European cytokine network (EUR CYTOKINE NETW)
The journal covering all the disciplines related to cytokines. European Cytokine Network establishes an essential link between researchers and physicians interested in this subject at the forefront of research. Thanks to its speed of publication and international circulation, European Cytokine Network has become the journal of choice for all specialists in the field. The journal is indexed in Medline and Current Contents and is now internationally recognized as the best publication on cytokines. European Cytokine Network is the official journal of the European Cytokine Society. The online version of European Cytokine Network is now available, offering four years of archives that can be accessed by pay per view or by subscription.
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Publications in this journal
Article: Ibuprofen does not affect levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor types I and II in Gabonese children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We assessed the ability of ibuprofen to modulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type I (sTNFR-I), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (sTNFR-II) responses during the treatment of fever in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study of 50 pediatric patients in Lambaréné, Gabon. Treatment of the malaria involved the patients receiving intravenous quinine (12 mg/kg of quinine dihydrochloride every 12 h for 72 h) followed by a single dose of oral sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (25 mg and 1.25 mg/kg). Fever was treated by mechanical treatment plus either ibuprofen (7 mg/kg every 8 h) or placebo during the hospitalization period. We determined serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, sTNFR-I, and sTNFR-II in peripheral blood throughout the treatment period in the two groups: ibuprofen and placebo groups. TNF-alpha levels were found to be positively correlated with body temperature. In contrast, TNF receptors levels did not differ between the two groups and the antipyretic effect of ibuprofen was not correlated with specific changes in sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II production. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha is involved in malarial fever, but soluble TNF receptors play no major role in fever modulation.European cytokine network 01/2008; 18(4):201-5.
Article: Association analysis of interleukin gene polymorphisms in autoimmune thyroid diseases in the Tunisian population.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), including Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune hypothyroidism (AH), are inherited as complex traits. Among the genes contributing to AITDs susceptibility are genes of the IL-1 family. IL-1 regulates T and B lymphocyte maturation, including the induction of several cytokines and cytokine receptors. Therefore, disturbances of this balance may not only play a role in inflammation but also in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. In order to investigate genetic association of IL-1 gene polymorphisms with AITDs, we performed both a familial study in a large Tunisian pedigree with high prevalence of AITDs (64 patients and 176 controls), and a case-control study (131 GD unrelated patients and 225 healthy controls). PCR and PCR-RFLP methods were used to analyse respectively a VNTR in the IL-1RN gene and three SNPs in both IL-1B genes (-511 C/T and +3954 C/T) and IL-1A (-889 C/T). The family-based association study showed an association of the IL-1B+3954 C/T polymorphism (p=0.02) and two haplotypes IL-1RN*3/C/T/T and IL-1RN*1/C/T/T (p=0.009 and p=0.047 respectively) with AITDs. The case-control study is the first study revealing a significant association of the IL-1A-889 C/T polymorphism (chi2=10.23; p=0.0014) with susceptibility to GD. Our data suggest that the IL-1 gene cluster may harbour susceptibility genes for AITDs and GD pathogenesis in the Tunisian population.European cytokine network 01/2008; 18(4):196-200.
Article: The expression of interleukin-15 and interleukin-18 by human term placenta is not affected by lipopolysaccharide.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine the stimulatory effect of the inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the capacity of human term placenta to secrete interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-18. Isolated placental cotyledons from normal human term deliveries were dually perfused for ten hours with perfusion medium alone (n=5) or with perfusion medium containing LPS (1 microg/kg perfused placental tissue) (n=5). Placental tissue was collected from three different placental compartments (amnion, chorion, and placenta) before and after perfusion. The placental tissues collected were homogenized and examined for IL-15 and IL-18 by ELISA. In addition, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections from term placentas before perfusion were stained by immunohistochemistry to characterize the cellular origin of placental IL-15 and IL-18. Statistical significance was determined using paired/unpaired t-test. p<0.05 was considered significant. Our results show that IL-15 and IL-18 are produced more by chorionic tissue, as compared to the amnion and placental tissues. Moreover, we show that IL-15 and IL-18 are expressed by epithelial cells of the amnion, chorionic cells of the chorion and decidual cells of the decidua. However, IL-15, but not IL-18, was expressed also by syncytiotrophoblasts of the villi. Perfusion of LPS did not affect the capacity of amnion, chorion and placental tissues to secrete IL-15 and IL-18, as compared to control. The expression of IL-15 and IL-18 in the different compartments of the human placenta suggests a possible role for these two cytokines in normal placental development, pregnancy and labor. Moreover, our results indicate that IL-15 and IL-18 are not part of the mechanism of the response of human placenta to LPS.European cytokine network 01/2008; 18(4):188-94.
