Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences

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  • ISSN
    1319-562X

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Metabolomic profiling of different parts (leaves, flowers and pods) of Acacia species (Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia laeta) was evaluated. The multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to differentiate the distribution of plant metabolites among different species or different organs of the same species. Acacia nilotica was characterized with high content of saponins and Acacia seyal was characterized with high content of proteins, phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Acacia laeta had higher content of carbohydrates than A. nilotica and A. seyal. On the basis of these results, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the methanolic extracts of studied parts were evaluated. Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal extracts showed less inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) compared to Acacia laeta extracts which means that these two species have the strongest radical scavenging activity where as A. laeta extracts have the lowest radical scavenging activity. Positive correlation between saponins and flavonoids with total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed. Based on these results, the potentiality of these plants as antioxidants was discussed.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Poultry meat and its products are widely consumed by humans globally, however, Aeromonas infections in poultry has been reported in different parts of the world with devastating effects. This study was carried out to assess the antibiogram and biofilm forming potential of Aeromonas isolated from chicken faecal samples. Aeromonas isolates were screened for antibiotic susceptibility using antibiotics disc and biofilm producing potentials on abiotic surface. Nineteen isolates recovered from chicken feces were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and the tetracyclines. About 53% of Aeromonas isolates were resistant to erythromycin and 47% resistant to streptomycin. Eight isolates (42.1%) were found to be moderate producers of biofilm, 31.6% (6/19) were weak producers of biofilm, 10.5% (2/19) were non biofilm producer while 15.8% (3/19) were strong producers. The present investigation shows a prevalence of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas strains in chicken faeces, suggesting potential group at risk for Aeromonas infection which could be dissemination to other animal or human with close contact and the wider community.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cell cultures of Psoralea corylifolia L. were established from the leaf disc derived callus. The effect of different biotic elicitors prepared from the fungal extract (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum), yeast extract and chitosan with different concentration was studied. The increased synthesis of psoralen in 16-day old cell cultures under 16 hours of light and 8 hours of dark period was studied. Elicitation of psoralen in Aspergillus niger elicitor treated cells was found 9 fold higher over control cells. Treating the cells with Penicillium notatum, yeast extract and chitosan elicitors lead four to sevenfold higher psoralen accumulation over control cells. The extract of Aspergillus niger at 1.0% v/v increased the significant accumulation of psoralen (9850 μg/g DCW) in the cultured cells. Our study clearly shows that all the elicitors had the potential to increase the accumulation of psoralen but the Aspergillus niger elicitor at 1.0% v/v induced maximum accumulation.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of Salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (Sodium Chloride) induced tobacco plants. In addition, a quantification of Rubisco and Rubisco activase contents of the plants were also determined in treatments with the control, 10-4 mM SA, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM NaCl, 150 mM NaCl, SA + 50 mM NaCl, SA + 100 mM NaCl and SA + 150 mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5 weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50 mM and 100 mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50 mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50 mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobical activity of methanolic extracts of leaves and roots of Gentiana kurroo. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined using different biochemical assays namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In all the assays, root extract exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than that of leaves. Antibacterial activity of the extracts was also evaluated and MIC values were calculated by broth dilution method. Although, the extracts prevented the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, the MIC values of methanolic extract of the leaves were higher than that of the root extract. The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the extracts was found to be positively associated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to isolate and identify a potent inhibitory compound against nitric oxide (NO) production from the stem bark of Ulmus pumila L. Ethyl acetate fraction of hot water extract registered higher level of total phenolics (756.93 mg GAE/g) and also showed strong DPPH (IC50 at 5.6 μg/mL) and ABTS (TEAC value 0.9703) radical scavenging activities than other fractions. Crude extract and its fractions significantly decreased nitrite accumulation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicating that potentially inhibited the NO production in a concentration dependent manner. Based on higher inhibitory activity, the ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and yielded seven fractions and all these fractions registered appreciable level of inhibitory activity on NO production. The most effective fraction F1 was further purified and subjected to 1H, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry analysis and the compound was identified as icariside E4. The results suggest that the U. pumila extract and the isolated compound icariside E4 effectively inhibited the NO production and may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Spirogyra is found in a wide range of habitats, including small stagnant water bodies, rivers, and streams. S. ellipsospora is comnon in northern Thailand. Species identification of the Spirogyra species is based only on morphological characteristics can be difficult. A reliable and accurate method is required to evaluate genetic variations. This study aims to apply molecular approaches to the identification of S. ellipsospora using microsatellites and rbcL markers. Based on DNA sequencing, the rbcL gene was sequenced and the data was analyzed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) program in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database. The sequence of S. ellipsospora from this study revealed definitive identity matches in the range of 99% for the consensus sequences of S. ellipsospora. The 10 primers of ISSR could be amplified by 92 amplification fragments. The DNA fragments and the rbcL sequence data grouped the Spirogyra specimens into two distinct clusters.