Endocrine Regulations (since 1967 to 1990 Endocrinologia Experimentalis) is an international journal on experimental and clinical endocrinology edited quarterly in English by care of the Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences (Bratislava, Slovakia) and published by the Slovak Academic Press (Bratislava, Slovakia). This journal aims to publish original manuscripts or minireviews on experimental and clinical endocrinology and diabetes.
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Other titlesEndocrine regulations (Online)
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Publications in this journal
Article: Significant pain alleviation, cease of hematuria, and renal stone removal after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with adjuvant boron therapy - Case Report.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. Stone disease is an increasingly common form of renal disease. Therapy to prevent stones rests in lowering supersaturation uses both diet and medication. Environmental factors, especially diet, play an important role in the expression of the tendency to stone formation. Effective treatment decreases stone recurrence and need to use procedures to stone removal. Considering the nutrients, boron as an ultratrace element of the plant food is assumed to have an impact on the stone removal.Method. Female patient with a 10.0 mm stone in the lower pole underwent an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and received 10 mg of boron supplement/day for two weeks.Results. Ultrasonography assessment revealed complete stone removal or disposal without hydronephrosis with a significant pain alleviation and significant reduction in ureter bleeding or hematuria along with a little burning sensation in the genital region. The expulsion was confirmed by the collection of the lithiasic residues.Conclusions. Successful and comfortable kidney stone repulsion with a minor pain and bleeding indicates that the impact of boron in this issue deserves further study and clarification. Keywords: lithotripsy, pain alleviation, cease of hematuria, renal stone removal, boron.Endocrine regulations 04/2013; 47(2):101-4.
Article: G protein-coupled estrogen receptor1 (GPER1) may mediate Rho-kinase (ROCK-2) up-regulation in coronary endothelial cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. Effect of estrogenic compounds and 17β-estradiol (E2), which induces endothelial cell motility, was investigated on ROCK-2 expression in rat coronary vascular endothelial cells (CVEC).Methods. The CVEC were isolated from the heart of Wistar rats by collagenase (0.04%) and incubated with E2 (1-100 nM), estrogen receptor α (ERα) agonist: propyl pyrazole triol (PPT, 10 nM); ERβ agonists: (2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile, DPN, 10 nM) and E2-conjugate with bovine serum albumin (E2-BSA, 1 nM); and GPER1 agonist: G1 (100 nM). Furthermore, the effect of combination of E2 with estrogen receptors (ERs) antagonist and GPER1 agonist, ICI-182780 (10 µM), physiological estrogen antagonists: progesterone (P4, 10-100 nM) and testosterone (T, 10-100 nM); transcription inhibitor: actinomycin-D (1 µg/ml); GPER1 antagonist: G-15 (100 nM), superoxide dismutase, (SOD, 500 U/ml); Gi/o protein inhibitor: pertussis toxin (PTX, 100 µg/ml); and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocker: AG-1478 (10 µM) was tested. After 24h incubation, ROCK-2 and GPER1 protein expressions were detected in the CVEC by Western-blotting.Results. E2, ICI-182780, and G1 but not E2-BSA significantly up-regulated ROCK-2 expression, which was suppressed by actinomycin-D, PTX, AG-1478, and G-15. However, PPT and DPN had no effects on the ROCK-2 expression. ICI-182780, P4, T or SOD did not antagonize the E2 action. GPER1 expression was demonstrated in the CVEC. Conclusions. Estrogens could up-regulate ROCK-2 in the rat CVEC through GPER1 and EGFR transactivation. Keywords: endothelium, 17β-estradiol, GPER1, ICI-182780, Rho-kinase.Endocrine regulations 04/2013; 47(2):75-84.
