Hematology Research and Reviews

Description

An international, peer- reviewed, open access, online journal publishing laboratory, experimental and clinical aspects of hematology. Original research, short reports, reviews, case reports and commentaries are invited.

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Hemophilia A is an inherited disorder characterized by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII, which predisposes patients to bleeding events. Treatment is based on replacement of the deficient factor, in a therapeutic or prophylactic manner. Brazil is the country with the third largest population of people with hemophilia, for which the public health system provides free comprehensive care. Maintaining an updated registry of patients, documenting the prevalence of complications, and assessing the effectiveness of resource use are indispensable elements in the design of a well-coordinated national program. According to sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data collected by the computerized Brazilian system on coagulopathies, in June 2013, there were 9,122 registered patients with hemophilia A in Brazil, of which 36.1% had a severe form of the disease. Clotting factor inhibitors were present in 7.5%, but 25.7% of records did not provide this type of data. Around 70% of the patients belonged to the economically active population, being between 15 and 59 years old. Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus was present in 23.4% of the patients tested and infection by hepatitis C virus antibodies in 59.3%. Infection by the hepatitis B virus and human T-lymphotropic virus was also reported. The high percentage of incomplete records regarding serological data shows the fragility of the information system to date. There was also no information available on the prevalence of permanent or disabling joint damage. Although few hemophiliacs receive adequate care in developing countries, and despite Brazil exhibiting great social inequalities, the Ministry of Health has made significant advances in the treatment of hemophilia A. The gradual increase in importation of factor VIII concentrate enabled the implementation of primary and secondary modalities of prophylaxis, in addition to the induction of immune tolerance. There are also plans to set up a factory in the country, to ensure Brazilian self-sufficiency in the production of blood products.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 09/2014; 5:175.
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    ABSTRACT: Neutropenic sepsis is a common clinical entity occurring in postchemotherapy patients. Infection may not be the cause of fever in such patients after neutrophil-count recovery. Herein, we present two patients who developed fever during the neutropenic phase of induction chemotherapy and were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics until they were no longer febrile and had recovered their neutrophil count. Being off antibiotics, they redeveloped fever within 48-72 hours. These fevers seemed to be secondary to postinfectious inflammatory response and not infection, supported by the fact that adequate antibiotic treatment was given and the collected fluid contained neutrophils but the cultures were negative. We hypothesize an explanation for this phenomenon based on the "homing of neutrophils" to bone marrow, which involves chemoattraction of CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)-4 expressed on neutrophils towards the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 (CXCL12) expressed constitutively by bone marrow. Literature has shown that elevation of SDF-1 levels at injured/inflamed sites might create a similar gradient. This gradient results in the migration of neutrophils to the sites of previous injury/inflammation, leading to the formation of sterile abscesses. Based on our cases, we also conclude that antibiotics do not prevent the formation or treat such sterile "abscesses"; however, the drainage of these "abscesses" and treatment with anti-inflammatory agents are useful in such cases.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2014; 5:37-41.
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    ABSTRACT: The direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban was the first within the group of orally available direct factor Xa inhibitors to gain clinical approval for oral anticoagulation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in 2011. The -xabans, as drugs from the group of oral direct factor Xa inhibitors are often referred to, comprise currently three drugs (apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban) with clinical approval for a variety of clinical indications that require oral anticoagulation therapy. The number of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation requiring long-term oral anticoagulation therapy for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism is predicted to increase up to five times by 2050. Many of these patients will be within the elderly and aging population that is at a higher risk of stroke and also at a higher risk for bleeding events. This requires novel options for efficient and safe oral anticoagulation, and rivaroxaban is one of the novel oral anticoagulants that have been shown to be at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, like all of the novel oral anticoagulants, rivaroxaban provides a significant reduction in intracerebral hemorrhage compared with vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin. The clinical utility of oral anticoagulation with rivaroxaban in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is discussed here, along with special patient considerations, including impaired renal function, switching from a vitamin K antagonist, and patients with concomitant acute coronary syndrome.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2014; 5:25-30.
  • Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2014; 5:1-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare, life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy which causes significant morbidity and mortality unless promptly recognized and treated. The underlying pathogenesis of TTP is a severe deficiency in ADAMTS13 activity, a metalloprotease that cleaves ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers. This deficiency is either autoantibody mediated (acquired TTP) or due to deleterious mutations in the gene encoding ADAMTS13 (congenital TTP). The elucidation of this disease mechanism has reinforced the rationale and place of current therapies (eg, plasma exchange) as well as providing a basis for the prospective evaluation of immunotherapy with rituximab in addition to classic immunosuppression (eg, corticosteroid) in autoantibody-mediated TTP. This review discusses the current evidence base for therapeutic interventions in acquired and congenital TTP as well as providing a practical approach to the other aspects of investigation and management for which a firm evidence base is lacking. Novel agents that are currently being evaluated in prospective trials and future directions of therapy are also discussed which are expected to make an important contribution to improving outcomes in patients with TTP.