Journal of physiology and biochemistry (J PHYSIOL BIOCHEM )

Description

Impact factor 2.50

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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.62
  • Cited half-life
    4.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.32
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.39
  • Website
    Journal of Physiology & Biochemistry website
  • Other titles
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry (Online)
  • ISSN
    1138-7548
  • OCLC
    70708332
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epinephrine, in high doses, exhibits cardiotoxicity that is associated with excessive production of free radicals. Melatonin is antioxidant and free radical scavenger with cardioprotective properties. In our study, cardioprotective effects of melatonin against epinephrine cardiotoxicity were explored in the model of isolated rat heart. In the melatonin group, melatonin (50 μmol/l) was present in the perfusion solution during the whole experiment. In the control group, perfusion solution contained no melatonin. In both of the groups, after 30 min of initial perfusion, epinephrine was applied during 2 min directly into the heart and led to its strong stimulation. Changes in the heart function and arrhythmogenesis were evaluated before application of epinephrine and after the decline of its acute effects. No significant differences were observed during the initial perfusion. However, in the 15th and 20th minute after epinephrine application, indexes of ventricular contraction and relaxation were significantly higher in the melatonin group. Likewise, the values of the left ventricular developed pressure were significantly increased in this group in the 15th minute. These differences indicate better preservation of contraction and relaxation in the melatonin-treated group. Parameters of arrhythmogenesis—arrhythmia score, incidence and total duration of severe ventricular arrhythmias, were not significantly different between the experimental groups. However, their markedly lower average values in the melatonin-treated group suggest the reduction of electrical instability by melatonin. In conclusion, the obtained data confirm cardioprotective properties of melatonin and fill in the mosaic of information that can lead to the usage of melatonin as a therapeutic tool.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The current study was designed to explore whether microRNA-146a and its adapter proteins (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1)) are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes neuropathy. Twelve male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into control and diabetic groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by a single-dose injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg; i.p.), 15 min before injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p.) in 12-h-fasted rats. Diabetic neuropathy was evaluated by hot plate and tail emersion tests, 2 months after the injection of streptozotocin. The gene expression level of microRNA-146a (miR-146a), IRAK1, TRAF6, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was measured in the sciatic nerve of rats using the real time-PCR method. Moreover, the activity of NF-κB and the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined by the ELISA method. In comparison with the control group, a threefold increase in the expression of miR-146a and NF-κB, and a twofold decrease in the expression of TRAF6 were observed in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Furthermore, the NF-κB activity and the concentration of TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats were higher than in those of control counterparts. These results suggest that a defect in the NF-кB–miR-146a negative feedback loop may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Food intake is regulated by not only neurohormonal, but also social, educational, and even cultural factors. Within the former, there is a complex interaction between orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorexigenic (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)) factors in order to adjust the food intake to caloric expenditure; however, the number of subjects that are unable to properly balance appetite and body weight is increasing continuously. A loss of circadian or diurnal coordination of any of these factors may be implied in this situation. Special attention has retrieved GLP-1 due to its usefulness as a therapeutic agent against obesity and related alterations. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare GLP-1 diurnal synthesis between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects, and to evaluate whether weight loss can restore the synthesis rhythms of GLP-1. Three groups of 25 subjects were divided attending to their body mass index (BMI) in normal weight, overweight, or obese subjects. Diurnal (5 points) GLP-1 levels were analyzed. Secondly, an intervention (behavioral-dietary treatment) study was conducted to analyze the effect of weight loss on plasma GLP-1 concentrations. Our results showed that baseline GLP-1 level was significantly lower in normal weight subjects (p = 0.003); furthermore, our cosinor analysis revealed a higher amplitude (p = 0.040) and daily GLP-1 variation (47 %) in these subjects. In fact, our ANOVA data showed a lack of rhythmicity in overweight/obese patients. Weight loss was not able to restore a diurnal rhythm of plasma GLP-1 levels. In summary, the present work shows a disruption of diurnal GLP-1 levels in overweight/obese subjects, which worsen as body fat progresses. The attenuation of the GLP-1 synthesis rhythms may be important to understand the impairment of food intake regulation in overweight/obese subjects.