Article: TNF triggers mitogenic signals in NIH 3T3 cells but induces apoptosis when the cell cycle is blocked.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known to be a mediator of a variety of cellular responses including apoptotic death or proliferation depending on the target cell and the environmental conditions. We show here that TNF triggers both growth and death signals in NIH 3T3 murine fibroblasts. In cells arrested in G(0) by serum deprivation, TNF drives approximately 50% of them to enter the cell cycle, but kills the cells that remain quiescent. The presence of serum prevents toxic effects of TNF, suggesting that TNF can cooperate to drive cells through the cell cycle, but is unable to do so by itself and alternatively it triggers death signals in cells unable to proliferate. Interestingly, TNF induces a similar toxic effect in cells forced to stay at the G(1)/S border, S or M phases. We have explored the TNF apoptotic pathway in arrested cells. This mechanism is not due to the loss of the anti-apoptotic capacity of NFkappaB and is mediated by mitochondria since Bcl-2 overexpression partially inhibits cell death. There are, however, interesting differences in the kinetics of mitochondrial events which indicate that this form of sensitization to TNF leads to an apoptotic mechanism different from that observed after sensitization by RNA synthesis inhibition.European cytokine network 01/2008; 18(4):172-80.
Article: Hypolipoproteinemia and hyperinflammatory cytokines in serum of severe and moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) acts as an inducer of the inflammatory reaction expressed by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], interleukin-6 [IL-6] and interleukin-8 [IL-8]), and causes metabolic alterations in the early, post-traumatic state, either in the brain or/and the systemic circulation. The metabolic changes involve carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. We focused on the serum lipid profile, the impact of trauma on lipoproteins, and their subsequent effects, on inflammation. We investigated the role of cytokines and serum lipids, in patient outcome, reviewing 30-day mortality and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). A total of 75 patients with severe or moderate TBI (GCS <or= 13) were allocated to two groups (group 1 non-survivors and group 2 survivors). One blood sample was collected from each patient within 24h of admission. Cytokines were measured in serum by ELISA and serum lipids using an enzymatic method. We found significantly decreased serum lipid levels and increased cytokines levels for all patients compared with healthy volunteers. Comparing the two groups, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were higher (p<0.0001) and LDL levels lower (p=0.003) in non-survivors than in survivors. We observed a significant inverse correlation between IL-8 and LDL (p=0.04) in patients with an unfavorable outcome. Our results suggest that LDL alone, or in combination with IL-6 and IL-8, could be a possible prognostic factor for outcome in patients with TBI, as regards 30- day mortality.European cytokine network 01/2008; 18(4):206-9.
Article: Circulating proangiogenic molecules PIGF, SDF-1 and sVCAM-1 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of three angiogenic cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and placental growth factor (PIGF) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), were investigated in the serum of 61 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 20 healthy subjects. The possible association between serum levels of these proteins and SLE activity, as well as correlation between the concentrations of cytokines were also analysed. All of these factors were detectable in all SLE patients and the healthy control group. The median concentration of VEGF was higher in active SLE (386 pg/mL) than in inactive disease (327 pg/mL) or in the control group (212 pg/mL, p<0.004). The median serum level of SDF-1 was higher in SLE patients (1,814 pg/mL) than in the control group (1,507 pg/mL, p<0.02). The median concentration of PIGF was higher (14 pg/mL) in SLE patients than in the control group (12 pg/mL, p=0.03), and particularly in active disease (17 pg/mL) as compared to the inactive phase (13 pg/mL, p=0.01). The correlations between the levels of cytokines examined and clinical features, laboratory abnormalities and the type of treatment were also analysed. We found a positive correlation between serum concentrations of PIGF and SLE activity according to SLAM score (p=0.33, p=0.13).European cytokine network 01/2008; 18(4):181-7.
