Journal of physiology and biochemistry (J PHYSIOL BIOCHEM )


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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide is an endogenous gas which exerts autocrine/paracrine actions by different signaling pathways and/or direct interactions with intracellular compounds and structures. Several processes are regulated by nitric oxide in stem cells including self-renewal, viability, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The modulation of cell functions depends on its concentrations because opposite effects can be observed when low and high levels of nitric oxide are compared. Here, the responses to nitric oxide of adult stem/progenitor cells which are often used in regenerative medicine, including mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, satellite cells, and fibro-adipogenic precursor cells, are reviewed. Therapeutic strategies which employ drugs releasing nitric oxide or modulating nitric oxide intracellular pathways are suggested to perform new ex vivo preconditioning or in vivo treatments suitable for stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering applications.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of myrtenal, a natural monoterpene, for its antihyperglycemic effects and β cell protective properties in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of myrtenal at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg body weight to diabetic rats for 28 days resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and an increase in the levels of insulin and hemoglobin (Hb). Protection of body weight loss of diabetic rats by myrtenal was noted. The altered activities of the key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP levels of diabetic rats were significantly improved by the administration of myrtenal in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, myrtenal treatment improved hepatic and muscle glycogen content in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies further revealed that the reduced islet cells were restored to near-normal conditions on treatment with myrtenal in STZ-induced diabetic rats. An alteration in liver architecture was also prevented by myrtenal treatment. Our results suggest that myrtenal possess antihyperglycemic and β cell protective effects. Hence, myrtenal could be considered as a potent phytochemical for development as a new antidiabetic agent.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate possible protective effects of purified histaminase from Lathyrus sativus L. seedling on the myocardial injuries upon isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats. In this regard, blood histamine concentration, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity, antioxidant status, and histopathological changes of the hearts were measured. A total of 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups and treated in the following order: control (normal saline), isoprenaline (isoproterenol 110 mg/kg BW), Isopren.-H1 (isoprenaline plus histaminase 80 U/kg BW), Isopren.-H2 (isoprenaline plus histaminase 120 U/kg BW), and Isopren.-H3 (isoprenaline plus histaminase 160 U/kg BW). Myocardial infarction was manifested by a significant elevation in the level of CK-MB and histopathological findings in isoprenaline group when compared to controls. In contrast, histaminase pretreatment at dose of 160 U/kg prevented isoprenaline-induced histamine release and significantly decreased CK-MB activity as well as histopathological changes in Isopren.-H3 group. A significant increase in the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities was also observed by histaminase treatment in Isopren.-H2 and Isopren.-H3 groups. Although the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased significantly to suppress oxidative stress in isoprenaline group, it was not able to prevent lipid peroxidation (as shown by TBARS concentration) in the heart of rats. In conclusion, the plant-originated histaminase presented as a promising enzyme with antioxidant properties against histamine release and myocardial infarction in rats, and it seems be a suitable therapeutic agent for future clinical trials in humans.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Electroencephalographic recordings in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have mainly been performed during wakefulness. Our aim was to quantify their alterations in nocturnal sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). In 20 patients and 20 healthy volunteers, we recorded a nocturnal digital polysomnography. Different sleep parameters were measured. Besides, we performed quantitative analysis of EEG (qEEG) as follows: spectral power in the different sleep stages was calculated in the frequency bands low δ, δ, θ, α, and σ. Also, the mean dominant frequency and Sleep Indexes were obtained. In comparison with controls, the group of patients showed (1) different alterations in both the microstructure and the macrostructure of sleep; (2) an increase in, both, θ band power and the average mean dominant frequency during rapid eye movement (REM); (3) in all sleep stages, a decrease of sleep electroencephalogram spectral power in low δ band and an increase in δ band: and (4) in stages N3 and REM, significant increases in the minimum of mean dominant frequency and in the respective sleep indexes. Therefore, in cirrhotic patients without overt HE, and likely having minimal hepatic encephalopathy, we found different alterations in both the microstructure and the macrostructure of nocturnal sleep. Also, sleep qEEG showed a brain dysfunction in slow oscillatory mechanisms intrinsic of sleep stages, with an increase in the frequency of its maximal electroencephalogram synchronization, from low δ to δ band. These alterations may reflect the onset of encephalopathy; sleep qEEG may, thus, be an adequate tool for its brain functional evaluation and follow-up.