Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences

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Impact factor 0.74

  • 5-year impact
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  • ISSN
    1319-562X

Publications in this journal

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    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of photo activated disinfection (PAD) in reducing colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in infected dental root canals. The study compared the efficacy of PAD with conventional endodontic treatment (CET) and also a combination of CET along with PAD.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015; 28.
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    ABSTRACT: Variations in antioxidant and anti-viral activity (against Influenza AP/R/8 (H1N1) virus) between the leaves and stem bark of selected medicinal plants were studied. Malin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were used for the viral infection and the antiviral activity of the extracts were studied using sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. The stem bark of the plants including Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus, Strychnos nux-vomica and Chloroxylon swietenia showed higher flavonoid content as well as 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity when compared with their leaves. In case of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, the stem bark of Strychnos nux-vomica and leaf extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed highest activity. Based on the IC50 values, the stem bark extracts of Cayratia pedata (20.5 μg/mL) and Strychnos minor (22.4 μg/mL) showed high antiviral activity. In the mean-time Strychnos nux-vomica, Chloroxylon swietenia and Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts showed cytotoxicity to the MDCK cells. When comparing the stem bark and leaves the content of gallic acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, total flavonoids (TFC) and total phenols (TPC) were higher in stem bark and hence their anti-viral activity was high. Further study based on the metabolites against H1N1 can reveal the potential of therapeutic compounds against the viral disease.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015; 37.
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need to identify novel targets in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), a hematopoietic cancer affecting children, to improve our understanding of disease biology and that can be used for developing new therapeutics. Hence, the aim of our study was to find new genes as targets using in silico studies; for this we retrieved the top ten percent overexpressed genes from Oncomine public domain microarray expression database; 530 overexpressed genes were short-listed from Oncomine database. Then, using prioritization tools such as ENDEAVOUR, DIR and TOPPGene online tools, we found fifty four genes common to the three prioritization tools which formed our candidate leukemogenic genes for this study. As per the protocol we selected thirty training genes from PubMed. The prioritized and training genes were then used to construct STRING functional association network, which was further analyzed using cytohubba hub analysis to investigate new genes which could form drug targets in leukemia. Analysis of the STRING protein network built from these prioritized and training genes led to identification of two hub genes, SMAD2 and CDK9, which were not implicated in leukemogenesis earlier. Filtering out from several hundred genes in the network we also found MEN1, HDAC1 and LCK genes, which re-emphasized the important role of these genes in leukemogenesis. This is the first report on these five additional signature genes in leukemogenesis. We propose these as new targets for developing novel therapeutics and also as biomarkers in leukemogenesis, which could be important for prognosis and diagnosis.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015; 21.
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    ABSTRACT: Salt stress is one important factor influencing the growth and development of plants, and salt tolerance of plants is a result of combined action of multiple genes and mechanisms. Rosa rugosa is not only an important ornamental plant, but also the natural aromatic plant of high value. Wild R. rugosa which naturally distributed on the coast and islands of China has a good salt tolerance due to the special living environment. Here, the vacuolar Na+/H+ reverse transporter gene (NHX1) and vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit C gene (VHA-c) closely related to plant salt tolerance were isolated from wild R. rugosa, and the expression patterns in R. Rugosa leaves of the two genes under NaCl stress were determined by real-time quantitative flourescence PCR. The results showed that RrNHX1 protein is a constitutive Na+/H+ reverse transporter, the expression of RrNHX1 gene first increased and then decreased with the increasing salt concentration, and had a time-controlled effect. RrVHA-c gene is suggestive of the housekeeping feature, its expression pattern showed similar variation trend with RrNHX1 gene under the stress of different concentrations of NaCl, and its temporal expression level under 200 mM NaCl stress presented bimodal change. These findings indicated that RrNHX1 and RrVHA-c gene are closely associated with the salt tolerance trait of wild R. rugosa.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015; 285.
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    ABSTRACT: Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45± 1.12 g were exposed to 10, 20 and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents for treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19±0.03μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p<0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64±0.86 and 61.73±0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p<0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21±0.12 and181.61±1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29±0.04μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32±0.02 and 2.16±0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03±0.001μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p<0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p>0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipids level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed significant increase (p<0.05) with increasing time and concentrations.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015; 58.