Article: Role of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the control of prolactin secretion by other neurotransmitters and neuropeptides at the level of the pituitary.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. Although prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in the milk production, it has also many other functions. PRL secretion can be inhibited by dopamine and stimulated by serotonin, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). However, the exact mechanisms of PRL regulation are still not fully understood. Glutamate is also a potent elevator of PRL secretion. It has several receptors: ionotropic NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and non-NMDA as well as metabotropic receptors. Our interest was to find out whether endogenous glutamate may act at the hypophyseal level and affect the PRL regulating neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, TRH, VIP).Methods. MK-801 as NMDA blocker and GYKI52466 as a non-NMDA antagonist were used in this study. For dopamine and serotonin experiments intraperitoneal drug administration and blood sampling were applied. On the other hand, TRH and VIP effect on PRL secretion was studied in in vitro conditions by incubating them with a half 300*300nm choppered anterior pituitary gland of the adult male rats.Results. The basal PRL levels were not influenced by the glutamate antagonists used either alone or combined in both in vivo and in vitro conditions. We failed to reveal interaction between dopamine-, serotonin-, and TRH-induced PRL rise and antagonists treatment. MK-801 had a significant inhibitory effect on VIP-induced PRL changes.Conclusions. Our data confirmed the regulatory role of dopamine, serotonin, and TRH on PRL secretion, however, the interaction between these and glutamatergic systems was not confirmed, at least not via the ionotropic receptors. On the other hand, the endogenous glutamate can through the NMDA receptor subtype contribute to the VIP-induced PRL secretion at the level of the anterior pituitary. This regulation may be especially important during suckling and stress response when rapid release of PRL is required. Keywords: glutamate, NMDA receptor, non-NMDA receptor, MK-801, GYKI52466, superfusion.Endocrine regulations 04/2013; 47(2):65-74.
Article: Ependymal cells variations in the central canal of the rat spinal cord filum terminale: an ultrastructural investigation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. The ependymal cells, considered today as an active participant in neuroendocrine functions, were investigated by electron microscopy in the central canal of the lowest spinal cord, the filum terminale (FT), in adult rats. In this area of the spinal cord, the central canal is covered by a heterogeneous population of ependymal cells. The aim of the present work was to compare the regional features of the ependymal cells in two different parts of the FT with a special regard to their ultrastructure.Methods. Two parts of the FT were selected for the ultrastructural observations: the rostral (rFT) and the caudal (cFT) ones. The rTF was removed at the level of the immediate continuation of the conus medullaris, while the cFT 30 mm further caudally. After formaldehyde fixation, the spinal cord was removed and cut into small blocks for electron microscopic processing. The material was embedded into durcupan, contrasted with uranyl acetate, lead citrate as well as osmium tetroxide, and investigated under JEOL 1200 EX electron microscope.Results. In the rFT, the ependymal lining is pseudostratified and one-layered in the cFT, whereas the shape of the ependymal cells may vary from cuboidal to flatten in the rostro-caudal direction. The basal membrane of many ependymal cells possesses deep invaginations, so called "filum terminale labyrinths". Many neuronal processes occur in the pericanalicular neuropil. In contrast to the rFT, the cFT is less rich in the neuropil particles. Some of the ependymal cells concurrently reach both the intracanalicular and extracanalicular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thus they may represent a new variant of the ependymal cells designated as "bridge cells of the FT".Conclusions. The present data indicate that the FT ependymal cells exhibit clear differences in anatomy as well as ultrastructure that may reflect their distinct functional activity. Therefore, observations presented here may serve for the better understanding of the physiological role of the individual ependymal areas in this special portion of the rat spinal cord. Keywords: ependyma, electron microscopy, spinal cord filum terminale, rat.Endocrine regulations 04/2013; 47(2):93-9.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a 30 kDa cytokine, is a member of IL-1 family. It is considered to be an autoimmune biomarker associated with T helper 2 (Th 2) response. γ-interferon is also produced by T helper 1 (Th 1) cells to induce cellular responses. γ-interferon is a 143-amino acid residue glycoprotein with several biological functions including potent anti-viral activity, stimulation of macrophage activity, modulation of Major Histocompatibilty Complex class I/class II expression, and regulation of a diversity of specific immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of IL-33 and γ-interferon in different thyroid disorders.Methods. Twenty patients with Graves' disease, 21 patients with Hashimoto hypothyroidism, 21 euthyroid Hashimoto patients, and 27 control subjects were recruited to this study. Blood samples were drawn and IL-33 and γ-interferon tests were analyzed from 89 participants. Serum IL-33 and γ-interferon analyses were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for serum γ-interferon levels. Serum IL-33 concentrations were significantly higher in Graves' disease group compared to the other groups (p<0.000) There was a positive correlation between serum IL-33 and free triiodothyronine (fT3) and thyroxine (fT4). Also, negative correlation between serum IL-33 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was statistically significant (p<0.000).Conclusions. The correlation of serum IL-33 with thyroid hormone levels may be a useful indicator for Graves' disease. These findings may help to make evident the pathophysiologic processes of the autoimmune thyroid diseases and improve therapeutic methods. Keywords: interleukin, hyperthyroiditis, Hashimoto thyroiditis, cytokines, thyroid disorders.Endocrine regulations 04/2013; 47(2):57-64.