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Urocortin 1 (UCN1) decreases food intake. We investigated the effects of UCN1 and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on metabolic and coagulation parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups; control, HFD, HFD with omega-3 FA, HFD with UCN1, and HFD with UCN1 and omega-3 FA. Food intake, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation product (FDP), clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet aggregation were measured. Food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, PAI-1, and FDP increased while bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT decreased in HFD rats. UCN1 decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT and increased fibrinogen, PAI-1, FDP, and platelet aggregation in HFD rats. Omega-3 FA decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and increased HDL and bleeding time in HFD rats. We concluded that UCN1 worsens the hypercoagulable state in HFD rats while omega-3 FA improve the insulin resistance and decrease the platelet aggregation in those rats.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In vertebrates, chemosensitivity of nutrients occurs through the activation of taste receptors coupled with G-protein subunits, including α-transducin (Gαtran) and α-gustducin (Gαgust). This study was aimed at characterising the cells expressing Gαtran immunoreactivity throughout the mucosa of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. Gαtran immunoreactive cells were mainly found in the stomach, and a lower number of immunopositive cells were detected in the intestine. Some Gαtran immunoreactive cells in the stomach contained Gαgust immunoreactivity. Gastric Gαtran immunoreactive cells co-expressed ghrelin, obestatin and 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity. In contrast, Gαtran immunopositive cells did not contain somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in any investigated segments of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. Specificity of Gαtran and Gαgust antisera was determined by Western blot analysis, which identified two bands at the theoretical molecular weight of ~45 and ~40 kDa, respectively, in sea bass gut tissue as well as in positive tissue, and by immunoblocking with the respective peptide, which prevented immunostaining. The results of the present study provide a molecular and morphological basis for a role of taste-related molecules in chemosensing in the sea bass gastrointestinal tract.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxic preconditioning (PC) was studied using rat atria set up isometrically in 10 mM dextrose medium and paced at 1 Hz, applying three different protocols wherein fed and 24-h fasted rats were used in protocols 1 and 2 and only the fed in protocol 3. In protocol 1, PC was achieved applying a 5 min hypoxia followed by 10 min of reoxygenation before the onset of a 60 min hypoxia and 60 min reoxygenation. In protocol 2 the 5 min and a posterior 45 min hypoxia were applied in the absence of dextrose whereas in the 10 min and 60 min reoxygenation periods dextrose was present. In protocol 3, two cycles of 5 min dextrose-free hypoxic periods were applied before the sustained hypoxia (dextrose-free) and reoxygenation periods (10 min and final 45 min, both in the presence of dextrose). In the control groups of all protocols, the equilibration periods were prolonged to compensate the duration of PC. In the control groups of protocols 1 and 2, the sustained hypoxia evoked greater disturbances of contractility and a smaller post-hypoxic recovery in the fasted than in the fed rat atria. In protocol 1, PC markedly reduced the rise in resting tension and improved the post-hypoxic recovery in the fasted rat atria whereas in the fed rat atria protective effects were small and brief. In protocol 2, PC evoked a small reduction of contracture only in the atria from fasted rats and in protocol 3, PC exacerbated the hypoxic disturbances. These data suggest that PC effects depend both on the severity of the PC stress and the sustained hypoxia; and that PC does not require coronary flow. Se estudia el precondicionamiento hipóxico (PC) en registros isométricos de aurículas de rata montadas isométricamente en medio con glucosa 10 mM y estimuladas a 1 Hz. Se aplican tres protocolos usando ratas alimentadas o en ayunas de 24-h en los 1 y 2, y sólo alimentadas en el 3. En el protocolo 1, el PC consiste en 5 min de hipoxia seguido de 10 min de reoxigenación antes de aplicar 60 min de hipoxia y reoxigenación de 60 min. En