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria is a global issue and India contributes substantially to global malaria incidence. Information related to malaria vector is very limited in Aligarh. The environmental and climatological situations permit the continual breeding of vectors in permanent breeding sites. This study was designed with the aim to screen all the anophelines species and possible malaria vectors in three different localities of Aligarh. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three different localities (Fort, Jalali and Tappal) during peak malaria transmission season (July to November) by using mouth aspirator and CDC light traps. Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was done to detect Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247 circumsporozoite proteins (CSP) from the collected female species. A total of 794 female anopheline mosquitoes belonging to 7 species were collected by different methods. Circumsporozoite proteins - Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay was performed with 780 anopheline mosquitoes out of which 13 mosquitoes were positive in CSP-ELISA. Thus, the overall infection rate was 1.66% (13/780). Four (0.51%) mosquitoes belonging to three species were positive for P. falciparum, 7(0.89%) mosquitoes belonging to three species were positive for VK210 and 2(0.25%) mosquitoes belonging to An. culicifacies and An. stephensi species were positive for VK 247. No mixed infection was found in this study. According to species, the highest infection rate was observed in An. culicifacies (7/288, 2.43%) followed by An. stephensi (2.40%) and An. annularis (1.98%). Anopheles culicifacies and An. stephensi were previously incriminated as malaria vector in Aligarh. There was, however, no previous report in favour of infections in An. annularis in Aligarh. The on-going Malaria Control Program in India needs up to date information on malaria vectors. A major challenge is the lack of knowledge about vectors and their role in malaria transmission. Findings of this study suggested that in the absence of major malaria vectors there is a possibility that other Anopheles species may have been playing a role in malaria transmission in Aligarh.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015; 59.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBLs and MBLs encoding genes among A. baumannii isolates. In this cross sectional study, 100 A. baumannii strains isolated from ICU wards of 3 educational hospitals of Hamadan City, Iran in 2011. Phenotypic identification of the production of ESBLs and MBLs has been carried out by using E-test and DDST methods, respectively. PCR technique was used for amplification of the ESBLs and MBLs encoding genes, namely:CTX-M, SHV, TEM, OXA-51, VIM-Family, IMP-Family, SPM-1, SIM-1,and GIM-1. Eighty seven (87%), 95 (95%), 98 (98%) and 95 (95%) out of 100 A. baumannii isolates were resistant to imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, respectively. Also, 99% and 7% of the isolates were MBLs and ESBLs produced phenotypically. Thirty (30%), 20 (20%) and 58 (58%) out of 100 A. baumannii isolates has been confirmed to harbor the blaVIM-family, TEM and SHV genes, respectively. Our results show no significant relationship between the detected gens with production of MBLs and ESBLs in spite of high prevalence of MBLs encoding and drug resistant A. baumannii. Probably some other genes rather than what we studied are involved in phenotypic production of MBLs and ESBls and subsequent drug resistance in Hamadan area, Iran.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015; 32.
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    ABSTRACT: Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods to identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 01/2015; 47.
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions in proteins have been studied using several chemical information techniques including quantum chemical methods that are applied to truncated systems composed of the ligand molecule and the surrounding amino acids of the receptor. In this work we adopt an approach to study these interactions accounting for as many as possible explicit solvent molecules and without the need of a fragmented calculation. Furthermore, we embed our quantum chemical calculations within a molecular dynamics framework that enables a fundamentally fast system for quantum molecular dynamic simulations (QCMD). Central to this new system for QCMD is the tight binding QC system, newly developed in our laboratories, and which combined with the MD paradigm result in an ultra accelerated QCMD method for protein-ligand interaction evaluations. We have applied our newly developed method to the Nevirapine (NVP)-Reverse Transcriptase (RT) system. We show how the proposed method leads us to new findings. The advanced QCMD was applied to a system of RT with NVP and it has led to the knowledge of specific groups and atoms that interact with surrounding amino acids of RT and help in drug binding. The information derived from this calculation may be used in designing drugs for NVP resistant virus strains that have binding capability like NVP.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 12/2014; 40.
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    ABSTRACT: The pollution of environment by toxic chemicals is a global and chronic problem. Human health risk due to exposure to chemical pollutants is constantly increasing. Pesticides form major toxic chemicals in environment. Scientifically, there is an obviously correlation between the exposure to pesticides and appearance of many diseases. Currently, the significance of natural products for health and medicine has been formidable. The present study investigated the effect of grapeseed oil in male rats exposed to diazinon. The experimental rats were divided into five groups. The rats of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were exposed to diazinon (DZN). The animals of the third group were supplemented with grapeseed oil and treated with DZN. The rats of the fourth group were supplemented with grapeseed oil. The experimental rats of the fifth group were supplemented with corn oil. Hematobiochemical and histopathological evaluations were chosen as indicators of DZN toxicity and protective role of grapeseed oil. In rats exposed only to DZN, the level of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine, urea nitrogen, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly statistically increased, while the level of serum total protein was significantly decreased. Moreover, the histopathological evaluations of liver, kidney and testis showed that DZN causes several severe alterations. Pretreatment with grapeseed oil exhibited a protective role against DZN toxicity which confirmed by the inhibition of hematobiochemical and histopathological changes due to DZN exposure. Additionally, the present study suggests that the effect of grapeseed oil supplementation against DZN toxicity may be attributed to the antioxidant role of its constituents.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 12/2014; 8.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to investigate the ability of quercetin (QE) to ameliorate adverse effects of cisplatin (Cis.) on the renal tissue antioxidants by investigating the kidney antioxidant gene expression and the antioxidant enzymes activity. Forty rats divided into. Control rats. QE treated rats were orally administered 100 mg QE/kg for successive 30 days. Cis. Injected rats were administered i.p. Cis. (12mg/kg b.w.) for 5 mutual days. Cis. + QE rats were administered Cis. i.p. (12 mg/kg) and orally administered 100 mg QE/kg for consecutive 30 days. The obtained results indicated that Cis. induced oxidative stress in the renal tissue. That was through induction of free radical production, inhibition the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) as well their genes expression. At the same time, vitamin E, vitamin C and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased. QE had the ability to overcome cisplatin-induced oxidative stress through the reduction of free radical levels. The antioxidant genes expression and antioxidant enzymes activity were induced. Finally the vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH levels were increased. Our work, proved the renoprotective effects of QE against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 12/2014; 32.
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    ABSTRACT: Phenolics content and antioxidant potential of lentil sprouts may be enhanced by treatment of seedlings in abiotic stress conditions without any negative influence on nutritional quality.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 12/2014; 42.