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ABSTRACT: There are a few studies with conflicting results on the effects of opioids on the functioning of immune system. This study was performed to investigate the in vitro production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 after antigenic stimulation of cells using whole blood from opioid addicts. Blood samples were taken from 20 chronically opioid-addicted persons, who voluntarily enrolled for detoxification (10 opium and 10 heroin addicts). Blood samples were also taken from 10 healthy individuals with no history of drug abuse as the control. Cell culture was performed in a whole blood culture assay. Diluted blood samples were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin or with lipopolysaccharide and the supernatants were collected to measure cytokine production. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in interferon-gamma production and an increase in interleukin-10 secretion in heroin addicts, relative to the control group (35.9+/-26.3 versus 110.2+/-60.3 pg/mL, p<0.01 and 71.8+/-28.4 versus 17.1+/-13.5 pg/mL, p<0.01, respectively), however the changes in these values in opium addicts were not significant compared to healthy individuals. The results could suggest that opioid addiction leads to a shift in the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance of peripheral CD4+ cells towards the Th2 response, and opioid addicts demonstrate reduced mitogenic responsiveness of lymphocytes relative to healthy individuals.European cytokine network 01/2008; 18(4):210-4.
Article: Effects of passive hyperthermia versus exercise-induced hyperthermia on immune responses: hormonal implications.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Different stress hormones are released during prolonged exercise and passive hyperthermia. We hypothesized that these different hormonal responses could contribute to the different changes in the immune response during these two challenges. Methods: Eight subjects completed three trials in a randomized order. In the control trial (C), the subjects remained in a sitting posture for three hours in thermoneutral conditions. In the exercise hyperthermia trial (E), they exercised for two hours on a treadmill at 65% max in thermoneutral conditions, followed by 1-h recovery in thermoneutral conditions; in the passive hyperthermia trial (PH), the subjects remained in a semi-recumbent position in a climatic chamber for two hours in hot conditions, followed by 1-h recovery in thermoneutral conditions. During the E and PH trials, wind speed and thermal conditions were modulated to reach a rectal temperature (Tre) of 38.5 degrees C at 60 min and 39 degrees C at 120 min. The subjects did not drink during the experiments. Blood samples (10 mL) were taken at 0, 60, 120 and 180 min of each trial. The total white cell count and its subsets were measured; plasma catecholamines, cortisol and prolactin were assayed. In a whole blood assay, blood leukocytes were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) for 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-10 and INF-gamma were measured in the culture supernatant. RESULTS: The plasma levels of catecholamines were increased only during E, prolactin was increased only during PH, and cortisol was increased in both E and PH. Only the exercise caused a mobilization of blood leukocytes and leukocyte subsets. The INF-gamma and TNF-alpha production by PHA- and LPS-stimulated blood, respectively, were inhibited in a substantial way in both E and PH compared to control when Tre reached 39 degrees C. Only LPS-induced IL-10 production was enhanced during the exercise. The effects of the challenges were increased with 39 degrees C compared to 38.5 degrees C. CONCLUSIONS: Catecholamines play a major role in the mobilization of immunocompetent cells and the production of IL-10 during exercise. Prolactin and catecholamines have adverse role on the immune response, whereas cortisol exerts similar effects during both trials. The consequence could be a protection against inflammatory overshooting.European cytokine network 10/2007; 18(3):154-61.
Article: Crucial role of phosphatase CD45 in determining signaling and proliferation of human myeloma cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In multiple myeloma, a large number of growth factors (IL-6, IGF-1, FGF, HGF and HB-EGF) are involved in promoting myeloma cell growth. In the present study, a serum-free, cytokine-free, collagen-based assay, which does not allow the generation of spontaneous myeloma colonies, was used to identify the clonogenic growth factors for fourteen myeloma cell lines. IL-6 is the only clonogenic factor able to stimulate both CD45+ and CD45- myeloma cell lines, generating myeloma colonies from 10 out of 14 myeloma cell lines. Using a pharmacological Erk inhibitor, we show that the Erk/MAPK pathway is involved in IL-6-induced clonogenicity of CD45+, but not CD45- myeloma cell lines. In contrast to IL-6, the other growth factors (IGF-1, FGF, HGF and HB-EGF) stimulate only some myeloma cell lines, but always CD45-, and less effectively than IL-6. Among them, IGF-1 is the most potent, generating myeloma colonies from five out of eight CD45- myeloma cell lines. Finally, the capacity of IGF-1 and FGF to stimulate the clonogenicity of CD45- myeloma cells correlates with their ability to stimulate the Erk/MAPK pathway. We conclude that CD45 expression plays a crucial role in determining signaling and proliferation of human myeloma cell responses to IL-6, IGF-1 and other growth factors. The poor outcome of CD45- myeloma patients could be related to the capacity of CD45-myeloma cells to take advantage of multiple growth factors.European cytokine network 10/2007; 18(3):120-6.
