European Journal of Anatomy

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ISSN 1136-4890

Publications in this journal

  • European Journal of Anatomy 04/2015; 14(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Different variants of the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebrae are described in the literature with little information on their prevalence in human populations. To review this question, 5 osteological samples from different geographical areas were studied for the presence of costal facets on the eighth (T8), ninth (T9) and tenth (T10) thoracic vertebrae. We found that inferior costal facets on vertebral centrum were absent bilaterally in 1.5% of T8 and in 46% of T9; costal facets on both T10 transverse processes were absent in 39% of cases. Absence of inferior costal facets on the T8 and T9 centrum and costal facets on the T10 transverse processes was positively associated with cranial shifts at regional borders of the spine. However, additional analysis revealed that the position of the costo-central articulation at the level of T8 and T9 as well as the position of the most inferior “typical” thoracic vertebra significantly depended on sex (p<0.001). Sex differences were most pronounced at the level of T9 where females showed very frequent absence of inferior costal facets (76% of cases compared to 47% in males). This suggests a difference in an average 10th rib position in relation to the spine in females. Significant sex differences in the position of the most inferior “typical” thoracic vertebra may be partially explained by the fact that females in general are more likely to develop some forms of cranial shifts. However, according to the literature, the female axial skeleton possesses a complex of morphological features that is seen as an adaptation to pregnancy. In this view, the different position of the female 10th rib may be one component of the complex.
    European Journal of Anatomy 04/2015; 19(2):179-188.
  • European Journal of Anatomy 01/2015; 19(1):105-124.
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    ABSTRACT: Although the carpal tunnel is known for its anatomical constituents, its morphology is not well recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphometric properties of the carpal tunnel and its surrounding structures. Magnetic resonance, cross-sectional images of the distal carpal tunnel were collected from eight cadaveric hands. Morphological analyses were performed for the cross sections of the carpal tunnel, interior carpus boundary, and exterior carpus boundary. The specimens had a carpal arch width and height of 23.9 ± 2.9 mm and 2.2 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The carpal tunnel, interior carpus boundary, and exterior carpus boundary had perimeters of 54.8 ± 4.5 mm, 68.5 ± 7.0 mm, and 130.6 ± 11.8 mm, respectively, and areas of 183.5 ± 30.1 mm(2), 240.7 ± 40.2 mm(2), and 1002.3 ± 183.7 mm(2), respectively. The cross sections were characterized by elliptical fitting with aspect ratios of 1.96 ± 0.15, 1.96 ± 0.19, and 1.76 ± 0.19 for the carpal tunnel, interior carpus boundary, and exterior carpus boundary, respectively. The major axis of the boundaries increased in pronation angle, relative to the hamate-trapezium axis, for the exterior carpus (6.0 ± 3.0°), interior carpus (8.2 ± 3.2°), and carpal tunnel (15.9 ± 2.2°). This study advances our understanding of the structural anatomy of the carpal tunnel, and the morphological information is valuable in the identification of structural abnormality, assistance of surgical planning, and evaluation of treatment of effects.
    European Journal of Anatomy 01/2015; 19(1):49-56.
  • European Journal of Anatomy 01/2015; 19(1):37-42.
  • European Journal of Anatomy 08/2014; 18(3):171-174.
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    ABSTRACT: The gross morphology and histology of the skin of the trunk and paw pads in the African giant pouched rat were investigated to evaluate their role in the adaptation of the rodent to its subterranean environment. Samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Alcian blue, Verhoeff's haematoxylin counterstained with Van Gieson, and Weigert’s haematoxylin counterstained with Picro-Ponceau stains. Dorsally, fur covering the skin was loosely folded. Fur covered the entire trunk to the level of the radiocarpal and talocrural joints of the forelimb and hindlimbs, respectively. Skin of the dorsum was paler than its grey-coloured fur, while skin of the ventrum was dirty white. There were more hair follicles dorsally then ventrally. The manus and pes had five and six paw pads, respectively. Keratinocytes in the epidermis of the paw pads decreased in number and lost their cellular contents as they migrated towards the stratum lucidum. Metatarsal pads had a significantly (P < 0.001) thicker stratum corneum than metacarpal pads. Elastic fibres were observed in the metatarsal pads. Other results and additional information from the literature were integrated to propose the effect of the structures on the adaptation of the African giant pouched rat to its subterranean environment and tropical climate.
    European Journal of Anatomy 07/2014; 18(3):175-182.