The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) (NEW MICROBIOL )


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    Microbiologica, Microbiologica
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV-1-associated Guillan-Barr� syndrome (hGBS) is an ascendant progressive polyradiculoneuropathy described throughout the course of the viral disease, mainly associated with the acute retroviral syndrome. HGBS is occasionally described in severely immunocompromised subjects in the context of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. The case described occurred soon after the start of a combined antiretroviral treatment in an HIV-1 infected patient with ulcerative colitis in the absence of severe immunosuppression. This manifestation may be interpreted as an uncommon appearance of an immune reconstitution syndrome in the presence of a predisposing autoimmune pathology.
    The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 01/2014; 37(1):103-107.
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus can be responsible for oral and dental healthcare-associated infections. Patients with high salivary S. aureus levels are potential sources of infection, because saliva is spread in the environment during dental therapy. This study assessed the salivary S. aureus carriage rate in 97 children (6-12 years) in good general health, attending a paedodontic department. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected, S. aureus was presumptively identified. The salivary carriage rate was 43% (95% confidence interval, 33%-53%). 6.2% children harboured levels >103 colony forming units/mL. These data suggest that the risk for environmental contamination and infection in dental healthcare settings could be high.
    The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 01/2014; 37(1):91-96.
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of Adenovirus as agent of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is still poorly documented in the literature. We describe two cases showing that adenoviral infection should be reasonably hypothesized in men with dysuria and scant urethral discharge in addition to meatus inflammation and/or edema (meatitis) or conjunctivitis. Case 1: a 55-year-old man came to our observation in July 2012 referring a 5-day-history of intense dysuria and scant mucoid urethral discharge. Physical examination revealed the urethral discharge referred, but also modest meatitis and an intense conjunctival hyperemia on his right eye. Adenoviral infection was investigated and Adenovirus DNA (type 37) was detected in both the urethral and conjunctival swabs. Case 2: a 43-year-old man with intense dysuria, started 4-5 days earlier, came to our attention with his wife in August 2012. Scant urethral mucoid secretions, severe meatal inflammation of the male patient were revealed during physical examination. His wife instead complained of a 2-day history of intense burning eyes. Adenoviral infection was investigated and Adenovirus DNA (type 37) was positive both in the male urethral swab and in his wife�s conjunctival swab. Adenovirus seems to cause a distinct and recognisable clinical syndrome in men presenting with urethritis. Studies on the prevalence and role of Adenovirus as a causative agent of urethritis are limited. Moreover, as rapid advanced molecular microbiology is now available, we believe that extending the search to Adenovirus in sexually active men with dysuria, scant discharge in addition to meatitis or conjunctivitis, should be a useful approach improving our understanding about adenoviral NGU, and especially avoiding or stopping unnecessary empirical antibiotic therapy.
    The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 01/2014; 37(1):109-112.
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    ABSTRACT: This study characterized the occurrence of carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. From January 2010 until February 2012, Acinetobacter spp. isolates were collected from different wards and were identified using Vitek 2 system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Vitek 2 system and Etest were used for susceptibility testing. PCR and Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used for detecting and typing genes associated with carbapenem resistance. A total of 141 isolates were identified as A. baumannii. A total of 46 (32.6%) isolates were carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates and had wild diversity by PFGE. Metallo ?-lactamase confirmatory test was positive for 43 isolates with negative PCR for blaIMP and blaVIM. Among the 46 CRAB strains, 37 isolates harbored blaOXA-23 which was encoded downstream of ISAba1 and 1 isolate had ISAba1 encoded upstream blaOXA-51. These data reveal that the interhospital transmission of CRAB isolates was apparently insignificant. BlaOXA-23 adjacent to ISAba1 was the main mechanism of carbapenem resistance in these isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular study characterizing carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
    The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 01/2014; 37(1):65-73.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an outbreak of a carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 258 (ST258) clone in an Italian hospital during two months in 2010. The rapid detection and management of the eleven patients colonized and infected with KPC-producing K.pneumoniae curbed the spread of this multidrug-resistant organism.