el protocolo 2, se aplica 5 min de hipoxia en medio sin sustrato y la hipoxia ulterior de 45 min también en medio sin sustrato, que se repone al reoxigenar durante los períodos de 10 y 60 min. En el protocolo 3, se aplican dos ciclos de 5 min de hipoxia sin sustrato seguidos de 10 min de reoxigenación con sustrato antes de la hipoxia de 45 min sin sustrato y 60 min de reoxigenación con sustrato. En los tres protocolos, la duración del período de equilibrio de los grupos controles se prolonga para compensar la duración del PC. La hipoxia prolongada en los grupos controles de los protocolos 1 y 2 provoca un mayor deterioro de la contractilidad y menor recuperación al reoxigenar en las aurículas de ratas en ayunas. En el protocolo 1, el PC reduce marcadamente la contractura y mejora la recuperación al reoxigenar en las ratas en ayunas mientras que en las alimentadas, todos los efectos beneficiosos son pequeños y efímeros. En el protocolo 2, el PC sólo produce una leve reducción de la contractura en los animales en ayunas y en el protocolo 3, el PC resulta francamente nocivo. Los resultados sugieren que los efectos del PC dependen de la severidad del estímulo precondicionante y de la hipoxia prolongada y que el PC no requiere la circulación coronaria. Key wordsPreconditioning-Hypoxia-Fasting-Rat atria Palabras clavePrecondicionamiento-Hipoxia-Ayuno-Aurícula-Rata
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 04/2012; 56(4):321-327.
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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) offspring from L-arginine- and antioxidant-supplemented SHR dams had persistent lower blood pressure in adulthood. We investigated the influence of vascular mechanism in this effect. We analyzed response to acetylcholine and phenylephrine in aorta and superior mesenteric arteries from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), SHR, and SHR perinatally supplemented with L-arginine and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (TEMPOL; SHR-suppl). Supplements reduced blood pressure persistently in SHR. Relaxation to acetylcholine was greater in WKY than SHR and remained unmodified in SHR-suppl compared with SHR. Acute TEMPOL did not alter relaxation to acetylcholine in WKY but increased it similarly in SHR and SHR-suppl. Phenylephrine contraction was increased in SHR compared to WKY. In SHR-suppl, this response was similar to SHR. Endothelium removal or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increased contraction to phenylephrine more in WKY than SHR. In SHR-suppl, this was similar to SHR. In both SHR and SHR-suppl, TEMPOL similarly reduced phenylephrine response. This effect was prevented by L-NAME. Results exposed reinforce the concept that oxidative stress during perinatal period is a contributing factor to the development of hypertension in SHR. Results also reveal that the beneficial effect of this supplementation does not appear to be related to improved endothelial function, suggesting that other regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure may be involved.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 12/2010; 66(4):301-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymes in mitochondria play an important role in biological oxidation and energy production. To understand the effect of schistosomiasis on these important processes, succinate cytochrome c reductase (SCR) from control and Schistosoma-infected mice was subjected for investigation. In this article, we report that SCR from Schistosoma-infected mouse showed a significant decrease in its Vmax and Km compared to control using both cytochrome c and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol as substrates. Furthermore, the kinetic studies of the purified SCR in the absence and presence of the schistosomicidal drugs praziquantel and Commiphora extract reveal that both drugs have an inhibitory action on the enzyme from the control and Schistosoma-infected mice and praziquantel changes the type of inhibition of SCR towards cytochrome c from mixed type in control to a competitive one in the case of the infection.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 12/2010; 66(4):291-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived radical that functions as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays a physiological role in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and vasopressinergic axis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the interaction between the generation of NO and vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone release after 3 days of water deprivation in rats. Animals were previously treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline or L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) injection. L-NAME is a nonspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases. In control rats given i.p. saline or L-NAME, hypothalamic, pituitary, and plasma AVP levels and plasma corticosterone did not change from baseline levels (p>0.05). Three days of water deprivation increased significantly the corticosterone levels in plasma (p<0.01) and AVP levels in hypothalamus and plasma (p<0.01), but not in pituitary, which showed a significant decrease. These variations were concomitant with the elevation of nitrates/nitrates in plasma. L-NAME injection abolished significantly (p<0.01) the elevation of plasma corticosterone and hypothalamic AVP levels induced by water deprivation. These findings showed that in water-deprived rats, nitric oxide synthase inhibition by L-NAME inhibits corticosterone and vasopressin release, suggesting a potent stimulatory role of NO.