Article: Long-term liquid nutrition intake and development of obesity: differences between young and adult rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. Obesity is particularly associated with an increased consumption of palatable fat and sugar dense food and beverages. Therefore, we examined the effect of a normocaloric liquid diet (Fresubin) with increased carbohydrate content (constituting 55% of calories) on development of obesity in different developmental periods in male Wistar rats.Methods. Fresubin was provided to 3 groups of rats: the first group received Fresubin immediately after weaning (21st day of age) to the end of experiment (150th day of age) for 5 months; the second group was fed with Fresubin from weaning to adulthood (90th day of age) for 3 months; and the third group received Fresubin only in adulthood (from 90th to 150th day of age) for 2 months. The control group was fed with standard pellet chow from weaning to the end of the experiment. Body weight, food and water intake were periodically measured. After terminating the experiment, the adiposity index was determined.Results. Rats fed with liquid nutrition showed increased energy intake and body weight in comparison with the control rats. Interestingly, while obesity in the juvenile rats developed as late as of 13 weeks after the Fresubin intake, the adult rats fed with liquid nutrition had significantly elevated the body weight already 2 weeks after starting the treatment. Increased adiposity index was observed in both groups of rats fed with Fresubin during the whole study as well as the adulthood.Conclusions. Our data indicate that feeding of male Wistar rats with a high carbohydrate normocaloric diet results in a substantial development of obesity. Moreover, exposure of juvenile individuals to obesogenic environment leads, after a certain "latent period", to the development of obesity that may reflect low protein content of used liquid diet or higher resistance of juvenile organism to the obesogenic factors. Finally, based on the data obtained we suggest that Fresubin, with respect to its properties, may serve as a diet for the development of obesity which may exemplify an "obesity model" applicable in small laboratory animals. Keywords: obesity development, Fresubin, liquid diet, rats.Endocrine regulations 04/2013; 47(2):85-92.
Article: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and microvascular angina pectoris in 500 consecutive patients referred to coronarography.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. This work was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome in a large cohort of 40-60 years old patients with cardiovascular symptoms.Methods. A total of 500 consecutive males and females referred to coronarography and coronary catheterization, because of spontaneous or after load precordial pain plus denivelisation of ST segment by electrocardiography, were included. Besides standard clinical examinations, ergometry, echocardiography, fundamental laboratory tests, and several other laboratory examinations were also performed, including oral glucose toleration test (OGTT), total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, apoprotein A1 and B, apolipoprotein (a), uric acid, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, TNFα, interleukin-1, IL-1, interleukin-6, IL-6), endothelin-1, as well as hormones (insulin, C peptide, leptin, growth hormone, cortisol).Results. In 81.6% of patients, IR syndrome with compensatory hyperinsulinemia was found in a positive correlation with various symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, increased body mass index (BMI), dysglycemia, dyslipoproteinemia, coronary stenosis, decreased HDL level, and hypertension. Hirsutism with polycystic ovarian syndrome was found in 52% of examined women with IR. However, a normal coronary angiogram, called as a microvascular form of the angina pectoris (MIV-AP), was found in 14% of predominantly periclimacteric and benign hirsutic females with long-term disorders of menstrual cycle. Since these patients showed the same symptoms as their gender, age, BMI, and degree of coronary stenoses adjusted pairs with the macrovascular form (such as the same levels of several lipids, hormones and obesity measures), our data strongly support the view that MIV-AP might belong to the IR syndrome.Conclusions. Hyperinsulinemia and high prevalence of various symptoms of metabolic syndrome (MS) were found in high percentage of patients with after load precordial pain who were referred to coronarography. Similarly, in several women, MIV-AP was detected and its affiliation to MS suggested. Keywords: metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, coronary symptoms, hormones, lipids.Endocrine regulations 01/2013; 47(1):33-8.