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide is an endogenous gas which exerts autocrine/paracrine actions by different signaling pathways and/or direct interactions with intracellular compounds and structures. Several processes are regulated by nitric oxide in stem cells including self-renewal, viability, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The modulation of cell functions depends on its concentrations because opposite effects can be observed when low and high levels of nitric oxide are compared. Here, the responses to nitric oxide of adult stem/progenitor cells which are often used in regenerative medicine, including mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, satellite cells, and fibro-adipogenic precursor cells, are reviewed. Therapeutic strategies which employ drugs releasing nitric oxide or modulating nitric oxide intracellular pathways are suggested to perform new ex vivo preconditioning or in vivo treatments suitable for stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering applications.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Under physiological conditions, insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is tightly regulated by different factors, including nutrients, nervous system, and other hormones. Pancreatic β-cells are also influenced by paracrine and autocrine interactions. The results of rodent studies indicate that adenosine is present within pancreatic islets and is implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion; however, effects depend on adenosine and glucose concentrations. Moreover, species differences in adenosine action were found. In rat islets, low adenosine was demonstrated to decrease glucose-induced insulin secretion and this effect is mediated via adenosine A1 receptor. In the presence of high adenosine concentrations, other mechanisms are activated and glucose-induced insulin secretion is increased. It is also well established that suppression of adenosine action increases insulin-secretory response of β-cells to glucose. In mouse islets, low adenosine concentrations do not significantly affect insulin secretion. However, in the presence of higher adenosine concentrations, potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion was demonstrated. It is also known that upon stimulation of insulin secretion, both rat and mouse islets release ATP. In rat islets, ATP undergoes extracellular conversion to adenosine. However, mouse islets are unable to convert extracellularly ATP to adenosine and adenosine arises from intracellular ATP degradation.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperalgesia and allodynia are among the common manifestations of painful diabetic neuropathy. Naringenin (NA) has some biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antidiabetic effects. We investigated the effects of NA administration at different doses, 20, 50, and 100 mg/kg, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats. The animals received saline or NA (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.; once daily) for 8 weeks. Hyperalgesia was assessed by tail flick (TF) and formalin tests. Von Frey filaments were used for tactile allodynia evaluation. At the end, all rats were weighed and underwent plasma glucose and superoxide dismutase measurement. Diabetes caused significant hyperalgesia and allodynia during the above tests. NA 50 and 100 mg/kg reversed chemical and thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. There were no significant differences in pain responses between NA (50 and 100 mg/kg)-treated diabetic rats and pregabalin-treated diabetic animals. Administration of NA 20 mg/kg did not alter pain-related behaviors in control and diabetic groups compared to the respective control ones. NA 50 and 100 mg/kg restored hyperglycemia as well as the decreased levels of (superoxide dismutase) SOD activity in diabetic rats. The body weight of treated diabetic rats increased significantly compared to untreated diabetics. Prolonged oral administration of NA (50 and 100 mg/kg) ameliorated some aspects of diabetic neuropathy by causing hypoglycemia and increasing the levels of antioxidant enzyme SOD. Therefore, NA makes a good candidate for treatment of diabetic neuropathy in clinical studies.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a pro-apoptotic cytokine, is involved in vascular hyperpermeability, tissue edema, and inflammation. We hypothesized that TNF-α induces microvascular hyperpermeability through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. Rat lung microvascular endothelial cells grown on Transwell inserts, chamber slides, or dishes were treated with recombinant TNF-α (10 ng/ml) in the presence or absence of a caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (100 μM). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-albumin (5 mg/ml) was used as a marker of monolayer permeability. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using dihydrorhodamine 123 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential using JC-1. The adherens junction integrity and actin cytoskeletal organization were studied using β-catenin immunofluorescence and rhodamine phalloidin, respectively. Caspase-3 activity was measured fluorometrically. The pretreatment with Z-DEVD-FMK (100 μM) attenuated TNF-α-induced (10 ng/ml) disruption of the adherens junctions, actin stress fiber formation, increased caspase-3 activity, and monolayer hyperpermeability (p < 0.05). TNF-α (10 ng/ml) treatment resulted in increased mitochondrial ROS formation and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Intrinsic apoptotic signaling-mediated caspase-3 activation plays an important role in regulating TNF-α-induced endothelial cell hyperpermeability.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of severe cardiovascular complications such as cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Given that prevention and early intervention play important roles in the reduction of cardiovascular complications associated with atherosclerosis, it is critical to better understand how to target the modifiable risk factors, such as diet, in order to best minimize their contributions to the development of the disease. Studies have shown that various dietary sources of protein can affect blood lipid levels, a modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis, either positively or negatively. This clearly highlights that not all proteins are "created equal." For example, consumption of diets high in either animal- or vegetable-based sources of protein have resulted in varied and inconsistent effects on blood cholesterol levels, often depending on the amino acid composition of the protein and the species investigated. Careful consideration of the source of dietary protein may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular complications. Given the recent focus on high protein diets, an emphasis on controlled studies in the area is warranted. The goal of this review is to present the current state of the literature that examines the effects of casein, a commonly utilized animal-based protein, on blood cholesterol levels and the varying effects noted in both animals and humans.