Publisher: Società italiana di patologia vegetale


The Journal of Plant Pathology (JPP) is the international journal of the Italian Phytopathological Society (S.I.Pa.V), covering fundamental and applied aspects of plant pathology. JPP will publish original contribution written in English, in the form of full-lenght papers, short communication, disease notes, and review articles on mycology, bacteriology, virology, physiological plant pathology, plant-parasite interactions, post-harvest diseases, non infectious diseases, and plant protection. All contributions will be peer reviewed under the supervision of an international Editorial Board. JPP is published quarterly.

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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 3 (FLMaV-3) is a putative member of the family Closteroviridae that has been found in fig mosaic disease (FMD) affected fig trees in Turkey (Elci et al., 2012). In May 2014, outdoor fig gardens in Mazandaran province (north of Iran) with FMD symptoms such as leaf mottling and systemic mosaic on young leaves were surveyed and 20 samples were collected from ten fig gardens. Total RNAs was extracted from all twenty samples and healthy fig leaves and used in RTPCR with primer pair FLMaV-3s F (5’-CTGTATCTGTCATTACCTCTTCGGG-3’) and FLMaV-3as R (5’-CTGTATCTGTCATTACCTCTTCGGG-3’) designed to amplify part of the heat shock protein 70 homologue (HSP70h) gene of FLMaV-3 (GenBank accession No. EF654103). The expected 375 bp DNA fragment was amplified from one fig sample but not from the others. The DNA amplicon was purified and cloned into pTZ57R/T (MBI Fermentas, Germany) and sequenced. The corresponding sequence of the partial HSP70h gene was deposited in GenBank under accession No. KM516760. BLAST analysis showed that the sequence of the Iranian FLMaV-3 isolate had 96% and 100% identity with an isolate from the USA (GenBank accession No. EF654103) at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Various viruses belonging to different genera have been reported in fig trees in Iran (Shahmirzaie et al., 2012; Nouri Ale-Agha and Rakhshandehroo, 2013; Danesh-Amuz et al., 2014), however, to our knowledge, this is the first report of FLMaV-3 naturally infecting fig in Iran.
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    ABSTRACT: During 2010, black rot symptoms were observed in oilseed rape plants grown in a commercial plot in Serbia. Ten bacterial isolates obtained from diseased plants, and identified as Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) based on pathogenicity, physiological and biochemical tests, PTA-ELISA and 16S rDNA sequences analysis, were investigated in detail. Strains were characterized by comparing them by rep-PCR fingerprints using ERIC and (GTG)5 primers. The 16S rDNA sequences of strains TUr1 and TUr6 were deposited in GenBank under accession Nos. KF057196 and KF057197, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S regions showed high similarity level for oilseed rape representative strains and Xcc strains of different origin isolated from kale, cabbage and broccoli.
    JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 12/2014; 96(3):553-560.
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    ABSTRACT: Codiaeum variegatum (garden-grown croton species), a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. is native to southern India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the western Pacific Ocean islands, where it grows in open forests and scrub. In August 2013, leaf yellows and witches' brooms symptoms were observed on C. variegatum plants grown at Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, India) and Sitamadhi (Bihar, India). Three symptomatic samples from each locations were tested for phytoplasma detection using the universal primer P1/P7 (Deng and Hiruki, 1991;Schneider et al., 1995) in a first round, then primers R16F2n/R16R2 in nested PCR assays (Gundersen and Lee, 1996). Products of ca. 1.8 kb and 1.2 kb, respectively, were amplified from all symptomatic samples. Six amplicons of ca. 1.2 kb were directly sequenced from both the ends and found 99% identical to each others. One representative 16Sr DNA C. variegatum phytoplasma sequence form each location was deposited in GenBank under the accession Nos KJ161308 (Lucknow) and KJ161309 (Sitamadhi). Both tphytoplasma isolates shared maximum 16S rDNA sequence identity (99%) among themselves and with several isolates of Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (16SrI group) from different parts of the world. Results of phylogenetic analyses of 1.25 kb 16Sr DNA products from Lucknow and Sitamadhi isolates revealed that the Lucknow isolate clustered together with strains of 16SrI-D subgroup, whereas the Sitamadhi isolate clustered with 16Sr I-B member strains of reference isolates in GenBank. Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris has been associated with diseased Croton spp. from Colombia (Perilla et al., 2012; HG764351) but, to the best of our knowledge it has never been reported from India.