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. The NAFLD is related to metabolic disorders and is negatively associated with kidney function. Renal stone disease (urolithiasis) is an increasing form of a common renal disease that is a multifactorial disorder influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic, mainly environmental factors. The association between the fatty liver and renal calculi, as a specific underlying risk factor, has received no attention, so far. Therefore, in this study, a possible relationship between fatty liver with renal calculi and urolithiasis is investigated.Methods. In a cross sectional study, a total of 11245 ultrasonography reports revealing the condition of fatty liver, kidney stones (urolithiasis), or a combination of both of them, were categorized and evaluated statistically. Descriptive statistics determined the number (frequency and percentage) of each condition. The statistical significance of the association between fatty liver and kidney stone, and vice versa, was evaluated using McNemar's test. The Chi Square Test assessed the relationship between genders. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) assessed the likelihood of characteristics of urolithiasis for fatty liver patients.Results. We found 8% frequency of urolithiasis among subjects with healthy liver. NAFLD was identified in 30%, while urolithiasis in 11% subjects from all individuals studied. The present study diagnosed urolithiasis in 17% of patients with fatty liver. Its occurrence was more common in men than women. Data revealed more common diagnosis of fatty liver (48%) in patients with urolithiasis, which was also higher in males than females. The higher NAFLD was linked with urolithiasis, indicating a greater chance of their association. Interestingly, the detection frequency of urolithiasis in the patients with NAFLD was also markedly higher (odds ratio: 2.4, 95% CI 2.1-2.7). The NAFLD appears to be an independent variable as a risk factor for stone formation.Conclusions. The present study indicates that the prevalence of urolithiasis is significantly higher in the NAFLD than healthy subjects. This result suggests that NAFLD may be involved in the mechanism of the onset of the urolithiasis. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and changes in the urinary constituents in the NAFLD may be considered as a risk factor in the progression of stone formations. Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, urolithiasis, association.Endocrine regulations 01/2013; 47(1):27-32.
Article: Better association of waist circumference with insulin resistance and some cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of the obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC), with both insulin resistance (IR) and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and to reveal which of these obesity measures maintains stronger association with the IR and CVD risk factors.Methods. A total of 68 women in the fertile age (32 ± 6 years) were classified in three groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to BMI, and in two groups (normal and high) according to WC. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were measured and fasting insulin (FI), fasting glucose (FG), homeostasis model analysis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) were determined.Results. The values of the FI, FG, HOMA-IR, TGs, LDL-C, SBP, and DBP were significantly higher and HDL-C significantly lower in the obese subjects in comparison with the subjects with normal weight or overweight. By classifying the participants on the basis of their WC, results showed that FI, FG, HOMA-IR, TGs, LDL-C, SBP, and DBP were significantly higher, and HDL-C was significantly lower in the subjects with high WC compared with those having normal WC. Linear regression analysis was done to compare the relationships between these two obesity measures and both the IR and measured CVD risk factors. It was found that both BMI and WC significantly correlate with them, however, WC has a higher r2 (correlation coefficient) than BMI.Conclusions. The relation between BMI and WC, as two measures of the obesity, which are simple, safe, and inexpensive to obtain as well as HOMA-IR and some CVD risk factors, was established. The original finding of this study is that WC has closer association with CVD risk factors than BMI. Thus, WC can be used to screen for the risk of some health problems as IR, and CVD risk factors in pre-menopausal females. Keywords: body mass index, waist circumference, insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk factors.Endocrine regulations 01/2013; 47(1):3-14.
