International Journal of COPD

Publisher: Dove Medical Press

Description

An international, peer-reviewed journal of therapeutics and pharmacology focusing on concise rapid reporting of clinical studies and reviews in COPD. Special focus will be given to the pathophysiological processes underlying the disease, intervention programs, patient focused education, and self management protocols. This journal is directed at specialists and healthcare professionals.

Publisher details

Dove Medical Press

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive disease and is treated with inhaled medication to optimize the patient’s lung health through decreasing their symptoms, especially breathlessness. Halotherapy is the inhalation of micronized dry salt within a chamber that mimics a salt cave environment. Recent media reports suggest that this therapy may help with the symptoms of COPD. Objective: To critically evaluate and summarize the evidence for the use of halotherapy as a treatment for COPD. Design: A review using systematic approach and narrative synthesis. Data sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were searched. Two reviewers independently reviewed abstracts and selected eligible studies based on predetermined selection criteria. Results: Of the 151 articles retrieved from databases and relevant reference lists, only one randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was unable to be conducted due to the limited number of published studies. Inclusion criteria were subsequently expanded to allow three case-control studies to be included, ensuring that a narrative synthesis could be completed. From the pooled data of the four studies, there were 1,041 participants (661 in the intervention group and 380 in the control group). The assessment of methodological quality raised issues associated with randomization and patient selection. Three themes were identified from the narrative synthesis: respiratory function, quality of life, and medication use. Conclusion: Themes generated from the narrative synthesis data reflect outcome measures regularly used for interventional research associated with COPD. From this review, recommendations for inclusion of halotherapy as a therapy for COPD cannot be made at this point and there is a need for high quality studies to determine the effectiveness of this therapy. Keywords: salt therapy, speleotherapy, lung disease, aerosol, chronic disease, salt cave
    International Journal of COPD 02/2014; 9:239-246.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive disease and is treated with inhaled medication to optimize the patient's lung health through decreasing their symptoms, especially breathlessness. Halotherapy is the inhalation of micronized dry salt within a chamber that mimics a salt cave environment. Recent media reports suggest that this therapy may help with the symptoms of COPD. To critically evaluate and summarize the evidence for the use of halotherapy as a treatment for COPD. A review using systematic approach and narrative synthesis. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were searched. Two reviewers independently reviewed abstracts and selected eligible studies based on predetermined selection criteria. Of the 151 articles retrieved from databases and relevant reference lists, only one randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was unable to be conducted due to the limited number of published studies. Inclusion criteria were subsequently expanded to allow three case-control studies to be included, ensuring that a narrative synthesis could be completed. From the pooled data of the four studies, there were 1,041 participants (661 in the intervention group and 380 in the control group). The assessment of methodological quality raised issues associated with randomization and patient selection. Three themes were identified from the narrative synthesis: respiratory function, quality of life, and medication use. Themes generated from the narrative synthesis data reflect outcome measures regularly used for interventional research associated with COPD. From this review, recommendations for inclusion of halotherapy as a therapy for COPD cannot be made at this point and there is a need for high quality studies to determine the effectiveness of this therapy.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:239-246.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the sixth-leading cause of death in the US. The Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of chronic COPD. Long-acting inhaled bronchodilators continue to be the mainstay of current management. Aclidinium bromide (Tudorza™ Pressair™) joins tiotropium as a long-acting inhaled antimuscarinic bronchodilator approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the maintenance treatment of COPD. Early studies demonstrated aclidinium's significant bronchodilatory effects supporting once-daily dosing; however, two Phase III studies, Aclidinium Clinical Trial Assessing Efficacy and Safety in Moderate to Severe COPD Patients (ACCLAIM/COPD) I and ACCLAIM/COPD II, in which patients were randomized to receive aclidinium 200 μg daily, failed to achieve the minimal clinically important difference in improvement of trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), suggesting the need for higher doses or more frequent dosing. Additional studies - Aclidinium to Treat Airway Obstruction in COPD Patients (ATTAIN) and Aclidinium in Chronic Obstructive Respiratory Disease (ACCORD) I - were undertaken to compare 200 and 400 μg twice-daily dosing. The mean improvements from baseline in trough FEV1 in the 400 μg groups were +129 mL over 24 weeks and +124 mL over 12 weeks in ATTAIN and ACCORD I, respectively. Aclidinium also had beneficial effects on health-related quality of life and other endpoints, such as rescue medication use and rates of exacerbations. Aclidinium bromide inhalation powder is generally well tolerated in patients with COPD, with headache, cough, diarrhea, and rhinosinusitis among the most commonly reported adverse events. Cardiovascular side effects were rarely reported. Patient satisfaction studies found that patients using the aclidinium delivery device had fewer errors affecting drug delivery than those using the tiotropium device and, overall, the aclidinium device was preferred to the tiotropium device. In conclusion, aclidinium bromide is approved for use in the US at a dose of 400 μg twice daily and is a promising alternative to tiotropium.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:369-379.
