Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Description

  • Impact factor
    1.00
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    3.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.13
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • ISSN
    1226-4512

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nuts which are widely chewed by southeast Asian and it manifests various toxic effects in different organs of human and animals. In this work, mature mice were treated by vitamins C plus E, arecoline, or both daily for four weeks. The results showed that arecoline significantly increased the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and significantly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissues. Additionally, the body weight, testis weight, sperm counts, motility and normal sperms also were significantly decreased. The supplement of vitamins C and E can bring the activities of ALP and GPT to normal levels and partially restore the sperm counts compared to the arecoline-treated group but have no other positive effects. In conclusion, the vitamins C and E partially attenuated the arecoline-induced hepatotoxiciy but basically had on protective effects against the arecoline-induced testicular toxicity.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):143-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the prime cause of morbidity and mortality and the population ages that may contribute to increase in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Arginase upregulation is associated with impaired endothelial function in aged vascular system and thus may contribute to cardiovascular disease. According to recent research, Korean Red Ginseng water extract (KRGE) may reduce cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular system health. The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms contributing to age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction and to determine whether KRGE improves these functions in aged mice. Young (10±3 weeks) and aged (55±5 weeks) male mice (C57BL/6J) were orally administered 0, 10, or 20 mg/mouse/day of KRGE for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and the aortas were removed. Endothelial arginase activity, nitric oxide (NO) generation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling, vascular tension, and plasma peroxynitrite production were measured. KRGE attenuated arginase activity, restored nitric oxide (NO) generation, reduced ROS production, and enhanced eNOS coupling in aged mice. KRGE also improved vascular tension in aged vessels, as indicated by increased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and improved phenylephrine-stimulated vasoconstriction. Furthermore, KRGE prevented plasma peroxynitrite formation in aged mice, indicating reduced lipid peroxidation. These results suggest KRGE exerts vasoprotective effects by inhibiting arginase activity and augmenting NO signaling and may be a useful treatment for age-dependent vascular diseases.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):95-101.
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    ABSTRACT: Head restraining is an experimental technique that firmly secures the animal's head to a fixation apparatus for the precise control and sensing of behaviors. However, procedural and surgical difficulties and limitations have been obstructing the use of the technique in neurophysiological and behavioral experiments. Here, we propose a novel design of the head-restraining apparatus which is easy to develop and convenient for practical use. Head restraining procedure can be completed by sliding the head mounter, which is molded by dental cement during implantation surgery, into the port, which serves as matching guide rails for the mounter, of the fixation bar. So neither skull-attached plates nor screws for fixation are needed. We performed intracranial self stimulation experiment in rats using the newly designed device. Rats were habituated to acclimatize the head-restraint environment and trained to discriminate two spatially distinguished cues using a customized push-pull lever as an operandum. Direct electrical stimulation into the medial forebrain bundle served as reward. We confirmed that head restraining was stable throughout experiments and rats were able to learn to manipulate the lever after successful habituation. Our experimental framework might help precise control or sensing of behavior under head fixed rats using direct electrical brain stimulation as a reward.