Article: Analysis of IL-1A(-889) and TNFA(-308) gene polymorphism in Brazilian patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) comprises a group of periodontal diseases characterized by the rapid destruction of periodontal tissues which affect young individuals who generally present no systemic disorders. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) genes have been associated with an increased severity of chronic periodontitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between IL-1A (-889) and TNFA (-308) gene polymorphisms and GAP. One hundred nonsmoking subjects were selected, including 30 with GAP and 70 without periodontal disease. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. For IL-1 (-889), the frequency of genotype 1/1 was 54.3% in the control group and 56.7% in the study group. The frequency of genotype 1/2 was 37.1% in the control group and 40% in the study group. Genotype 2/2 was detected at a frequency of 8.6% and 3.3% in the control and study groups, respectively. For TNFA, genotype 1/1 was present in 68.6% of control subjects and in 80.0% of patients with GAP, while the frequency of genotype 1/2 was 27.1% in the control group and 20% in the study group. Genotype 2/2 was present in 4.3% of control subjects and was not detected in the study group. The frequencies of allele 1 and allele 2 of the IL-1A (-889) gene were 72.9% and 27.1%, respectively, in the control group and 76.7% and 23.3% in the GAP group. For the TNFA (-308) gene, the frequency of allele 1 was 82.15% in the control group and 90% in the study group, whereas the frequency of allele 2 was 17.85% in the control group and 10% in the study group. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in allele distribution for either gene between the two groups. No association was observed between GAP and IL-1A (-889) and TNFA (-308) gene polymorphisms in Brazilian patients.European cytokine network 10/2007; 18(3):142-7.
Article: Influence of the selective oestrogen receptor modulator (raloxifene hydrochloride) on IL-6, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and bone turnover markers in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis that is encountered frequently in postmenopausal women, may cause an increased incidence of vertebral and iliac fractures that are associated with excess morbidity. Raloxifene hydrochloride, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, has been shown to increase bone mineral density and decrease biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women, without stimulatory effects on breast or uterus. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, and TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 which are important cytokines involved in remodeling, have been evaluated previously in in vitro studies of osteoporosis. However, there seems to be a paucity of in vivo research concerned with changes in these cytokines in osteoporosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of raloxifene (Evista); Lilly Pharmaceutical Co. USA, 60 mg/day) on biochemical bone turnover markers, serum parathyroid hormone, and 25-OH vitamin D, as well as the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1, in 22 postmenopausal, osteoporotic women before and after 12 weeks of raloxifene treatment. Well-matched, postmenopausal, non-osteoporotic control subjects were also enrolled in the study. Serum levels of all the parameters were measured in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women at baseline and end of the study. It was found that serum osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone, and urine deoxypyridinoline levels decreased to normal levels with treatment. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels after treatment in the patient group were higher than those in the control group. Serum IL-6, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 levels did not change significantly with treatment. However, serum levels of IL-6 and TGF-beta1 in the patient group after treatment, decreased to levels lower than those found in the control group. Serum TNF-alpha levels in the patient group before and after treatment, were lower than those in the control group. Raloxifene treatment reduces bone turnover biochemical markers, parathyroid hormone and induces 25-OH vitamin D in postmenopausal women. Moreover, it also affects some serum cytokine levels in the postmenopausal period.European cytokine network 10/2007; 18(3):148-53.
Article: Polymorphisms in the IFNAR1 gene in patients with chronic hepatitis C: outcome of combined IFN-alpha therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) alone or in combination with ribavirin has been used for the last decade in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, although the achievement of a sustained virological response (SVR) has not been very satisfactory. The treatment outcome depends on viral genotypes and host genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the IFN-alpha signaling cascade. In this paper, we investigated the distribution of two variants of the IFNAR1 gene, G17470C and L168V, in two patient groups having received IFN-alpha alone or in combination with ribavirin. The analysis was performed using DNA sequencing of the relevant gene fragments. This study suggests that when combination therapy with high dose IFN-alpha and ribavirin is administered, HCV genotypes and age rather than the IFNAR1 polymorphisms are the predictors of a sustained response.European cytokine network 10/2007; 18(3):136-41.