Article: Insulin receptor, IRS1, IRS2, INSIG1, INSIG2, RRAD, and BAIAP2 gene expressions in glioma U87 cells with ERN1 loss of function: effect of hypoxia and glutamine or glucose deprivation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine: 1) the association between the expression of the insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and 2 (IRS2), insulin inducible gene 1 (INSIG1) and 2 (INSIG2), Ras-related associated with diabetes (RRAD), and brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 (BAIAP2) genes in glioma cells and 2) the function of the endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, mediated by endoplasmic reticulum to nuclei-1 (ERN1) and regulation of these gene expressions by hypoxia and glucose or glutamine deprivation.Methods. The expression of the INSR, IRS1, IRS2, INSIG1, INSIG2, RRAD, and BAIAP2 genes in the glioma cell line U87 and its subline with ERN1 loss of function was studied by qPCR. The cells were exposed to a mix of 3 % oxygen and 5 % carbon dioxide and glucose or glutamine deprivation.Results. The blockade of the ERN1 signaling enzyme function in glioma cells leads to the gene expression increase in INSR, INSIG2, and IRS2 and decrease in the BAIAP2 and RRAD genes. Hypoxia affected the expression of the INSR, IRS1, IRS2, INSIG1, INSIG2, and BAIAP2 genes with more significant changes in INSIG2 and IRS2 genes. Furthermore, the effect of hypoxia on expression of these genes was mostly dependent on the ERN1 signaling enzyme function. The data also show that glucose or glutamine deprivation may change the expression of the genes studied and that the suppression of the ERN1 enzyme function usually modifies the effect of the glucose or glutamine deprivation.Conclusions. Results of this study demonstrated the dependence of INSR and related to insulin receptor signaling gene expressions in U87 glioma cells on ERN1 enzyme function indicating its participation in the regulation of metabolic and proliferative processes via endoplasmic reticulum stress which is important component of tumor growth and metabolic diseases. Moreover, hypoxia and glucose or glutamine deprivation are controlled by the expression of insulin receptor and related to insulin signaling genes mostly via ERN1 enzyme signaling. Keywords: insulin receptor, IRS2, INSIG2, gene expressions, glioma U87 cells, ERN1, hypoxia, glucose deprivation.Endocrine regulations 01/2013; 47(1):15-26.
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ABSTRACT: Although more than 100 years passed from the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) discovery, new knowledge is still ceaselessly accruing in this field. The present review provides brief overview on the history of the RAS investigation, circulating and tissue RAS, and outlines the physiological functions of the RAS major active substance, angiotensin II (ANG II). Circulating ANG II is generated from angiotensin I (ANG I) by carboxypeptidaze angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expressed in the pulmonary endothelial cells. ANG I is formed from angiotensinogen, originating in the liver, by renal peptidase renin secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells. The ANG II effects are mediated mainly via AT1 receptors. Scientific, medical, and pharmacological interests in the RAS relay mainly in its potency to influence the blood pressure and heart hypertrophy. Inhibition of ACE and AT1 receptors has been shown to be very useful in the hypertension management although several unexpected effects of this treatment led to the initiation of new studies. This review also describes other bioactive angiotensins and modifying enzymes identified during the last years, the ways how the RAS activity can be measured and ANG II degraded in the organism. It also indicates the most convenient models for the RAS investigation. Finally, the major mechanisms of the RAS activity regulation are also described. Keywords: angiotensin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, angiotensin AT1 receptors, experimental model.Endocrine regulations 01/2013; 47(1):39-52.
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ABSTRACT: Reproduction is a result of coordinated signaling network between gonads and pituitary/hypothalamus. Ovarian functions, such as follicular development, ovulation, luteinisation, luteolysis, and remodeling of the endometrium, are controlled by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine factors. Ovulation is a unique biological process by which the complex of a mature oocyte and surrounding somatic cumulus cells (CCs), named oocyte-cumulus complex (OCC), is released from the follicle into the oviduct for transport and fertilization. Recently, evidence has been accumulated that the immune system might represent an additional local regulator of the ovarian functions that are essentially modulated by gonadotropins. Moreover, the ovulation is similar to an inflammatory response: follicles become hyperemic, produce prostaglandins (PGs), and synthesize a hyaluronan-rich extracellular matrix. Cytokines are originally referred as numerous signaling substances secreted by certain cells of the immune system which influence the activity of other cells. A number of studies have shown that cytokines may modulate ovarian functions and play an important role in the ovulation. The most known cytokines related to the reproduction are interleukins (ILs). These molecules have been localized in the reproduction-related body fluids and various ovarian cell types, such as the oocytes, granulosa (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) in several mammalian species. Moreover, macrophages in the ovary have been shown to secrete cytokines, including ILs. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on ILs in regard of their role in the regulation of selected ovarian functions. Keywords: cytokines, interleukins, ovary, steroidogenesis, ovulation, corpus luteum.Endocrine regulations 10/2012; 46(4):237-53.