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    ABSTRACT: The economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations is significant, but the impact of other sources on the overall cost of COPD management is largely unknown. We aimed to estimate overall costs for patients experiencing none, one, or two or more exacerbations per year in the UK. A retrospective cohort of prevalent COPD patients was identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink UK database. Patients with information recorded for at least 12 months before and after cohort entry date were included (first prevalent COPD diagnosis confirmed by spirometry on/after April 1, 2009). Patients were categorized as having none, one, or two or more moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations in the 12 months after cohort entry and further classified by the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) category of airflow obstruction and the Medical Research Council dyspnea scale. Study outcomes included counts of general practitioner interactions, moderate-severe COPD exacerbations, and non-COPD hospitalizations. Estimated resource use costs were calculated using National Health Service reference costs for 2010-2011. The cohort comprised 58,589 patients (mean age 69.5 years, mean dyspnea grade 2.5, females 46.6%, current smokers 33.1%). The average total annual per patient cost of COPD management, excluding medications, was £2,108 for all patients and £1,523, £2,405, and £3,396 for patients experiencing no, one, or two or more moderate-to-severe exacerbations, respectively. General practitioner interactions contributed most to these annual costs, accounting for £1,062 (69.7%), £1,313 (54.6%), and £1,592 (46.9%) in patients with no, one, or two or more moderate-to-severe exacerbations, respectively. Disease management strategies focused on reducing costs in primary care may help reduce total COPD costs significantly.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:65-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Since Bury's 1982 proposal that chronic illness creates biographical disruption for those who are living with it, there has been no effort to quantitatively measure such disruption. "Biographical disruption" refers to the substantial and directive influence that chronic illness can have over the course of a person's life. Qualitative research and time use studies have demonstrated that people with chronic illnesses spend considerable amounts of time managing their health, and that these demands may change over time. This study was designed to measure the time that older people with chronic illnesses spend on selected health practices as one indicator of biographical disruption. We look specifically at the time use of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As part of a larger time use survey, a recall questionnaire was mailed to 3,100 members of Lung Foundation Australia in 2011. A total of 681 responses were received (22.0% response rate), 611 of which were from people with COPD. Descriptive analyses were undertaken on the amount of time spent on selected health-related activities including personal care, nonclinical health-related care, and activity relating to health services. Almost all people with COPD report spending some time each day on personal or home-based health-related tasks, with a median time of 15 minutes per day spent on these activities. At the median, people also report spending about 30 minutes per day exercising, 2.2 hours per month (the equivalent of 4.4 minutes per day) on nonclinical health-related activities, and 4.1 hours per month (equivalent to 8.2 minutes per day) on clinical activities. Excluding exercise, the median total time spent on health-related activities was 17.8 hours per month (or 35.6 minutes per day). For people in the top 10% of time use, the total amount of time was more than 64.6 hours per month (or 2.2 hours per day) excluding exercise, and 104 hours per month (or 3.5 hours per day) including exercise. The amount of time spent on health-related activity, such as engaging in personal care tasks, may be regular and predictable. The execution of these tasks generally takes relatively small amounts of time, and might be incorporated into daily life (biography) without causing significant disruption. Other activities may require large blocks of time, and they may be disruptive in a practical way that almost inevitably disrupts biography. The amount of time required does not appear to alter in relation to the time since diagnosis. The scale of time needed to manage one's health could easily be interpreted as disruptive, and for some people, even overwhelming.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:87-97.
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    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:301-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Addition of a second bronchodilator from a different pharmacological class may benefit patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose symptoms are insufficiently controlled by bronchodilator monotherapy. GLOW6 evaluated the efficacy and safety of once-daily coadministration of the long-acting β2-agonist indacaterol (IND) and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium (GLY) versus IND alone in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. In this randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, 12-week study, patients were randomized 1:1 to IND 150 μg and GLY 50 μg daily (IND + GLY) or IND 150 μg daily and placebo (IND + PBO) (all delivered via separate Breezhaler® devices). The primary objective was to demonstrate the superiority of IND + GLY versus IND + PBO for trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 12. Other end points included trough FEV1 at day 1, FEV1 area under the curve from 30 minutes to 4 hours (AUC30min-4h), peak FEV1, inspiratory capacity and trough forced vital capacity (FVC) at day 1 and week 12, and transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD symptoms, and rescue medication use over 12 weeks. A total of 449 patients were randomized (IND + GLY, 226; IND + PBO, 223); 94% completed the study. On day 1 and at week 12, IND + GLY significantly improved trough FEV1 versus IND + PBO, with treatment differences of 74 mL (95% CI 46-101 mL) and 64 mL (95% CI 28-99 mL), respectively (both P<0.001). IND + GLY significantly improved postdose peak FEV1, FEV1 AUC30min-4h, and trough FVC at day 1 and week 12 versus IND + PBO (all P<0.01). TDI focal score and COPD symptoms (percentage of days able to perform usual daily activities and change from baseline in mean daytime respiratory score) were significantly improved with IND + GLY versus IND + PBO (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar for the two treatment groups. In patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, once-daily coadministration of IND and GLY provides significant and sustained improvement in bronchodilation versus IND alone from day 1, with significant improvements in patient-centered outcomes.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:215-28.