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of snake species is important for various reasons including the emergency treatment of snake bite victims. We present a simple method for identification of six snake species using the gel filtration chromatographic profiles of their venoms. The venoms of Echis coloratus, Echis pyramidum, Cerastes gasperettii, Bitis arietans, Naja arabica, and Walterinnesia aegyptia were milked, lyophilized, diluted and centrifuged to separate the mucus from the venom. The clear supernatant were filtered and chromatographed on fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). We obtained the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the above species and performed phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining method. The chromatograms of venoms from different snake species showed peculiar patterns based on the number and location of peaks. The dendrograms generated from similarity matrix based on presence/absence of particular chromatographic peaks clearly differentiated Elapids from Viperids. Molecular cladistics using 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in jumping clades while separating the members of these two families. These findings suggest that chromatographic profiles of snake venoms may provide a simple and reproducible chemical fingerprinting method for quick identification of snake species. However, the validation of this methodology requires further studies on large number of specimens from within and across species.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major malodorous compound emitted from wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters (BTFs) spacked with combinations of bamboo charcoal and ceramsite in different ratios was investigated in terms of H2S removal. Extensive tests were performed to determine the removal characteristics, pressure drops, metabolic products, and removal kinetics of the BTFs. The BTFs were operated in continuous mode at low loading rates varying from 0.59 to 5.00 g H2S m-3 h-1 with an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 25 s. The removal efficiency (RE) for each BTF was >99% in the steady-state period, and high standards were met for the exhaust gas. It was found that a multilayer BTF had a slight advantage over a perfectly mixed BTF for the removal of H2S. Furthermore, an impressive amount of >97% of the H2S was eliminated by the 10% of packing materials near the inlet of the BTF. The modified Michaelis-Menten equation was adopted to describe the characteristics of the BTF, and the Ks and Vmvalues for the BTF with pure bamboo charcoal packing material were 3.68 ppmv and 4.26 g H2S m-3 h-1, respectively. Both bamboo charcoal and ceramsite demonstrated good performance as packing materials in BTFs for the removal of H2S, and the results of this study could serve as a guide for further design and operation of industrial-scale systems.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The algae-induced odorous black water agglomerate (OBWA) is a phenomenon that water becomes black and emits odorous gas. It is an ecological and environmental problem that has occurred several times in Taihu, a large eutrophic shallow lake in China. In this study, the collected eutrophic water with different algae densities was used to simulate OBWA. The results revealed that the massive accumulation and death of algae was the substrate source for OBWA. When the algae density reached 1.0×108cells/L in the static and dark condition, at a constant high temperature (30±2°C), OBWA happened. There was a time difference between the water stinking and blackening with the stinking first. When the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value was between -250 and -50 mV, Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), the main contributor to the water stinking at the initial stage, and other odorous organics were produced. Water blackening was closely related to the increases of sulfide and dissolved Fe2+ concentration. When the ORP value was between -350 and -300mV, heavy metal containing sulfides such as FeS formed. Therefore, the condition when the water ORP value decreased to about -300mV was considered the precursor for OBWA formation.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study is designed to demonstrate the ovarian surface epithelial cells' (OSE) estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) during pregnancy and estrous cycle in rat. Moreover, determination of the levels of plasma progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH was also made. The levels of plasma progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were determined on days 7 (n = 5), 14 (n = 5), and 21 (n = 5) of pregnancy in three groups of rats and during the estrous cycle (n = 5) using an ELISA kit. Immunohistochemical method for PR and ERα expressions was also made on the ovary. During pregnancy, FSH and LH remained low except at term when LH levels began to increase from 16 ng/ml to 47 ng/ml. Progesterone levels significantly exceeded estradiol values in all pregnant rats with a peak value of 202 ng/ml on day 14. Elevated progesterone levels were associated negatively with LH and estradiol levels during pregnancy. The levels of estradiol surged significantly on day 21. Immunohistochemistry of the ovary showed low levels of OSE cells staining positive for ERα expression. ERα positive cells were absent on day 7 and 14 of pregnancy, only day 21 recorded a very low percentage of immunostaining (0.5%) within the nuclei of OSE cells. On the contrary, immunostaining of PR was not observed within the nuclei of OSE cells in all groups of study. In conclusion, these results may suggest that the progesterone effect during pregnancy seems to be overriding the positive effect of estrogens on OSE cells. High progesterone levels may have a direct negative effect on gonadotropin production and thereby it might inhibit events leading to both follicular development and OSE proliferation. Understanding the factors affecting OSE proliferation may help elucidating the mechanism(s) of assisted diseases such as ovarian cancer.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 07/2014; 21(3):232-7.