Article: Modified endogenous carbon monoxide production through modulation of heme oxygenase activity alters some aspects of the cold restraint stress response in male albino rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. Multiple stimulatory and inhibitory inputs regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Although the results of the previous studies are contradictory, it has been indicated that the carbon monoxide (CO) may play a role in the HPA regulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of modified endogenous CO production on some aspects of the cold restraint stress (CRS) response in adult male albino rats.Methods. Modification of the endogenous CO was performed by altering the heme oxygenase (HO) activity; its induction was achieved by administration of the hemin (HEM) and inhibition by administration of the zinc mesoporphyrin (ZM).Results. We found that in both the non-stressed and stressed groups the HEM significantly decreased the plasma levels of epinephrine (EPI), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (B), cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). On the other hand, ZM significantly increased the adrenal EPI, norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and the plasma levels of EPI, NE, DA, ACTH, B, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, and LDL-C, as compared with control and stressed rats.Conclusion. The role of CO reaction to the CRS response could be clarified as an anti-stress effect. This is evidenced by the inhibitory effect of HO inducer, HEM, on the HPA axis and a consequent less hazardous metabolic profile which it produced. Keywords: carbon monoxide, hemin, heme oxygenase, stress.Endocrine regulations 10/2012; 46(4):205-15.
Article: Thyroid volume, iodine intake, autoimmune thyroid disorders, inborn factors, and endocrine disruptors: twenty-year studies of multiple effects puzzle in Slovakia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate multiple interrelations between several endogenous and exogenous effects and the thyroid volume and function in large groups of children, adolescents, and adults with a sufficient whole life intake of the iodine.Subjects and Methods. The data were obtained either by cross sectioned or longitudinal studies in a total of 4998 children and adolescents (aged 7 to 17 years) and 2501 adults (1071 males and 1430 females aged 20-75 years). Thyroid volume (ThV) was measured by ultrasound, antibodies, and hormones by electrochemiluminiscent immunoassay, and endocrine disruptors (EDs, polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB, dichlorodiethyl-ichloroethylene-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene-HCB) by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.Results. 1. In large groups of boys and girls of age 7, 10, 13 or 17 years, the ThV was significantly higher in the 10th decile than in pooled nine lower deciles. Moreover, in 17-year old subjects significantly higher prevalence of hypoechogenicity by ultrasound, positive thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOab), and increased thyrotropin (TSH) levels were found in the 10th decile. 2. In a small group of children, some individuals revealed consistently higher ThV during the whole 7-year follow-up period irrespective of supplementation with iodine. 3. In 325 sibling pairs of age 10-19 years, born within three years, three groups with different ThV/m2 of body surface were distinguished: Group A (183 pairs having both ThVs small), Group B (103 pairs having both ThVs large); Group C (33 pairs having one ThV small and the other one large). Similar aggregation of ThVs in three groups was observed in 13 pairs of discordant twins and 19 sibling triads in which all the siblings were born within four years. 4. In 42 concordant twins, several pairs had ThV nearly twice as high (in terms of both plain ThV or ThV/m2 of the body surface) as several other pairs of the same age which is assumed to be a result of a genetic background. 5. In large cohorts of males and females, a highly significant positive correlation was found between the ThV and high level of TPOab on one side and EDs on the other side. However, in nearly the same numbers of subjects with low TPOab, negative correlation was seen between ThV and disruptors. These observations may apparently support the synergic effect of the autoimmunity and EDs on the thyroid function.Conclusions. Several cases of an excessive thyroid growth in the iodine replenished children, adolescents, and adults may apparently result from the autoimmune thyroiditis, probably induced by immunogenic action of iodine in presumably disposed individuals. However, in some cases even simultaneous participation of EDs can not be excluded. Some observations have also suggested that excessive thyroid growth in the iodine replenished adolescent and adult population which was equaly exposed to disruptors may also result from other reasons as the unfavorable hereditary background. Keywords: thyroid, iodine, autoimmunity, endocrine disruptors, inborn factors, siblings.Endocrine regulations 10/2012; 46(4):191-203.
