International Journal of Automotive Technology (INT J AUTO TECH-KOR )

Publisher: Hanʼguk Chadongchʻa Konghakhoe, Springer Verlag


The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers (KSAE) publishes the international journal for the dissemination of original research in all fields of AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY and ENGINEERING. The International Journal of Automotive Technology (IJAT) from KSAE is open to all researchers in the world for contribution, review, and publication. The contribution to this journal will exchange ideas among researchers in different parts of the world and also among researchers who emphasize different aspects of the foundations and applications of the field. The IJAT invites invaluable research results in the areas of automotive engineering

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • International Journal of Automotive Technology 10/2014; 15(7):909-917.
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    ABSTRACT: Globally there is increasing concern about a range of materials which have been termed critical materials. This paper defines critical materials as single elements, which are metals, at risk of supply constraints, financially costly, price volatile, deemed economically important and difficult to substitute as a result of their special or unique properties. These metals are used in engineering, technology applications, and product designs. They are widely used and of high value in the field of Automation Technologies. Previous studies have shown that awareness and understanding about critical materials in companies is low. This paper outlines a novel approach to address the company gap in knowledge through the development and testing of a specially developed serious game called ‘In the Loop: The Critical Raw Materials Game.’ Developed from prior research, company case studies, and literature, the game serves as a catalyst for informed discussion about the topic of critical materials. The results of the testing demonstrate the applicability of the approach to the automation technology field and present a roadmap going forwards.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 08/2014; 8(5):664.
  • International Journal of Automotive Technology 08/2014; 15(5):843-852.
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    ABSTRACT: The paper presents a research on the fuel injection and atomization depending on the thermodynamic quantities inside the cylinder of a combustion engine. With the use of piezoelectric outward-opening injectors the changes in the geometrical quantities of the atomized fuel in the aspect of its injection were determined. The studies concerning the influence of the individual quantities on the fuel spray penetration injected by the outward-opening injectors comprise a synthesis of the injection and atomization tests. Own mathematical equation describing the fuel spray penetration was proposed. The exponents (equation coefficients) related to the influence of the fuel pressure, air backpressure, charge density and time of fuel spray development were determined with the coefficient of determination 0.9797, indicating a congruence of the experimental data with the values obtained on the basis of the mathematical equation.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 08/2014; 15(1):47-55.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the combined power management/design optimization problem is investigated for a fuel cell/Liion battery PHEV. Formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (MOP), the combined optimization problem simultaneously minimizes the vehicle cost and fuel consumption subject to the vehicle performance requirements. With an emphasis on developing a generic optimization algorithm to find the Pareto front for the synthesized MOP, the Pareto based multi-objective particle swarm optimization (PMOPSO) algorithm is developed, which solely depends on the concept of Pareto dominance. Three approaches are introduced to the PMOPSO method to address the constrained MOP. They are: (i) by incorporating system constraints in the original objective functions, the constrained MOP is transformed to an unconstrained MOP; (ii) to avoid being trapped in local minima, a disturbance operator with a decaying mutation possibility is introduced; (iii) to generate a sparsely distributed Pareto front, the concept of crowding distance is utilized to determine the global guidance for the particles. Finally, under the Matlab/Simulink software environment, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PMOPSO in the derivation of the true Pareto front.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 06/2014; 15(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This research work presents fatigue life evaluation techniques for an automotive vehicle aluminum front subframe using virtual test simulation technology with nonlinear suspension components model. The technology was used for improving the accuracy of the polynomial model used in conventional analysis. The proposed nonlinear suspension components models were developed using direct approach. The effects of the nonlinear elements on the prediction of the fatigue life were also analyzed. Actual aluminum front subframe was tested using half-car road test simulator to verify the accuracy of the models. It was found that the proposed nonlinear models yield more accurate results than conventional polynomial models. The proposed virtual test simulation technology with nonlinear suspension components model can be used to predict fatigue life for vehicle chassis structures more accurately.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 06/2014; 15(4).
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    ABSTRACT: A new approach to develop human driver models (HDMs) is proposed in accordance with the drivers’ generic human factors, i.e., gender, age, and experience, to develop more realistic vehicle simulations. The HDMs consist of three independent and stepwise models with functioning driver’s information processing stages based on the human factors: constructing drivers’ preview distance (PVD) models as a ‘cognition process’, implementing a finite preview optimal control algorithm as a ‘decision process’, and differentiating an ‘operation process’ according to neuromuscular efficiency. Eight different groups of 65 drivers with a 2 × 2 × 2 within-subject design participated in both the PVD estimates and neuromuscular efficiency tests to develop a set of statistically different HDMs. Regarding the preview distance models, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) procedure was adopted with two covariates (i.e., vehicle velocity and road curvature), while analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed on the neuromuscular efficiency parameters. The ANCOVA procedure produced eight significantly different cognition processes, whereas the ANOVAs revealed gender differences for the drivers’ neuromuscular systems. Moreover, an integrated vehicle simulation was configured with the HDMs using Carsim and Simulink software to observe the differential effects of both the cognition and operation processes on a double-lane-change (DLC) maneuver. During the simulations, gender differences in real-world DLC tests were also identified, especially between the male-oldexpert and the female-young-novice HDMs. The results presented in this study suggest that differentiating HDMs according to human factors is an essential process when utilizing vehicle simulations in the early stage of developing an intelligent vehicle system.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 06/2014; 15(4).