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):103-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Acupuncture is the process of stimulating skin regions called meridians or acupoints and has been used to treat pain-related symptoms. However, the pain-relieving effects of acupuncture may be different depending on acupoints. In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on behavioral responses and c-Fos expression were evaluated using a formalin test in male Sprague-Dawley rats in order to clarify the analgesic effects of three different acupoints. Each rat received manual acupuncture at the ST36 (Zusanli), SP9 (Yinlingquan) or BL60 (Kunlun) acupoint before formalin injection. Flinching and licking behaviors were counted by two blinded investigators. Fos-like immunoreactivity was examined by immunohistochemistry in the rat spinal cord. Manual acupuncture treatment at BL60 acupoint showed significant inhibition in flinching behavior but not in licking. Manual acupuncture at ST36 or SP9 tended to inhibit flinching and licking behaviors but the effects were not statistically significant. The acupuncture at ST36, SP9, or BL60 reduced c-Fos expression as compared with the control group. These results suggest that acupuncture especially at the BL60 acupoint is more effective in relieving inflammatory pain than other acupoints.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):121-7.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was to determine the correlation between endothelial function and neuro-endocrine-immune (NEI) network through observing the changes of NEI network under the different endothelial dysfunction models. Three endothelial dysfunction models were established in male Wistar rats after exposure to homocysteine (Hcy), high fat diet (HFD) and Hcy+HFD. The results showed that there was endothelial dysfunction in all three models with varying degrees. However, the expression of NEI network was totally different. Interestingly, treatment with simvastatin was able to improve vascular endothelial function and restored the imbalance of the NEI network, observed in the Hcy+HFD group. The results indicated that NEI network may have a strong association with endothelial function, and this relationship can be used to distinguish different risk factors and evaluate drug effects.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):177-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Nausea and emesis are a major side effect and obstacle for chemotherapy in cancer patients. Employ of antiemetic drugs help to suppress chemotherapy-induced emesis in some patients but not all patients. Ginger, an herbal medicine, has been traditionally used to treat various kinds of diseases including gastrointestinal symptoms. Ginger is effective in alleviating nausea and emesis, particularly, for cytotoxic chemotherapy drug-induced emesis. Ginger-mediated antiemetic effect has been attributed to its pungent constituents-mediated inhibition of serotonin (5-HT) receptor activity but its cellular mechanism of action is still unclear. Emetogenic chemotherapy drugs increase 5-HT concentration and activate visceral vagal afferent nerve activity. Thus, 5-HT mediated vagal afferent activation is essential to provoke emesis during chemotherapy. In this experiment, water extract of ginger and its three major pungent constituent's effect on 5-HT-evoked responses were tested on acutely dispersed visceral afferent neurons with patch-clamp methods. The ginger extract has similar effects to antiemetic drug ondansetron by blocking 5-HT-evoked responses. Pungent constituents of the ginger, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, and zingerone inhibited 5-HT responses in a dose dependent manner. The order of inhibitory potency for these compounds were [6]-shogaol>[6]-gingerol>zingerone. Unlike well-known competitive 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, all tested ginger constituents acted as non-competitive antagonist. Our results imply that ginger and its pungent constituents exert antiemetic effects by blocking 5-HT-induced emetic signal transmission in vagal afferent neurons.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):149-53.
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    ABSTRACT: This project's aim was to determine the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer preventive effect of polysaccharide of Larimichthys crocea swim bladder (PLCSB) in ICR mice. The anti-gastric ulcer effects of polysaccharide of Larimichthys crocea swim bladder was evaluated in mice model using morphological test, serum levels assay, cytokine levels assay, tissue contents analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and western bolt assay. High concentration (50 mg/kg dose) of PLCSB reduced IFN-γ as compared to low concentration (25 mg/kg dose) and control mice. SS and VIP serum levels of PLCSB treated mice were higher than those of control mice, and MOT and SP serum levels were lower than control mice. Gastric ulcer inhibitory index of PLCSB treatment groups mice were much lower than control mice, and the high concentration treated mice were similar to the ranitidine treated mice. The SOD and GSH-Px activities of PLCSB treated mice were higher than control mice, close to normal mice and ranitidine treated mice. PLCSB treated mice also showed the similar contents of NO and MDA to normal group. By RT-PCR and western blot assay, PLCSB significantly induced inflammation in tissues of mice by downregulating NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2, and upregulating IκB-α. These results suggest that PLCSB showed a good gastric ulcer preventive effect as the gastric ulcer drug of ranitidine. Polysaccharide of Larimichthys crocea swim bladder may be used as a drug material from marine products.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):183-90.