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 12/2010; 66(4):271-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy is frequently caused by pressure overload (i.e., high blood pressure or hypertension) and can lead to heart failure. The major objective of the present study was to investigate the proteomic changes in response to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) induced by abdominal aortic banding (AB) and its prevention by antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) telmisartan. One week after AB and Sham surgery, rats were assigned into three groups: SHAM-control, aortic banding without treatment (AB-Ctrl) and aortic banding with telmisartan treatment (AB-Telmi; 5mg/kg/day for 8 weeks). Echocardiography, hemodynamics, and pathology were performed to assess LVH. Left ventricular myocardium was sampled. The analysis of proteomic proteins from myocardium was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS. In AB-Ctrl, heart rate, systolic arterial blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular end systolic pressure, interventricular septal thickness at diastole, posterior wall thickness in diastole, heart weight (HW) and HW/body weight (BW) were increased, indicating that both hypertension and LVH developed. Telmisartan prevented hypertension and LVH. Concurrently, among numerous proteins, there were 17 that were differentially expressed among hypertrophic hearts, normal hearts, and the hearts where hypertrophic response was suppressed by ARB treatment. Primarily, proteins involved in cell structure, metabolism, stress and signal transduction exhibited up-regulations in LVH, providing cellular and molecular mechanism for hypertrophic development. These changes were prevented or greatly attenuated by telmisartan regimen. Interestingly, antioxidative-related heat shock protein 2 was detected neither in SHAM-Ctrl nor in AB-Ctrl, but in AB-Telmi. LVH is accompanied by series changes of protein expression. Both LVH and proteomic changes can be prevented by blockade of renin-angiotensin system with telmisartan. These protein alterations may constitute mechanistic pathways leading to hypertrophy development and experimental targets for novel therapeutic strategy.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 12/2010; 66(4):329-38.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) polymorphism with susceptibility to coronary artery stenosis (CAS) and the number of diseased vessels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study population comprised 618 unrelated Iranian individual subjects, including 305 angiographically documented CAS patients with T2DM and 313 control subjects with T2DM. MMP3 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Significant differences between cases and controls were observed for MMP3 genotype frequencies (p<0.01). The 6A allele was high frequently seen in the disease group, compared with the control group (64.75 vs. 56.24%, 6A/6A + 5A/6A vs. 5A/5A, p<0.05). The association of this polymorphism with the severity of stenosis were also evaluated which according to results distribution of MMP3 genotypes were not significantly different as compared with the severity of stenosis (p>0.05). Frequency of the 6A allele of the human MMP3 gene is an independent risk factor for CAS in the Iranian T2DM studied.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 12/2010; 66(4):359-64.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the investigation was to observe the pineal-adrenal-immune system relationships and their influence on non-specific immune response in female goats under short-term thermal stress. Six female goats had been exposed to 40°C and 60% relative humidity in the psychrometric chamber for 17 days. Blood samples were obtained on days 0 and 10 to establish control and thermal stress effects, respectively. Chemical adrenalectomy was achieved by injecting metyrapone (100 mg/kg body weight) followed by exogenous melatonin treatment (0.1 mg/kg body weight) from 11th to 17th day of experiment. Thermal stress significantly (P≤0.05) altered the physiological responses. Metyrapone and melatonin treatment significantly (P≤0.05) reduced the thermal-stress-induced increase in plasma concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone while significantly (P≤0.05) increased the plasma melatonin on days 11 and 17. Furthermore, these treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the phagocytic activity of neutrophils as compared to both control and thermal exposure values from 11-17 days of experiment. The data generated from this study help us to understand the functional relationship between pineal, adrenal, and immune system, and how this relationship modifies the non-specific immune response for the well being of goats during thermal stress.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 12/2010; 66(4):339-49.