Article: Inflammation, synovial angiogenesis and chondroid apoptosis in the evolution of type II collagen-induced arthritis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using the murine model of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), we studied its evolution over time by histopathological, immunohistochemical and clinical evaluations. The first clinical symptoms appeared 28 days post-inoculation (dpi), with bovine type II collagen, with an average arthritic index of 1.00 +/- 0.48 corresponding to erythema of the articulation. The disease progressed, and by 70 dpi showed an average arthritic index of 3.83 +/- 0.27 corresponding to edema and maximum deformation, with ankylosis. Computed morphometry demonstrated that, in comparison to controls, the induction of CIA, produces a significant and increasing accumulation of inflammatory cells, fibrosis (p < 0.0001) and cartilage destruction (p = 0.0029). Likewise, the area of von Willebrand factor (vWF) immunostaining, as an indicator of endothelial proliferation, increased significantly from 28 dpi (p < 0.0001), in CIA mice compared to controls. However, the effective synovial vascularization, calculated as the synovial vascular bed area index, significantly increased by 42 dpi (p = 0.0014). This indicates that the activation and proliferation of endothelium becomes significant before an effective vascularization area is formed. The apoptosis index was also an earlier indicator of cartilage damage, becoming significant from 28 dpi in comparison to controls (p < 0.0001). Finally, it was observed that the increase in the arthritic index showed a strong correlation with the increase in both angiogenesis (r = 0.95; p = 0.0021) and apoptosis (r = 0.90; p = 0.0015). In conclusion, a robust correlation between synovial membrane inflammation, angiogenesis and chondrocyte apoptosis, with respect to the increase in the clinical severity of CIA, has been demonstrated by a quantitative computer-assisted immunomorphometric analysis.European cytokine network 09/2007; 18(3):127-35.
Article: Predominance of Th2 cytokines, CXC chemokines and innate immunity mediators at the mucosal level during severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in children.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Profiling of immune mediators in both nasal and plasma samples is a common approach to the study of pathogenesis in respiratory viral infections. Nevertheless, mucosal immunity functions essentially independently from peripheral immunity. In our study, 27 immune mediators were profiled in parallel, in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) and plasma from 22 < 2 year-old children with a severe respiratory syncytial virus infection involving the lower respiratory tract, using a multiplex assay. NPAs from 22 children with innocent heart murmurs were used as controls. Differences in mediator concentrations between NPAs from patients and controls were assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Ratios of innate/adaptive-immunity mediators, Th2/Th1-cytokines and CXC/CC-chemokines were calculated for NPAs and plasmas and differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon test. Associations mediators, severity and leukocyte counts were studied using the Spearman-Karber test. Results: increased levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-12p70, IFNgamma, TNFalpha), Th2 cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10), chemokines (IP-10, IL-8, MIP1alpha, MIP-1beta), growth factors (FGFb, PDGFbb, GCSF) and IL-1RA, IL-17 were observed in patient NPAs in comparison to controls. In the relative comparisons between patient NPAs and plasmas, a predominance of innate immunity mediators, Th2 cytokines and CXC chemokines was found at the mucosal level. No association between the level of each mediator in NPAs and plasma was found. In plasma, PDGFbb, VEGF, MIP-1alpha, IL-8 correlated with severity; RANTES and IL-6 correlated with leukocyte counts. Conclusions: acute respiratory syncytial virus infection induces a relative predominance of innate-immunity mediators, Th2 cytokines and CXC chemokines in the mucosal compartment in infected children.European cytokine network 09/2007; 18(3):162-7.