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    ABSTRACT: The epothilones are a class of microtubule inhibitors that exhibit a strong antitumor activity. UTD2 is a novel epothilone analog generated by genetic manipulation of the polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster. This study investigated the effects of UTD2 on the actin cytoskeleton and its critical regulators, and the signaling pathways which are essential for cell motility, growth and survival in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results showed that UTD2 inhibited the cellular functions of actin cytoskeleton, such as wound-closure, migration and invasion, as well as adhesion. Our study further demonstrated that UTD2 suppressed Rac1 GTPase activation and reduced the activity of PAK1, which is a downstream effector of Rac1, while the activity of Cdc42 was not affected. Additionally, the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK were significantly inhibited, but the phosphorylation of JNK remained the same after UTD2 treatment. Moreover, UTD2 inhibited the activity and mRNA expression of MMP-2, which plays a key role in cell motility. UTD2 also reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, which is an important signaling kinase regulating the cell survival through Rac1. Furthermore, UTD2 interrupted the synergy between Rac1 and Raf in focus formation assays. Taken together, these results indicated that UTD2 exerted multiple effects on the actin cytoskeleton and signaling pathways associated with Rac1. This study provided novel insights into the molecular mechanism of the antineoplastic and antimetastatic activities of epothilones. Our findings also suggest that the signaling pathways regulated by Rac1 may be evaluated as biomarkers for the response to therapy in clinical trials of epothilones.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):109-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation causes abnormal hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Hyperphosphorylated isoforms of tau are major components of neurofibrillary tangles, which are histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major tau protein phosphatase, consists of a structural A subunit, catalytic C subunit, and a variety of regulatory B subunits. The B subunits have been reported to modulate function of the PP2A holoenzyme by regulating substrate binding, enzyme activity, and subcellular localization. In the current study, we characterized regulatory B subunit-specific regulation of tau protein phosphorylation. We showed that the PP2A B subunit PPP2R2A mediated dephosphorylation of tau protein at Ser-199, Ser-202/Thr-205, Thr-231, Ser-262, and Ser-422. Down-regulation of PPP2R5D expression decreased tau phosphorylation at Ser-202/Thr-205, Thr-231, and Ser-422, which indicates activation of the tau kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) by PP2A with PPP2R5D subunit. The level of activating phosphorylation of the GSK3β kinase Akt at Thr-308 and Ser-473 were both increased by PPP2R5D knockdown. We also characterized B subunit-specific phosphorylation sites in tau using mass spectrometric analysis. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the phosphorylation status of the tau protein may be affected by PP2A, depending on the specific B subunits. These studies further our understanding of the function of various B subunits in mediating site-specific regulation of tau protein phosphorylation.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):155-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Human organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1) plays an important role in the transport of drugs and endogenous substances. It is known that a missense variant of OCTN1 is significantly associated with Crohn's disease susceptibility. This study was performed to identify genetic variants of the OCTN1 promoter in Korean individuals and to determine their functional effects. First, the promoter region of OCTN1 was directly sequenced using genomic DNA samples from 48 healthy Koreans. OCTN1 promoter activity was then measured using a luciferase reporter assay in HCT-116 cells. Seven variants of the OCTN1 promoter were identified, two of which were novel. There were also four major OCTN1 promoter haplotypes. Three haplotypes (H1, H3, and H4) showed decreased transcriptional activity, which was reduced by 22.9%, 23.0%, and 44.6%, respectively (p<0.001), compared with the reference haplotype (H2). Transcription factor binding site analyses and gel shift assays revealed that NF-Y could bind to the region containing g.-1875T>A, a variant present in H3, and that the binding affinity of NF-Y was higher for the g.-1875T allele than for the g.-1875A allele. NF-Y could also repress OCTN1 transcription. These data suggest that three OCTN1 promoter haplotypes could regulate OCTN1 transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify functional variants of the OCTN1 promoter.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):169-75.
