours after the first challenge with antigen, the mice in Group III received 0.5 mg/kg of dexamethasone intraperitoneally per day for 18 consecutive days and kept as positive controls. The mice in Groups IV, V, and VI received 650, 1000, and 30 mg/kg of honey, royal jelly, and propolis (aqueous and ethanolic extract), respectively, once per day for 18 consecutive days. Blood was collected from all of the mice for white blood cell differentiation, and the lungs were removed for histopathological studies. The groups treated with propolis extract exhibited considerable ameliorative effects against asthma, which might be explained by the flavonoids and phenolics found in propolis, which might have antioxidative effects. Otherwise, the sensitised and honey- or royal jelly-treated groups exhibited an increased incidence of asthma cascade events due to increased inflammatory cells. These results might be due to the immunostimulatory and vasodilatory effects of royal jelly and honey, which are antagonistic to bronchial asthma cases. Histopathological examination revealed that the sensitised treated propolis extract groups had significant decreases in inflammatory scores compared with other treatments and the sensitised untreated group. These results confirmed the previous data of peripheral blood cells.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system.Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant ot CLCuV.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH) is a very common complication of pregnancy that is characterized by intolerance to glucose. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism to MGH has been previously reported. In this study, we evaluated the association between ACE polymorphism and the risk of MGH in a Saudi population. We conducted a case-control study in a population of 100 MGH patients and 100 control subjects. ACE gene polymorphism was analyzed by the novel approach of tetraprimer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of ACE polymorphism was not associated with either alleles or genotypes in the MGH patients. The glucose concentration was found to be significantly associated with the MGH group. Our study suggests that ACE genotypes was not associated with ACE polymorphism in a Saudi population.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tospovirus has emerged as a serious viral pathogen for several crops including tomato. The tomato production is being severely affected worldwide by tospovirus. Some reports have been published about the association of plant virus and development of human disease either by direct or indirect consumption. Resistance to this virus has been identified as good source in wild tomato species (lycopersicum peruvianum). But the introgression of resistance genes into cultivated tomato lines and the development of interspecific hybrid are hampered due to incompatibility, fertilization barriers and embryo abortion. But this barrier has been broken and by applying the embryo rescue methods. This study describes the development of interspecific hybrids tomato plants by highly efficient embryo rescue method and screening for Tospovirus resistance. The interspecific hybrid tomato plants were developed by making a cross between wild tomato species (L.peruvianum) and cultivated tomato (S.lycopersicum).The immature embryos were cultured in standardized medium and interspecific hybrids were developed from embryogenic callus. The immature embryos excised from 7-35 days old fruits were used for embryo rescue and 31 days old embryos showed very good germination capabilities and produced the highest number of plants. Developed plants were hardened enough and shifted to green house. The hybrid nature of interspecific plants was further confirmed by comparing the morphological characters from their parents. The F1, F2 and F3 plants were found to have varying characters especially for leaf type, color of stem, fruits, size, shapes and they were further screened for virus resistance both in lab and open field followed by Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay confirmation. Finally, total 11 resistant plants were selected bearing red color fruits with desired shape and size.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of some macrominerals in grazing buffaloes fed forage irrigated with sewage water or canal water. In particular, the transfer of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) from soil to plant and in turn to animals was evaluated under sub-tropical environmental conditions. Samples of soil, forage and buffalo hair were collected and digested by the wet method. Sodium and K concentrations were significantly higher in the soil but lower in the forages; however, Mg and Ca concentrations in both soil and forages were higher. The correlation between soil, forage and hair showed an imbalanced flow of Na, Mg and K and a balanced flow of Ca from soil to forage and then to animals. Based on the findings, the highest rates of transfer of minerals were found for sewage water treatment, whereas lowest rates were found for canal water treatment, except for Na. As the transfer of minerals depends on their bioavailability, the highest values may be due to the high rates of minerals uptake by plants. Thus, the high transfer rate of some elements by plants could become toxic in future causing detrimental effect to grazing livestock.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Increase in food production viz-a-viz quality of food is important to feed the growing human population to attain food as well as nutritional security. The availability of diverse germplasm of any crop is an important genetic resource to mine the genes that may assist in attaining food as well as nutritional security. Here we used 15 RAPD and 23 SSR markers to elucidate diversity among 51 common bean genotypes mostly landraces collected from Himalayan region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. We observed that both the markers are highly polymorphic. The discriminatory power of these markers was determined using various parameters like; percent polymorphism, PIC, resolving power and marker index. The 15 RAPDs produced 171 polymorphic bands, while 23 SSRs produced 268 polymorphic bands. SSRs showed higher PIC value (0.300) compared to RAPDs (0.243). Further the resolving power of SSRs was 5.241 compared to 3.86 for RAPDs. However, RAPDs showed higher marker index (2.69) compared to SSRs (1.279) that may be attributed to its higher multiplex ratio. The dendrograms generated with hierarchical UPGMA cluster analysis grouped genotypes into two main clusters with various degree of sub clustering within the cluster. Here we observed that both the marker systems showed comparable accuracy in grouping genotypes of common bean according to their area of cultivation. The model based STRUCTURE analysis using 15 RAPD and 23 SSR markers identified a population with 3 sub-populations which corresponds to distance based groupings. High level of genetic diversity was observed within the population. These findings have further implications in common bean breeding as well as conservation programmes.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There are no earlier studies have reported the association of the 12Glu9 polymorphism in the alpha-2B adrenoceptor (ADRA2B) gene with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We examined the potential association between the ADRA2B gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the Saudi population with GDM. Pregnant women with GDM have been reported to exhibit the same susceptibility as that observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We have selected I/D polymorphism of the ADRA2B gene located in chromosome 2q11.1 that has been extensively related to T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. This case-control study was conducted with 200 GDM and 300 non-GDM pregnant women. Genotyping of I/D polymorphism was performed by conventional PCR method. Biochemical analyses were found to be significantly different between GDM and non-GDM subjects (p < 0.05). The genotype (ID+DD Vs II, p = 0.0002) and allele (D Vs I, p = 0.0002) frequency of the 12Glu9 polymorphism were found to be statistically significant. However, significant difference was found between allele and genotypes of I/D polymorphism of the ADRA2B gene or the clinical characteristics of the subjects. Our results obtained in this study indicates, ADRA2B gene in the Saudi women was associated with the development of GDM during pregnancy.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cotton is an important crop and its production is affected by various disease pathogens. Monopartite begomovirus associated betasatellites cause Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Northern India. In order to access the occurrence and genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellites, an extensive field survey was conducted in states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. We selected the betasatellite sequence for analysis as they are reported as important for disease severity and sequence variability. Based on the field observations, the disease incidence ranged from 30% to 80% during the survey. Full genome and DNA β were amplified from various samples while no amplicon was obtained in some samples. The nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 90.0% to 98.7% with Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), 55.2–55.5% with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, 55.8% with Okra leaf curl virus and 51.70% with Tomato leaf curl virus isolates. The lowest similarity (47.8%) was found in CLCuV-Sudan isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that analyzed isolates formed a close cluster with various CLCuV isolates reported earlier. The analysis results show sequence variation in Cotton leaf curl betasatellite which could be the result of recombination. The results obtained by genome amplification and sequence variability indicate that some new variants are circulating and causing leaf curl disease in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;