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    ABSTRACT: Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) is one of the oldest known graft-transmissible viruses of citrus. It causes typical bark scaling lesions in the trunk and limb of sweet orange, mandarin, grapefruit and other citrus spp. During spring 2011, a total of 250 symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, including 100 from a mother block in Lattakia governorate and 150 from six commercial orchards located in Jableh, Tartous and Lattakia areas were sampled to assess the presence of CPsV. All collected samples were analyzed by DAS-ELISA according to Potere et al. (1999) using a commercial kit (Agritest, Italy). Results indicated the presence of CPsV in two Navel Orange trees located in Lattakia. The presence of CPsV was confirmed in these trees by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers consF (5’- ACAAAGAAATTCCCTGCAAGGG-3’) and consR (5’-AAGTTTCTATCATTCTGAAACCC-3’) that target part of the CPsV coat protein gene (Roy et al., 2005) with the amplification of the expected size (411 bp) DNA product. The RT-PCR product was cloned and sequenced. The sequence of CPsV isolate SYR-C7 (GenBank accession No. HG964696) showed 97% nucleotide identity with Italian CPsV isolates (GenBank accession Nos AM235964 and AY194917). Symptoms associated to CPsV were observed in Syria (Bové, 1995) but the causal agent had yet to be identified. To our knowledge, this is the first CPsV detection in Syria by serological and molecular assays.
    JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 12/2014; 96(4):116.
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    ABSTRACT: Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) is an ornamental and medicinal plant grown in Iran. During a survey in November 2012, symptoms of wilt and leaf spot were observed in almost half of rosemary fields of Kerman (southeast of Iran). Samples of infected leaves were surface sterilized with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, rinsed with sterile distilled water, cultured onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and incubated at 25°C for seven days. The isolated fungus produced a pale brown to dark green colony. Ovoid or ellipsoidal, hyaline, and aseptate conidia were produced abundantly in subglobose pycnidia. Numerous dictyochlamydospores and chlamydospores were also observed. Based on the morphological characters, the fungus was identified as Phoma glomerata (Boerema et al., 2004). To confirm the species of the fungus, DNA was extracted from a single spore isolate and the internal spacer regions (ITS) were amplified with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The resulting sequence (532 bp), which showed more than 99% identity with Phoma glomerata, was submitted to NCBI GenBank (Accession No. KM114267). To test the pathogenicity, two month old plants were sprayed by a suspension of 104 spores per ml, covered with plastic bags and incubated under greenhouse conditions at 25-28°C. Pale brown small spots were developed on an average of 31.48% of the leaves after seven days. This fungus has been previously reported from Iran on cucumber (Hatami et al., 2008) and Ficus elastica (Aghapour et al., 2009). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Phoma glomerata on rosemary in Iran and possibly in the world.
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    ABSTRACT: In July 2014, a white fungal efflorescence was observed on the stems and both surfaces of mature and young leaves of a caper plant (Capparis spinosa) growing in the Campus of the University of Bari. Light microscope observations revealed the presence of simple or branched conidiophores emerging through leaf stomata, and bearing conidia singly or in short chains. Primary (pyriform) and secondary (cylindrical) conidia, typical of the anamorphic stage of Leveillula taurica (Lév.) G. Arnaud, causal agent of powdery mildew (Palti, 1988), measured on average 62.2×20.2 μm (±7.23×±2.18 μm standard deviation). The teleomorphic stage was not observed during three months of observation. A 630-bp PCR amplicon obtained with the ITS1/ITS4 primer pair was sequenced (BMR Genomics, Italy) and deposited in GenBank under the accession No. KP164030 (isolate designated CSP-PUG1). The sequence shared up to 99% homology with several accessions of L. taurica, including the one previously reported on caper (AB045002), and other species of the genus. The Koch’s postulates were met with a successful pathogenicity test on caper. It is worth noting that, besides this plant, I have never observed powdery mildew on spontaneous caper plants in different Apulian (southern Italy) sites, even when they were growing close to highly susceptible plant species such as Convolvulus arvensis. Therefore, the sporadic pathogen occurrence on this plant might be due to microclimatic conditions unusual for caper. Indeed, the diseased plant had grown under a prolonged shading near a building, but caper normally grows in sun-drenched places like stone walls and rocky cliffs. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first report of L. taurica on caper in Italy.
  • JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 11/2014; 96(2):63.
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    ABSTRACT: In May 2014, mottling and chlorotic spots with necrotic margins were observed on the leaves of fig plants growing outdoor and private gardens in the Karaj district of Alburz (Iran). Based on symptoms, the involvement of Fig badnavirus-1 [FBV-1 (genus Badnavirus, family Caulimoviridae)] in disease aetiology was suspected. Mechanical inoculations of crude sap from symptomatic leaves extracted in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.2 containing 0.01 % Na2SO3 induced a mild mosaic in Cucumis sativus, vein clearing in Cucurbita pepo and Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun, whereas Phaseolus vulgaris remained symptomless. Twenty leaf samples from five fig gardens were randomly collected and tested for the presence of FBV-1 by PCR using total DNA extracted from leaf samples (Dellaporta et al., 1983) and primers 580F/1650R as described by Laney et al. (2012). Two out of the 20 samples tested proved to be infected with FBV-1, as shown by amplification of a 1070 bp DNA fragment encompassing ORF1, ORF2 and ORF3 of the viral genome. BLAST analysis of the FBV-1 sequences from Iran (GenBank accession Nos. KM610208 and KM610209) showed 98% and 91-97% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, with the corresponding FBV-1 sequences available in GenBank. The presence of FBV-1 was also confirmed by PCR in inoculated herbaceous indicators. FBV-1 is known to occur in fig trees in different countries worldwide (Minafra et al., 2012), however, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first record from Iran. Dellaporta S.L., Wood J.Y., Hicks J.B., 1983. A plant DNA minipreparation: version II. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 1: 19–21. Laney A.G., Hassan M., Tzanetakis I.E., 2012. An integrated badnavirus is prevalent in fig germplasm. Phytopathology 102: 1182-1189. Minafra A., Chiumenti M., Elbeaino T., Digiaro M., Bottalico G., Pantaleo V., Martelli G.P., 2012. Occurrence of Fig badnavirus 1 in fig trees from different countries and in symptomless seedlings. Journal of Plant Pathology 94: S4.105.
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    ABSTRACT: Iran is the 4th largest producer of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the world. In 2012 a disease characterized by water-soaked lesions and soft rot was observed on mature and immature fruits of watermelon cv. Crimson sweet. Fruit samples with transpicuous symptoms were transferred to laboratory and bacterial colonies were isolated from these on nutrient agar. Hypersensitivity reaction (HR) assays were successfully done using 10 8 CFU/ml bacterial suspension into tobacco leaf epidermis. Bacterial isolates were Gram-negative, facultative anaerobes, able to soften potato slices and growing at 37°C.They were negative for oxidase, urease and sensitivity to erythromycin, positive for catalase, gelatinase and utilization of malonate and citrate. Isolates produced acid from lactose, cellobiose, raffinose and trehalose . The pathogenicity of bacterial isolates was confirmed by injecting cell suspension (calibrated at 10 7 CFU/ml) in watermelon fruits. Symptoms developed on fruits 3 to 4 days post inoculation looking the same as those shown by naturally infected fruits. Control samples injected with sterilized distilled water remained healthy. A 16S ribosomal RNA fragment of 1100 bp was amplified from bacterial isolates and the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence was deposited in GenBank under the accession No. KF956742. Based on phenotypic characteristics and the 99.7% homology of 16S rRNA sequence to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), the bacterium that causes water-soaked and soft rot of watermelon fruit was identified as Pcc. To our knowledge, this is the first report of soft rot caused by Pcc on watermelon from Iran