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in the world, and its associated health burdens and costs are mounting. Until recently, it was generally accepted that targeting the diagnosis of COPD early in its course was a relatively fruitless effort, since treatments other than already ubiquitous smoking-cessation efforts were unlikely to alter its course. However, there is strong evidence to suggest that the majority of patients with objective COPD are not aware of their condition, and this leads to a significant delay in diagnosis, more aggressive smoking-cessation intervention, and potential treatment. Novel methods of diagnostic testing, community health programs, and primary-care provider recommendations hold promise to expand the recognition of COPD in its incipient stages - where recent evidence suggests a rapid decline in lung function occurs and may be prevented if acted upon. This review explores the evidence to support the efforts to justify programs aimed at early diagnosis, alternative diagnostic strategies that may augment traditional spirometry, therapeutic modalities that could potentially be used in the future to alter early lung-function decline, and emphasizes the necessary cooperative role that physicians, patients, communities, and governments need to play to realize the significant health impact that stands to be gained.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:277-286.
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    ABSTRACT: To review and summarize existing literature on the indirect burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US. Medline, Scopus, and OvidSP databases were searched using defined search terms to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies were published in English between January 2000 and April 2012 and calculated the indirect burden of COPD in a US population in terms of prevalence, incidence or costs of productivity loss, disability, morbidity, or mortality. Of 53 studies identified, eleven met eligibility criteria, with data years spanning 1987-2009. Estimates of workforce participation range from 56% to 69% among individuals with COPD and from 65% to 77% among individuals without COPD. Approximately 13%-18% of those with COPD are limited in the amount or type of work they can do and one-third or more experience general activity limitation. Estimates of restricted activity days range from 27-63 days per year. Estimates of mean annual sick leave and/or disability days among employed individuals with COPD range from 1.3-19.4 days. Estimates of bed confinement range from 13-32 days per year. Estimated mean annual indirect costs were $893-$2,234/person (US dollars) with COPD ($1,521-$3,348 in 2010 [US dollars]) and varied with the population studied, specific cost outcomes, and economic inputs. In studies that assessed total (direct and indirect) costs, indirect costs accounted for 27%-61% of total costs, depending on the population studied. COPD is associated with substantial indirect costs. The disease places a burden on employers in terms of lost productivity and associated costs and on individuals in terms of lost income related to absenteeism, activity limitation, and disability. Consideration of indirect as well as direct costs is necessary to gain a more complete view of the societal burden of COPD.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:289-300.
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    ABSTRACT: Hypercapnic respiratory failure is common in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is usually treated by nasal ventilation. Not all patients requiring such ventilation can tolerate it, with anxiety and phobia influencing their reaction, along with treatment failure. We report the case histories of six patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure who were at risk of death due to refusal of nasal ventilation or its failure despite ongoing treatment. We report their improvement with oral modafinil 200 mg tablets used as a respiratory stimulant, which led to discharge, improved arterial blood gases, and offset further admissions with hypercapnic respiratory failure. This drug is licensed for narcolepsy and is said to stimulate the respiratory system via the central nervous system. Its use in respiratory failure is an unlicensed indication, and there are no case reports or studies of such use in the literature. Its respiratory stimulant effects appear better than those with protriptyline, which was a drug previously used until its production was discontinued. Our findings suggest that a study of modafinil in hypercapnic respiratory failure would be warranted, especially for patients with treatment failure or intolerance to nasal ventilation. This may offer a way of shortening hospital stay, improving outcome and quality of life, and reducing death and readmissions.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:413-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To illuminate patients' lived experiences of going through the process of being diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:441-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow, prompting episodes of shortness of breath, commonly leading to hospitalization. Hospitalization may lead to a decline in physical activity following discharge. Physical activity has been shown to improve symptoms of COPD and reduce readmissions, and to decrease morbidity and mortality. This study aims to explore, from the perspectives of people with COPD, the barriers to and enablers of participation in physical activity following hospitalization for COPD. This study had a qualitative descriptive design and included semistructured interviews with 28 adult COPD patients who had been admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of exacerbation of COPD. A plethora of barriers to but fewer enablers of participation in physical activity and pulmonary rehabilitation were identified for this cohort of people. The main barriers identified were health-related (comorbidities, COPD symptoms, and physical injury or illness) environment-related (weather, transport, and finance), and self-related. The main enabling factors reported were access to health professionals and equipment, social support, routine and extracurricular activities, personal goals and motivation, and the effect of physical activity and "feeling better". This research provides a snapshot of the barriers to and enablers of physical activity and pulmonary rehabilitation in people with COPD. It is evident that there are significant barriers which hinder the ability of people with COPD to undertake and continue participation in physical activity and pulmonary rehabilitation. While there are some enablers that may counter these barriers, it is clear that health professionals dealing with people suffering from COPD need to actively recognize and address barriers to physical activity and pulmonary rehabilitation. Hospital admission may create an opportunity for implementation of interventions promoting physical activity (such as referral to pulmonary rehabilitation), which may assist in reducing hospital readmission, as well as decreasing morbidity and mortality.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:115-28.

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