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2014; 5:15-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Deferasirox is a once-daily, oral iron chelator that is widely used in the management of patients with transfusional hemosiderosis. Several Phase II trials along with their respective extension studies as well as a Phase III trial have established the efficacy and safety of this novel agent in transfusion-dependent patients with ╬▓-thalassemia, sickle-cell disease and bone marrow-failure syndromes, including myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia. Data from various clinical trials show that a deferasirox dose of 20 mg/kg/day stabilizes serum ferritin levels and liver iron concentration, while a dose of 30-40 mg/kg/day reduces these parameters and achieves negative iron balance in red cell transfusion-dependent patients with iron overload. Across various pivotal clinical trials, deferasirox was well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rash, nonprogressive increases in serum creatinine, and elevations in liver enzyme levels. Longer-term extension studies have also confirmed the efficacy and safety of deferasirox. However, it is essential that patients on deferasirox therapy are monitored regularly to ensure timely management for any adverse events that may occur with long-term therapy.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2013; 4:101-10.
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    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2013; 4:161-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Early treatment of bleeds in hemophilia patients, both with and without inhibitors, has been shown to be of immense benefit in the overall clinical outcome. Despite the advantages of treating the bleeding episodes early, significant barriers and limitations remain. The aim of this review is to highlight the various barriers and perceived limitations to early therapy of bleeding episodes, especially in patients who have developed inhibitors to factor VIII. The peer-reviewed literature was searched for articles on hemophilia patients, with and without inhibitors, and early treatment, to identify the barriers to early treatment and potential impact on patient outcomes. The most important barrier is the educational barrier, which involves lack of awareness among patients regarding the signs of a bleed, as well as importance of early therapy. It is also common for parents or caregivers of school-age children to exhibit inconvenience and scheduling barriers. Distance to the treatment center can also play a role here. Some patients experience financial barriers related to cost of clotting factor products, insurance coverage, or insurance caps and out-of-pocket costs. Rarely, there can also be problems related to venous access or home infusion. Lastly, multiple psychosocial barriers can prevent adherence to treatment regimens. Identification and addressing these individual barriers will result in improved compliance rates, prevent joint damage, be more cost-effective, and lead to better overall health of these patients.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2013; 4:49-56.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying hypereosinophilia have led to the development of a 'molecular' classification of myeloproliferative disorders with eosinophilia. The revised 2008 World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms included a new category called "myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB or FGFR1." Despite the molecular heterogeneity of PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) rearrangements, tyrosine kinase inhibitors at low dose induce rapid and complete hematological remission in the majority of these patients. Other kinase inhibitors are promising. Further discoveries of new molecular alterations will direct the development of new specific inhibitors. In this review, an update of the classifications of myeloproliferative disorders associated with hypereosinophilia is discussed together with open and controversial questions. Molecular mechanisms and promising results of tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments are reviewed.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2013; 4:111-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency and anemia are common in the Middle East, and vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism have been reported to be associated with an increased prevalence of anemia. In this study, the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism may be associated with anemia in a Bahraini population was tested. Association of hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D levels (deficiency and insufficiency) with anemia was investigated in 421 Bahrainis (213 males and 208 females). In females, the prevalence of anemia was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency independent of parathyroid hormone levels (odds ratio: 2.9; 95% confidence interval: 2.3-10.5; P = 0.001). In females, the prevalence of anemia appeared to be significantly associated with hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.7; P = 0.01); however, this significant association disappeared when adjusted for vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio: 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.75-6.5; P = 0.154). Results from this study suggest that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with anemia in females but not males. Further studies to determine whether vitamin D supplementation could be used to treat anemia are warranted.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2013; 4:123-8.
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    ABSTRACT: A 77-year-old male was admitted to hospital after suffering a pelvic bone fracture in a road traffic accident and was incidentally found to have IgG-kappa-type multiple myeloma with hypercalcemia. The patient was also noted to be hypokalemic and had low HCO3 (-), with possible damage to the distal tubules in the kidneys. When the treatment was begun with bortezomib/dexamethasone/elcatonin and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in normal saline (equivalent to a daily sodium dose of 200 millimoles per liter [mmol/L]), the patient was in a state of poor oral fluid intake. The patient developed hypernatremia and hyperchloremia, with a peak serum sodium and chloride levels of 183 mmol/L and 153 mmol/L, respectively, at the sixth day after the start of treatment. Following the switch of the intravenous infusions from normal saline to soldem 1 and soldem 3 solutions, these high-electrolyte levels gradually returned to normal over the next 7 days. Although the patient showed disturbed consciousness (Japan Coma Scale = JCS-I-3) during the period of electrolyte abnormality, he eventually fully recovered without sequelae. In this patient, we successfully managed the severe hypernatremia/hyperchloremia, caused by the combined effects of intravenous saline burden in a state of poor oral fluid intake, during the treatment for IgG-kappa type multiple myeloma.
    Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2013; 4:43-47.