Article: A new approach of light microscopic immunohistochemical triple-staining: combination of Fos labeling with diaminobenzidine-nickel and neuropeptides labeled with Alexa488 and Alexa555 fluorescent dyes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to introduce a new approach of the light microscopic immunohistochemical triple-staining enabling to study the differences in the activity of at least two different phenotypes of neurons on the same histological section. For this purpose combination of Fos (a product of the immediate early gene) labeling with nickel intensified diaminobenzidine (DAB-Ni) and two neuropeptides labeled with Alexa488 and Alexa555 fluorescent dyes on cryo-processed 35-40 µm thick free-floating brain sections was selected.Methods. The parallel occurrence of three antibodies studied, i.e. Fos, hypocretin (HCRT), and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), was studied by a new methodic approach utilizing combination of Fos immunolabeled with DAB-Ni and HCRT and MCH labeled with Alexa488 and Alexa555 fluorescent dyes, respectively. Fos stimulation was induced by a single immobilization (IM0) for 120 min. Then, the rats were sacrificed, the brains removed, soaked with 30% sucrose in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB), cryo-sectioned throughout the hypothalamus into 35-40 μm thick coronal sections, collected, and washed in the same buffer for 10-15 min. Fos was revealed by avidin-biotin-peroxidase (ABC) complex and visualized by diaminobenzidine chromogen containing nickel chloride salt. HCRT and MCH neurons were visualized by the above mentioned fluorescent dyes. Evaluation of the Fos and fluorescent staining was performed in the computerized Axo Imager Carl Zeiss microscope using light and fluorescent illuminations.Results. All the antibodies used showed clear immunoreactive staining. Fos staining occurred in the form of black color located in the cell nuclei. HCRH and MCH neuropeptides showed clear green and red fluorescence in the cell perikarya, respectively. The final merged picture showed Fos protein in the activated green HCRT or red MCH neurons in the form of white nuclei.Conclusions. The present study clearly demonstrate that the combination of Fos labeling with DAB-Ni and neuropeptides labeled with Alexa488 and Alexa555 on cryo-processed 35-40 µm thick free-floating brain sections is an excellent approach providing further advantages for quick and reproducible triple immuno-staining enabling to compare the activity of at least two phenotypes of neurons on the same section. Keywords: Alexa488 and Alexa555 fluorescent dyes, Fos, hypocretin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cryostat sections, triple labeling immunohistochemistry, rat.Endocrine regulations 10/2012; 46(4):217-23.
Article: Aerobic training lasting for 10 weeks elevates the adipose tissue FABP4, Giα, and adiponectin expression associated by a reduced protein oxidation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. The chronic moderate exercise positively alters the systemic glucose homeostasis, enhances the insulin action, and ameliorates the oxidative damage in the skeletal muscle and liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an intermittent aerobic training on the metabolic parameters of the white adipose tissue in the obese Zucker rats.Methods. Obese Zucker rats, 8 week old, were subjected to running on a 4-channel treadmill (1 h/day 5 times/week 20 m/min at maximum) for 10 weeks, except the weekends, (Trained Obese Zucker, TOZ) or were placed to the turned-off treadmill (Sedentary Obese Zucker, SOZ) for the same period. The serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride were determined. The gene expression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components and selected metabolic parameters were quantified by real-time qPCR in the liver and epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. The content of the protein carbonyl groups was assayed in the liver and epididymal fat depot.Results. The gene expression of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) was significantly elevated in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues of the TOZ rats. The level of the adiponectin mRNA was increased in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue while leptin and inhibitory G-protein α mRNA were elevated in the epididymal adipose tissue after exercise. The aerobic training led to a decrease in the amount of protein carbonyl groups in the epididymal adipose depot. Transcription of the angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and AT1 receptor genes in the epididymal adipose tissue was not influenced by the exercise. In the liver, only the AT1 receptor gene expression increased significantly. The serum glucose, insulin, and triglycerides concentrations were not changed in the TOZ rats when compared to SOZ animals.Conclusions. Data of the present study indicate that an intermittent moderate exercise in the hyperphagic obese Zucker rats lasting for 10 weeks improves some of the morphometric and metabolic parameters of the white adipose tissue and decreases the protein oxidation implying a general beneficial effect of the long-lasting exercising. Keywords: obese Zucker rats, aerobic training, protein oxidation, adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity.Endocrine regulations 07/2012; 46(3):137-46.