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Due to substantial morbidity and high complication rate of diabetes mellitus, which is considered as the third killer in the world, a search for the effective blockade of the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a therapeutic challenge. Alternative antidiabetic drugs from natural plants are highly demanded nowadays. The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) on DN induced in rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a high-fat diet (HFD) and an intraperitoneal 35 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control rats, diabetic control rats, diabetic rats treated with SDG at 10 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, and diabetic rats treated with SDG at 20 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood and renal tissue samples were collected for biochemical examination. The results revealed that SDG treatment significantly increased insulin level and decreased blood glucose, fructosamine, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. Also, SDG significantly increased renal reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels. In addition, SDG downregulated the renal nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and upregulated renal survivin and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expressions when compared with untreated diabetic control rats. This study demonstrated, for the first time, the renoprotective effects of SDG in HFD/STZ-induced DN in rats through correction of hyperglycemia; attenuation of oxidative/nitrosative stress markers; downregulation of renal expressions of inflammatory markers NF-κB, TNF-α, and iNOS; along with upregulation of renal expressions of antiapoptotic markers survivin and Bcl-2.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease that has a multifactorial etiology, with oxidative stress as an important component. Our previous observation of a significant diabetes-related increase in rat cardiac catalase (CAT) activity suggested that CAT could play a major role in delaying the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Thus, in the present work, we examined the effects of the daily administration of the CAT inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (1 mg/g), on the hearts of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Administration of CAT inhibitor was started from the 15th day after the last STZ treatment (40 mg/kg/5 days), and maintained until the end of the 4th or 6th weeks of diabetes. Compared to untreated diabetic rats, at the end of the observation period, CAT inhibition lowered the induced level of cardiac CAT activity to the basal level and decreased CAT protein expression, mediated through a decline in the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 /nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (Nrf2/NF-κB p65) subunit ratio. The perturbed antioxidant defenses resulting from CAT inhibition promoted increased H2O2 production (P < 0.05) and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05). Generated cytotoxic stimuli increased DNA damage (P < 0.05) and activated pro-apoptotic events, observed as a decrease (P < 0.05) in the ratio of the apoptosis regulator proteins Bcl-2/Bax, increased (P < 0.05) presence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) 85 kDa apoptotic fragment and cytoplasmic levels of cytochrome C. These findings confirm an important function of CAT in the suppression of events leading to diabetes-promoted cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyopathy.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of myrtenal, a natural monoterpene, for its antihyperglycemic effects and β cell protective properties in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of myrtenal at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg body weight to diabetic rats for 28 days resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and an increase in the levels of insulin and hemoglobin (Hb). Protection of body weight loss of diabetic rats by myrtenal was noted. The altered activities of the key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP levels of diabetic rats were significantly improved by the administration of myrtenal in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, myrtenal treatment improved hepatic and muscle glycogen content in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies further revealed that the reduced islet cells were restored to near-normal conditions on treatment with myrtenal in STZ-induced diabetic rats. An alteration in liver architecture was also prevented by myrtenal treatment. Our results suggest that myrtenal possess antihyperglycemic and β cell protective effects. Hence, myrtenal could be considered as a potent phytochemical for development as a new antidiabetic agent.