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    ABSTRACT: The downregulation of A-type K(+) channels (IA channels) accompanying enhanced somatic excitability can mediate epileptogenic conditions in mammalian central nervous system. As IA channels are dominantly targeted by dendritic and postsynaptic processings during synaptic plasticity, it is presumable that they may act as cellular linkers between synaptic responses and somatic processings under various excitable conditions. In the present study, we electrophysiologically tested if the downregulation of somatic IA channels was sensitive to synaptic activities in young hippocampal neurons. In primarily cultured hippocampal neurons (DIV 6~9), the peak of IA recorded by a whole-cell patch was significantly reduced by high KCl or exogenous glutamate treatment to enhance synaptic activities. However, the pretreatment of MK801 to block synaptic NMDA receptors abolished the glutamate-induced reduction of the IA peak, indicating the necessity of synaptic activation for the reduction of somatic IA. This was again confirmed by glycine treatment, showing a significant reduction of the somatic IA peak. Additionally, the gating property of IA channels was also sensitive to the activation of synaptic NMDA receptors, showing the hyperpolarizing shift in inactivation kinetics. These results suggest that synaptic LTP possibly potentiates somatic excitability via downregulating IA channels in expression and gating kinetics. The consequential changes of somatic excitability following the activity-dependent modulation of synaptic responses may be a series of processings for neuronal functions to determine outputs in memory mechanisms or pathogenic conditions.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):135-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to play an important role in the repair of damaged blood vessels. We used an endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming assay (EPC-CFA) to determine whether EPC numbers could be increased in healthy individuals through regular exercise training. The number of functional EPCs obtained from human peripheral blood-derived AC133 stem cells was measured after a 28-day regular exercise training program. The number of total endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming units (EPC-CFU) was significantly increased compared to that in the control group (p=0.02, n=5). In addition, we observed a significant decrease in homocysteine levels followed by an increase in the number of EPC-CFUs (p=0.04, n=5), indicating that the 28-day regular exercise training could increase the number of EPC colonies and decrease homocysteine levels. Moreover, an inverse correlation was observed between small-endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming units (small-EPC-CFUs) and plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men (r=-0.8125, p=0.047). We found that regular exercise training could increase the number of EPC-CFUs and decrease homocysteine levels, thus decreasing the cardiovascular disease risk in men.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):163-8.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that transition metal ions such as iron can produce an oxidative injuries to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, like Parkinson's disease (PD) and subsequent compensative increase of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) during the disease progression induces the aggravation of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in striatum. It had been established that the direct administration of BH4 into neuron would induce the neuronal toxicity in vitro. To elucidate a role of BH4 in pathogenesis in the PD in vivo, we assessed the changes of dopamine (DA) and BH4 at striatum in unilateral intranigral iron infused PD rat model. The ipsistriatal DA and BH4 levels were significantly increased at 0.5 to 1 d and were continually depleting during 2 to 7 d after intranigral iron infusion. The turnover rate of BH4 was higher than that of DA in early phase. However, the expression level of GTP-cyclohydrolase I mRNA in striatum was steadily increased after iron administration. These results suggest that the accumulation of intranigral iron leads to generation of oxidative stress which damage to dopaminergic neurons and causes increased release of BH4 in the dopaminergic neuron. The degenerating dopaminergic neurons decrease the synthesis and release of both BH4 and DA in vivo that are relevance to the progression of PD. Based on these data, we propose that the increase of BH4 can deteriorate the disease progression in early phase of PD, and the inhibition of BH4 increase could be a strategy for PD treatment.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2014; 18(2):129-34.
  • Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a member of the melastatin-related subfamily and contains a channel and a kinase domain. TRPM7 is known to be associated with cell proliferation, survival, and development. It is ubiquitously expressed, highly permeable to Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), and its channel activity is negatively regulated by free Mg(2+) and Mg-complexed nucleotides. Recent studies have investigated the relationships between TRPM7 and a number of diseases. TRPM7 regulates cell proliferation in several cancers, and is associated with ischemic cell death and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. This review discusses the physiologic and pathophysiologic functions and significance of TRPM7 in several diseases.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2014; 18(1):15-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as a mediator and regulator of inflammatory responses. NO is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and NOS is abundantly expressed in the human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). NO produced by NOS can be cytotoxic at higher concentrations to HDPCs. However, the mechanism by which this cytotoxic pathway is activated in cells exposed to NO is not known. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the NO-induced cytotoxic mechanism in HDPCs. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, reduced the viability of HDPCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We investigated the in vitro effects of nitric oxide on apoptosis of cultured HDPCs. Cells showed typical apoptotic morphology after exposure to SNP. Besides, the number of Annexin V positive cells was increased among the SNP-treated HDPCs. SNP enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) ameliorated the decrement of cell viability induced by SNP. However, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) did not inhibited the decrement of cell viability induced by SNP. SNP increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression levels. Moreover, SNP-treated HDPCs elevated activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. While pretreatment with inhibitors of caspase (z-VAD-fmk, z-DEVD-fmk) reversed the NO-induced apoptosis of HDPCs. From these results, it can be suggested that NO induces apoptosis of HDPCs through the mitochondria-dependent pathway mediated by ROS and Bcl-2 family, but not by the cyclic GMP pathway.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2014; 18(1):25-32.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we propose that diprophylline exerts bidirectional modulation (BM) on the isolated rat jejunal segment depending on its contractile state. The results supported the hypothesis. Diprophylline (20 µM) exerted stimulatory effects on the contractility of jejunal segment in six low contractile states while inhibitory effects in six high contractile states, showing the characteristics of BM. Diprophylline-induced stimulatory effect was significantly blocked by atropine, indicating the correlation with cholinergic activation. Diprophylline-induced inhibitory effect was partially blocked by phentolamine, propranolol, and L-N-Nitro-Arginine respectively, indicating their correlation with sympathetic activation and nitric oxide-mediated relaxing mechanisms. Diprophylline-induced BM was abolished by tetrodotoxin or in a Ca(2+) free condition or pretreated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, suggesting that diprophylline-induced BM is Ca(2+) dependent, and that it requires the presence of enteric nervous system as well as pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal. Diprophylline significantly increased the reduced MLCK expression and myosin extent in constipation-prominent rats and significantly decreased the increased MLCK expression and myosin extent in diarrhea-prominent rats, suggesting that the change of MLCK expression may also be involved in diprophylline-induced BM on rat jejunal contractility. In summary, diprophylline-exerted BM depends on the contractile states of the jejunal segments, requires the presence of Ca(2+), enteric nervous system, pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal, and MLCK-correlated myosin phosphorylation. The results suggest the potential implication of diprophylline in relieving alternative hypo/hyper intestinal motility.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2014; 18(1):47-53.
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    ABSTRACT: The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (α-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2014; 18(1):41-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is still the number one cause of death from cancer worldwide. The clinical effect of platinum-based chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is constrained by the resistance to drug. To overcome chemo-resistance, various modified treatment including combination therapy has been used, but overall survival has not been improved yet. In this study, chemo-resistant lung cancer cells, A549/Cis and H460/Cis, were developed by long-term exposure of cells to cisplatin and the proliferative capability of these resistant cells was verified to be reduced. We found cytotoxic effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin derived from green tea, on both the parental lung cancer cells, A549 and H460, and their cisplatin resistant cells, A549/Cis and H460/Cis. ELISA and Western blot analysis revealed that EGCG was able to increase interlukine-6 (IL-6) production per cell, whereas its downstream effector Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation was not changed by EGCG, indicating that IL-6/STAT3 axis is not the critical signaling to be inhibited by EGCG. We next found that EGCG suppresses the expression of both Axl and Tyro 3 receptor tyrosine kinases at mRNA and protein level, explaining the cytotoxic effect of EGCG on lung cancer cells, especially, regardless of cisplatin resistance. Taken together, these data suggest that EGCG impedes proliferation of lung cancer cells including their chemo-resistant variants through downregulation of Axl and Tyro 3 expression.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2014; 18(1):61-6.