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, preview control algorithms for the active and semi-active suspension systems of a full tracked vehicle (FTV) are designed based on a 3-D.O.F model and evaluated. The main issue of this study is to make the ride comfort characteristics of a fast moving tracked vehicle better to keep an operator’s driving capability. Since road wheels almost trace the profiles of the road surface as long as the track doesn’t depart from the ground, the preview information can be obtained by measuring only the absolute position or velocity of the first road wheel. Simulation results show that the performance of the sky-hook suspension system almost follows that of full state feedback suspension system and the on-off semi-active system carries out remarkable performance with the combination of 12 on-off semi-active suspension units. The results simulated with 1st and 2nd weighting sets mean that the suspension system combined with the soft type of inner suspension and hard type of outer suspension can carry out better ride comfort characteristics than that with identical suspensions. The full tracked vehicle (FTV) system is uncontrollable and the system is split into controllable and uncontrollable subspace using singular value decomposition transformation. Frequency response curves to four types of inputs, such as heaving, pitching, rolling, and warping inputs, also demonstrate the merits of preview control in ride comfort. All the frequency characteristic responses confirm the continuous time results.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 04/2014; 15(3):399-410.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper is concerned with the numerical prediction of the hysteretic loss-induced rolling resistance of 3-D periodic patterned tire. Elastomeric rubber compounds of rolling tire exhibit the hysteretic loss owing to the phase difference between stress- and strain-time responses. By virtue of this physical characteristic, the rolling resistance is considered as a pseudo-force resisting the tire rolling. The 3-D periodic patterned tire model is constructed by copying an 1-sector mesh in the circumferential direction, and strain cycles of each strain component are approximated by 3-D static tire contact analysis. According to the principal value of half strain amplitudes, the hysteretic loss is calculated in terms of the amplitude of the maximum principal strain and the loss modulus of rubber compound. The numerical results of 3-D periodic patterned tire are justified with the experimental data and compared with those of 3-D smooth tire.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 04/2014; 15(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Current vehicle dynamic control systems from simple yaw control to high-end active steering support systems are designed to primarily actuate on the vehicle itself, rather than stimulate the driver to adapt his/her inputs for better vehicle control. The driver though dictates the vehicle’s motion, and centralizing him/her in the control loop is hypothesized to promote safety and driving pleasure. Exploring the above statement, the goal of this study is to develop and evaluate a haptic steering support when driving near the vehicle’s handling limits (Haptic Support Near the Limits; HSNL). The support aims to promote the driver’s perception of the vehicle’s behaviour and handling capacity (the vehicle’s internal model) by providing haptic (torque) cues on the steering wheel. The HSNL has been evaluated in (a) driving simulator tests and (b) tests with a vehicle (Opel Astra G/B) equipped with a variable steering feedback torque system. Drivers attempted to achieve maximum velocity while trying to retain control in a circular skid-pad. In the simulator (a) 25 subjects drove a vehicle model parameterised as the Astra on a dry skid-pad while in (b) 17 subjects drove the real Astra on a wet skid-pad. Both the driving simulator and the real vehicle tests led to the conclusion that the HSNL assisted subjects to drive closer to the designated path while achieving effectively the same speed. With the HSNL the drivers operated the tires in smaller slip angles and hence avoided saturation of the front wheels’ lateral forces and excessive understeer. Finally, the HSNL reduced their mental and physical demand.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 02/2014; 15(1):151-163.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to explore the performance of variable transmission use on zero emission urban vehicles, targeting low fuel consumption, a new type of a flat-belt driven CVT was developed. The new Electronic Shift Variable Transmission (ESVT) was build in order to be installed and tested on the ER12 prototype hydrogen fuel cell powered urban vehicle, which is developed by the TUC Eco Racing team at the Technical University of Crete. ER12 is used as a testbed vehicle in order to measure fuel consumption and compare results of ESVT use versus the one-stage geared transmission that was previously installed on the vehicle. At first, a description of the proposed system main components and design considerations is presented, in order to provide insight on system operation. Actual road tests are conducted using the prototype vehicle, providing insights regarding fuel consumption measurements and driving performance with and without ESVT. Experimental results are presented, showing significant improvement with the use of the proposed system. ESVT control logic analysis follows, describing the control objectives and rules used towards lower fuel consumption and driving performance. Finally, evaluation of ESVT control operation is presented, using experimental results from the road tests conducted with ER12 prototype vehicle.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper has been developed in the framework of the alternative beam T-junction solution previously propoused by the authors (Alcalá et al., 2013), with the scope of optimizing the behavior of buses and coaches upper structures modeled with beam type elements. The alternative beam T-junction model proposed by the authors, had a total of six elastic elements at the junction level allowing to modify the localized rigidity of any modeled T-junctions, therefore improving their behavior and avoiding the well known rigidity issue these elements have. A fundamental aspect behind the use of these alternative beam models is related to the necessity of correctly estimating the rigidity values of the elastic elements for each modeled T-junction. In this context, we propose applying a surrogate model for the reference calculations which is based on statistical Bayesian kriging predictors. Statistical predictions have the added value, with respect to deterministic solutions,of providing a quantification of uncertainty. The development of the kriging predictors has required the application of a statistical methodology including computer experiment design, computation of moments of inertia, graphical and ANOVA type sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo computation of Bayesian inference. The results of the application have been a very satisfactory trade-off between accuracy of approximation (prediction) and computational cost. The surrogate kriging models also provide an useful tool for a better understanding of the input-output relationships involved in the reference computations.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 01/2014; 15(6):1027-1041.