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a motor scarcity disorder characterized by the striatal dopamine deficiency owing to the selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. While oxidative stress is implicated in PD, prolonged exposure to moderate dose of cypermethrin induces Parkinsonism. The study aimed to investigate the status of oxidative stress indicators and antioxidant defence system of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), platelets and plasma to delineate the effect of Parkinsonian dose of cypermethrin in the peripheral blood of rats and its subsequent relevance to Parkinsonism. Nitrite content, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured in the PMNs, platelets and plasma of control and cypermethrin-treated rats in the presence or absence of a microglial activation inhibitor, minocycline or a dopamine precursor containing the peripheral 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase inhibitor, named syndopa, employing the standard procedures. The striatal dopamine was measured to assess the degree of neurodegeneration/neuroprotection. Cypermethrin increased nitrite and LPO in the plasma, platelets and PMNs while it reduced the striatal dopamine content. Catalase and GST activity were increased in the PMNs and platelets; however, it was reduced in the plasma. Conversely, SOD and GR activities were reduced in the PMNs and platelets but increased in the plasma. Minocycline or syndopa reduced the cypermethrin-mediated changes towards normalcy. The results demonstrate that cypermethrin alters the status of oxidative stress indicators and impairs antioxidant defence system of the peripheral blood, which could be effectively salvaged by minocycline or syndopa. The results could be of value for predicting the nigrostriatal toxicity relevant to Parkinsonism.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) has been reported to be associated with augmented reactive oxygen radicals and cytokines. Currently, we aimed to examine the influence of fluoxetine, which is already used as a preoperative anxiolytic, in the context of IR induced by occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta (60 min of ischemia) and its effects on renal oxidative status, inflammation, renal function, and cellular integrity in reperfusion (120 min post-ischemia). Male rats were randomly assigned as control, IR, and pretreated groups. The pretreated group animals received fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily for 3 days. Renal tissue oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase activity, proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), histology, and function were assessed. As an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 was also assessed. IR led to a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxide, malondialdehyde, and pro-oxidant antioxidant balance and decrease in superoxide dismutase activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power level (p < 0.05), but fluoxetine was able to restore these parameters. High concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase activity caused by IR were significantly decreased in kidney tissue with fluoxetine. In addition, interleukin-10 levels were high in fluoxetine pretreated group. IR resulted in disrupted cellular integrity, infiltration of tissue with leukocytes, and decreased serum creatinine-urea levels (p < 0.05). Fluoxetine significantly restored impaired redox balance and inflammation parameters of rats subjected to IR to baseline values. This beneficial effect of fluoxetine on redox balance might be addressed to an improvement in renal function.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: REM sleep is a crucial component of sleep. Animal studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation elicits changes in gene expression. Downregulatory antagonist modulator (DREAM) is a protein which downregulates other gene transcriptions by binding to the downstream response element site. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of REM sleep deprivation on DREAM expression in ventrobasal thalamic nuclei (VB) of rats. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four major groups consisting of free-moving control rats (FMC) (n = 18), 72-h REM sleep-deprived rats (REMsd) (n = 18), 72-h REM sleep-deprived rats with 72-h sleep recovery (RG) (n = 18), and tank control rats (TC) (n = 18). REM sleep deprivation was elicited using the inverted flower pot technique. DREAM expression was examined in VB by immunohistochemical, Western blot, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) studies. The DREAM-positive neuronal cells (DPN) were decreased bilaterally in the VB of rats deprived of REM sleep as well as after sleep recovery. The nuclear DREAM extractions were increased bilaterally in animals deprived of REM sleep. The DREAM messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were decreased after sleep recovery. The results demonstrated a link between DREAM expression and REM sleep deprivation as well as sleep recovery which may indicate potential involvement of DREAM in REM sleep-induced changes in gene expression, specifically in nociceptive processing.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate possible protective effects of purified histaminase from Lathyrus sativus L. seedling on the myocardial injuries upon isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats. In this regard, blood histamine concentration, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity, antioxidant status, and histopathological changes of the hearts were measured. A total of 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups and treated in the following order: control (normal saline), isoprenaline (isoproterenol 110 mg/kg BW), Isopren.-H1 (isoprenaline plus histaminase 80 U/kg BW), Isopren.-H2 (isoprenaline plus histaminase 120 U/kg BW), and Isopren.-H3 (isoprenaline plus histaminase 160 U/kg BW). Myocardial infarction was manifested by a significant elevation in the level of CK-MB and histopathological findings in isoprenaline group when compared to controls. In contrast, histaminase pretreatment at dose of 160 U/kg prevented isoprenaline-induced histamine release and significantly decreased CK-MB activity as well as histopathological changes in Isopren.-H3 group. A significant increase in the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities was also observed by histaminase treatment in Isopren.-H2 and Isopren.-H3 groups. Although the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased significantly to suppress oxidative stress in isoprenaline group, it was not able to prevent lipid peroxidation (as shown by TBARS concentration) in the heart of rats. In conclusion, the plant-originated histaminase presented as a promising enzyme with antioxidant properties against histamine release and myocardial infarction in rats, and it seems be a suitable therapeutic agent for future clinical trials in humans.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 09/2014;