Article: Correlation between the body fat composition and high sensitive C-reactive protein in Turkish adults.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives. The adipose tissue is an active immune organ. High sensitive C-reactive protein CRP (hs-CRP) is a strong independent predictor of a possible future myocardial infarction and stroke, and it has also been shown to be related to the subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the body fat composition, metabolic syndrome, and the hs-CRP plasma levels.Methods. Total 246 consecutive Turkish subjects, admitted to the internal medicine clinic with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome, were included into the study. The total body fat composition was measured in every participant with a commercially available bio-impedance meter. The hs-CRP levels, body composition parameters, and biochemical variables were compared.Results. The hs-CRP levels increased in parallel with the body weight in Turkish subjects. This increase was significant especially in the women. The waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables (visceral fat level, total body fat, and total body muscle mass) were significant correlates of the hs-CRP. The waist circumference and BMI were independent predictors of the hs-CRP.Conclusion. The waist circumference, BMI, and body composition variables (visceral fat level, total body fat and total body muscle mass) were significant correlates of the hs-CRP in Turkish adults. Body weight control may account for an important target especially in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Keywords: high sensitive C-reactive protein, bio-impedance meter, body fat composition, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease.Endocrine regulations 07/2012; 46(3):147-52.
Article: Medial prefrontal cortex transection enhanced stress-induced activation of sympathoadrenal system in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) projects to the sympathetic premotor and preganglionic neurons. Besides the well described modulatory effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the mPFC also exerts modulatory effect on the activity of the sympathoadrenal system (SAS). The aim of the present study was to find out whether interruption of the anatomical interconnections between the mPFC neurons and hypothalamic, brainstem and spinal cord structures may affect the SAS and HPA axis activities determined by the plasma catecholamines (epinephrine, EPI and norepinephrine, NE) and corticosterone (CS) levels in the rats exposed to a single immobilization (IMO) stress.Methods. The posterior transection of the mPFC was performed bilaterally by inserting a V-shaped blade into the brain of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Sham-operated animals (controls) underwent a craniotomy only. The animals were allowed to recover for 14 days. Thereafter, the tail artery was cannulated and the animals exposed to acute IMO for 2 h. The blood samples were collected at 5, 30, 60, 120 min of the IMO. Concentrations of the plasma EPI, NE, and CS were determined by radioimmunoassay.Results. The IMO-induced elevation of the plasma EPI levels in the mPFC-transected rats reached statistical significance at 120 min of the IMO, when compared to controls. Similarly, plasma NE levels were significantly increased at 60 and 120 min of the IMO in the mPFC-transected animals in comparison with controls. The transection had no significant effect on the plasma CS levels.Conclusion. The data indicate that the mPFC transection may enhance the IMO-induced SAS activity without affecting the activity of the HPA axis. We found that the mPFC may exert an inhibitory effect on the SAS activity in the stressed animals. Keywords: medial prefrontal cortex, epinephrine, norepinephrine, corticosterone, sympathoadrenal system, immobilization.Endocrine regulations 07/2012; 46(3):129-36.
Article: Homer 1 - a new player linking the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity to depression and anxiety.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Homer 1 gene products are involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. Beside other deficits, the Homer 1 knockout (KO) mice show distinct behavioural abnormalities, such as anxiety and depression-like behaviours. In addition, we recently reported that the global deletion of the Homer 1 proteins in mice leads to a conspicuous endocrine phenotype linked to hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex, elevated basal and/or adrenocorticotropic hormone-induced corticosterone and aldosterone release in vitro and in vivo, as well as a drastic increase in the adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor mRNA in the adrenocortical cells. Interestingly, the basal secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone was not changed in these mutants, which is in line with our recent observations, suggesting that the central limb of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (namely hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone levels and the activation of its neurons in response to restraint stress) is not affected in the Homer 1 KO mice. On the contrary, the elevation of both plasma and intra-adrenal corticosterone and aldosterone concentrations in these mutants clearly indicates that the alteration primarily occurred in the adrenal cortex. We propose that excessive steroid release may contribute to depression- and anxiety-like behaviours and that the Homer 1 gene products may be involved in the pathogenesis of these stress-related mood disorders. Keywords: Homer 1, HPA axis, CRH, ACTH, adrenal cortex, corticosterone, aldosterone.Endocrine regulations 07/2012; 46(3):153-9.
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