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    ABSTRACT: Engineering bus design requires testing of bus structures prototypes in order to guarantee a certain level of strength and an appropriate static and dynamic behavior of the bus superstructure when exposed to road loads. However, experimental testing of real bus structures is very expensive as it requires expensive resources and space. If testing is done on a scale bus model the previous required expenses are considerably reduced. Therefore, a novel methodology based on dimensional analysis applied to bus structure prediction to evaluate the bus structure static and dynamic performance is proposed. The static performance is evaluated attending to torsion stiffness and the dynamic in terms of the natural vibration frequencies and rollover threshold. A scale bus has been manufactured and dimensionless parameters have been defined in order to project the results obtained in the scale bus model to a larger model. Validation of the proposed methodology has been carried out under experimental and finite element analysis.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 01/2014; 15(3):11.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development of the braking assistance system based on a “G-Vectoring” concept. The present work focuses in particular on “Preview G-Vectoring Control” (PGVC), which is based on the “G-Vectoring Control” (GVC) scheme. In GVC, the longitudinal-acceleration control algorithm is based on the actual lateral jerk. PGVC decelerates a vehicle before it enters a curve, and is based on a new longitudinal-acceleration control algorithm which uses predicted and actual lateral jerk. Using the predicted lateral jerk makes it possible to decelerate the vehicle prior to curve entry. This deceleration can emulate a driver’s deceleration as the vehicle approaches a curve entry. PGVC is based on such deceleration algorithms and enables automatic deceleration similar to the action of a driver. It is thus possible to significantly improve the driver’s feeling when this system is activated. Driving tests with this new control system on snowy-winding course confirmed that the automatic brake control quality improved considerably compared to manual driver control considering both lap time and ride quality. These results indicate that PGVC can be a useful braking assistance system not only to improve the driver’s handling performance but also to reduce the brake-task during driving on winding roads.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 12/2013; 14(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Due to environmental concerns and safety regulations in the automotive industry, the development of strong and lightweight cars has been a hot issue in the last decade. One solution for this purpose would be to use high-strength steel (HSS) and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS). These materials can make the car lighter while maintaining the crash resistance of the vehicle. HSS and AHSS have more resistance force in the die structure compared with conventional steel due to their higher yield and tensile strength and thus, these materials have a greater effect on die deformation during the sheet metal forming process. As a result, die deformation can affect the blank sheet’s drawn pattern, strain, and stress as well as springback. This study presents a sheet metal forming simulation that considers die deformation. The simulation process was compared with conventional simulation methods. Our results indicate that the sheet metal forming simulation with die deformation consideration provides useful information on the die structure as well as formability and springback.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 12/2013; 14(6).
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    ABSTRACT: The HCCI combustion mode poses its own set of narrow engine operating by knocking. In order to solve this, inhomogeneity method of mixture and temperature is suggested. The purpose of this research is to get fundamental knowledge about the effect of thermal stratification on HCCI combustion of n-Heptane/iso-Octane-Air mixture. The temperature stratification is made by buoyancy effect in combustion chamber of RCM. The analysis items are pressure, temperature of incylinder gas and combustion duration. In addition, the structure of flames using the two dimensional chemiluminescence’s images by a framing camera are analyzed. Under stratification, the LTR starting time and the HTR starting time are advanced than that of homogeneous. Further, the LTR period of homogeneous conditions became shorter than that of the stratified conditions. With the case of homogeneous condition, the luminosity duration becomes shorter than the case of stratified condition. Additionally, under stratified condition, the brightest luminosity intensity is delayed longer than at homogeneous condition.
    International Journal of Automotive Technology 12/2013; 14(6).