Journal of sports science & medicine (J SPORT SCI MED )

Publisher: Uludağ Üniversitesi. Dept. of Sports Medicine


The Journal of Sports Science and Medicine covers all aspects of sports medicine and sciences the management of sports injuries; all clinical aspects of exercise, health, and sport; exercise physiology and biophysical investigation of sports performance; sport biomechanics; sports nutrition; sports psychology; physiotherapy and rehabilitation in sport; and medical and scientific support of the sports coach.

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    Journal of sports science and medicine, JSSM
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the time-course of force production of elite middle and long-distance runners throughout an entire season and at the end of the off-season, as well as its relationships with training load and hormonal responses. Training load was recorded daily throughout an entire season by measuring and evaluating the session distance (km), training zone and session-RPE in a group of 15 elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age=26.3±5.1yrs, BMI=19.7±1.1). Also, basal salivary-free cortisol levels were measured weekly, and 50-metre sprints, mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean propulsive power (MPP), repetition maximum (RM) and peak rate of force development (RFD) of half-squats were measured 4 times during the season, and once more after the off-season break. There were no significant variations in force production during the season or after the off-season break, except for the RFD (-30.2%, p=0.005) values, which changed significantly from the beginning to the end of the season. Significant correlations were found between session-RPE and MPV (r=-0.650, p=0.004), MPP (r=-0.602, p=0.009), RM (r=-0.650, p=0.004), and the 50-metre sprint (r=0.560, p=0.015). Meanwhile, salivary-free cortisol correlated significantly with the 50-metre sprint (r=0.737, p<0.001) and the RM (r=-0.514, p=0.025). Finally, the training zone correlated with the 50-metre sprint (r=-0.463, p=0.041). Session-RPE, training zone and salivary-free cortisol levels are related to force production in elite middle and long-distance runners. Monitoring these variables could be a useful tool in controlling the training programmes of elite athletes.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 01/2015; 14:9-15.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this case study was to describe the three-dimensional biomechanics of common ballet exercises in a ballet dancer with ischial tuberosity apophysitis. This was achieved by comparing kinematics between the symptomatic (i.e. ischial apophyseal symptoms) and contralateral lower limbs, as well as via reported pain. Results suggest consistent differences in movement patterns in this dancer. These differences included: 1) decreased external rotation of contralateral hip, hence a decreased hip contribution to ‘turn out’; 2) increased contralateral knee adduction and internal rotation; 3) an apparent synchronicity in the contralateral lower limb of the decreased hip external rotation and increased knee adduction; and 4) minimal use of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion movement for symptomatic side. Pain related to the left ischial apophysitis was associated with reduced amplitudes especially in fast ballet movements that required large range of motion in flexion and adduction in the left hip joint. These findings suggest that ischial apophysitis may limit dancer’s ballet technique and performance.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 12/2014; 13:874-880.
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    ABSTRACT: In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese adolescent boys of Māori and Pasifika descent. However, despite these positive attributes, poor recruitment rates suggest that future work should focus on identifying the barriers to engagement. Key pointsA boxing-oriented intervention was developed for use with Māori and Pasifika adolescents to improve cardiometabolic risk factors.While results indicate positive benefits of participation in the 60-minute boxing-orientated programme, only three participants were recruited despite intense promotion.Future research should investigate the efficacy of strategies designed to raise intentions to exercise.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 12/2014; 13(4):751-757.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6%) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training, but on average do not consume sufficient fluid to offset fluid losses.Consecutive training sessions do not significantly impair hydration status, suggesting that elite young European soccer players consume sufficient fluid between training to maintain a stable hydration status and prevent excessive (≥2% body mass) dehydrationCurrent fluid intake guidelines appear applicable to this population when training in a cool environment.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim was to i) describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and ii) assess discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test). Methods: A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment) was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 4 to 24). Children (n = 43) aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3) were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1). A subset of children (n = 28) had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were assessed twice more, five days apart (T2, T3). An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years). Intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test retest reliability (between T2 and T3). Paired sample t-tests assessed any systematic differences between T1 live and video assessments and between T2 and T3. Results: Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40) = 11.18, p < 0.001). The live assessment reflected the video assessment (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59, 0.90) and scores did not differ between live and video assessments. Test retest reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23, 0.82), although the mean score was slightly higher at retest. Conclusion: This instrument could be used reliably by golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 11/2014; 14(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Detecting signs of cognitive impairment as early as possible is one of the most urgent challenges in preventive care of dementia. It has still been unclear whether physical fitness measures can serve as markers of low cognitive function, a sign of cognitive impairment, in older people free from dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine an association between each of five physical fitness measures and global cognition in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without apparent cognitive problems. The baseline research of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study was conducted from May to August 2011 in Sasaguri town, Fukuoka, Japan. Of the 2,629 baseline subjects who were aged 65 years or older and not certified as individuals requiring nursing care by the town, 1,552 participants without apparent cognitive problems (Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24) were involved in the present study (59.0% of the baseline subjects, median age: 72 years, men: 40.1%). Global cognitive function was measured by the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Handgrip strength, leg strength, sit-to-stand rate, gait speed, and one-leg stand time were examined as physical fitness measures. In multiple linear regression analyses, each of the five physical fitness measures was positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score after adjusting for age and sex (p < 0.001). These associations were preserved after additional adjustment for years of formal education, body mass index, and other confounding factors (p < 0.001). The present study first demonstrated the associations between multiple aspects of physical fitness and global cognitive function in Japanese community-dwelling older people without apparent cognitive problems. These results suggest that each of the physical fitness measures has a potential as a single marker of low cognitive function in older populations free from dementia and thereby can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 09/2014; 13:590-596.
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    ABSTRACT: Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. [Note: This is an open access publication. It can be viewed and downloaded at ]
    Journal of sports science & medicine 09/2014; 13(3):638-644.