Article: Synergistic inhibition of pseudorabies virus replication by porcine alpha/beta interferon and gamma interferon in vitro.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interferon (IFN) is crucial for initiating the innate immune response and for the generation of the adaptive response. IFN, in most species, comprises IFN-alpha (IFN-alpha), IFN-beta (IFN-beta) and IFN-gamma (IFN-gamma). In this study, we compared the capacity of porcine IFN-alpha, -beta and -gamma, or a combination of them, to protect IBRS-2 cells (porcine kidney cells) from infection with pseudorabies virus (PRV). The results demonstrated that porcine IFN-beta (PoIFN-beta) was the most efficient of the three IFNs in conferring resistance PRV infection; 100 U/mL PoIFN-beta inhibited PRV plaque formation 5.3-fold. Compared with PoIFN-beta, porcine IFN-gamma (PoIFN-gamma) was less capable of inhibiting PRV plaque formation (3.3-fold inhibition). Porcine IFN-alpha (PoIFN-alpha) had the least capability of the three PoIFNs, and inhibited PRV plaque formation only 1.26-fold. The inhibitory capacity increased to only 2.3-fold with a treatment of 12,800 U/mL PoIFN-alpha. A combination of PoIFN-gamma and PoIFN-alpha or PoIFN-beta inhibited PRV plaque formation 12.8-fold or 100-fold, respectively. Treatment of IBRS-2 cells with PoIFN-alpha/beta and PoIFN-gamma inhibited PRV replication 29- or 146-fold. Additionally, real-time PCR analyses of the PRV immediate early (IE) gene revealed that IE mRNA expression was profoundly decreased in cells stimulated with PoIFN-alpha/beta and PoIFN-gamma (23.8-133.0-fold) compared with vehicle-treated cells. All the findings indicate that PoIFN-gamma acts synergistically with other PoIFNs (PoIFN-alpha and -beta) to potently inhibit PRV replication in vitro.European cytokine network 07/2007; 18(2):71-7.
Article: Hypoxia enhances CXCR4 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells and human melanoma cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The influence of environmental factors (cytokines, matrix components, serum factors and O(2) level) on expression of receptors for angiogenic versus angiostatic CXC chemokines in human microvascular endothelial cells has not been extensively investigated. Our semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma repressed CXCR4 mRNA levels in immortalized human microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells after 4 h, whereas only TNF-alpha displayed inhibitory activity in primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). CXCR4 mRNA expression was not affected by VEGF, GM-CSF, IL-1beta or various basal membrane matrix components, but was significantly up-regulated after serum starvation and/or hypoxic treatment of the microvascular endothelial cells. The alternative CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7/RDC1, was also up-regulated by hypoxia in HMEC-1 cells, although less consistently than CXCR4. Furthermore, hypoxia and serum starvation were required for cell surface display of CXCR4 and CXCL12 induction of ERK activation in HMEC-1 cells. In contrast, CXCR2 and CXCR3 mRNA levels remained, respectively, low and undetectable under all the conditions tested, and surface expression of CXCR2, CXCR3 and CXCR7 on the HMEC- 1 cells could not be demonstrated by FACS. In the human SK-MEL-5 melanoma cell line, CXCR4 mRNA expression was also increased under hypoxic conditions, whereas CXCR2 mRNA levels remained low and levels of CXCR3 and CXCR7 were undetectable. However, immunohistochemical staining of human metastatic melanoma sections demonstrated that CXCR2, CXCR3, CXCR4 and CXCR7 are expressed on tumor cells and, to a lesser extent, on endothelial cells. These results demonstrate that the tumor microenvironment regulates chemokine receptor expression through both cytokine and oxygen levels.European cytokine network 07/2007; 18(2):59-70.
Article: Effect of a four-week course of interleukin-10 on cytokine production in a placebo-controlled study of HIV-1-infected subjects.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-10 suppresses synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, IL-1beta, and interferon (IFN)gamma. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the production of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), cytokine synthesis in whole blood cultures were determined during a 4-week course of subcutaneous IL-10 injections in 33 HIV-1-infected patients. Patients were randomized into four groups: placebo (nine), IL-10 at 1 microg/kg/day (nine), IL-10 at 4 microg/kg/day (six) and IL-10 at 8 microg/kg three times per week (nine). Whole blood was obtained at the beginning and conclusion of the study and was stimulated for 24 hours with the combination of IL-18 plus lipopolysaccharide. TNFalpha production in stimulated whole blood was reduced three and six hours after the first injection of IL-10 compared to subjects injected with the placebo. After four weeks of treatment, production of IFNgamma was suppressed in a greater number of patients in the IL-10 treatment groups compared to subjects in the placebo group. Similarly, IL-1beta production was lower in the IL-10 treatment groups compared to subjects receiving placebo. In contrast, after four weeks of IL-10, circulating levels of the anti-inflammatory TNF soluble receptor p55 increased dose-dependently compared to placebo subjects. Patient heterogeneity and small sample size presented difficulties in establishing statistical significance. Although the cytokine changes in our study did not demonstrate statistically significant changes, the data nevertheless reveal that four weeks of IL-10 therapy in HIV-1 infected subjects produced the anticipated suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.European cytokine network 07/2007; 18(2):49-58.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
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