    The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 01/2014; 37(1):87-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Previous findings have shown that probiotic bacteria exert positive effects on hypercholesterolemia by lowering serum cholesterol and improving lipid profile that, in turn, leads to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. Most of these studies were carried out with tumoral cell lines that have a metabolism quite different from that of normal cells and may thus respond differently to various stimuli. Here, we demonstrate the beneficial effects of some probiotics on cholesterol levels and pathways in normal small intestinal foetal epithelial tissue cells. The results show that Lactobacillus plantarum strain PCS 26 efficiently removes cholesterol from media, exhibits bile salt hydrolase activity, and up-regulates several genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. This study suggests that Lactobacillus plantarum PCS 26 might act as a liver X receptor agonist and help to improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic patients or even dislipidemias in complex diseases such as the metabolic syndrome.
    The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 01/2014; 37(1):51-64.
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    ABSTRACT: In 1986, we encountered the first case of Legionella micdadei pneumonia in Japan. In the follow-up study to determine the infection route of L. micdadei, we isolated Brevundimonas vesicularis from the shower hose of the patient�s home. This motivated us to explore the symbiosis between B. vesicularis and Legionella in this study. B. vesicularis type strain, B. vesicularis Kobe strain, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 type strain, and L. micdadei Kobe strain were used. B. vesicularis was inoculated into 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution containing artificial sand, and varying concentrations of glucose at 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. Legionella was added to the cultures after ten days of incubation, and Legionella viable counts were monitored over time. After three days of incubation, Legionella counts increased approximately twofold in flasks containing 0.001% glucose, but Legionella counts decreased in both B. vesicularis inoculated and non-inoculated flasks containing higher concentrations of glucose. The counts were significantly higher in flasks inoculated with B. vesicularis than in non-inoculated flasks throughout the experiments. Under the nutrient-poor conditions, the presence of B. vesicularis was found to aid a further increase in Legionella counts. Further research is necessary to understand the symbiotic conditions most supporting the growth of L. micdadei.
    The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 01/2014; 37(1):33-39.
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    ABSTRACT: A 42-year-old woman, living in a nursing home for the mentally disabled, with congenital ventricular septal defect and multiple comorbidities, developed endocarditis with vegetations of the interventricular septum and the right coronary aortic leaflet. The main feature of this case was the metastatic embolism leading to multiple and muscular abscesses. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, spa type 253 and ST30, producing toxin shock syndrome toxin-1 was isolated from blood cultures. The patient was initially treated with beta-lactam antibiotics without showing clinical response and subsequently with daptomycin and linezolid that improved the patient�s clinical symptoms. The effectiveness of treatment with daptomycin and linezolid was partly due to the ability of linezolid to reduce TSST-1 secretion. The portal of entry of the infection was not recognized. TSST-1 production by the strain might have favoured the formation of large cardiac vegetations and the subsequent metastatic dissemination to the muscles.
    The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 01/2014; 37(1):113-118.
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable microbiological diagnosis along with surgery and prolonged antibiotic therapy are key elements in the management of prosthetic-joint infections (PJIs). The purpose of this study was to characterize antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria involved in the aetiology of PJIs. A total of 33 bacterial isolates cultured from 31 patients undergoing exchange of total hip prostheses were analyzed. The diagnostic approach toward isolation of prosthesis- associated microorganisms included sonication of retrieved implants and conventional cultures of periprosthetic tissues and synovial fluid. The in vitro resistance profiles of bacterial isolates were determined in relation to antibiotics recommended for the therapy of PJIs using the disc diffusion method, E-tests® and broth microdilution system. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were predominant microorganisms followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus mitis, and Propionibacterium acnes. Twenty out of 30 and 12 out of 30 staphylococcal isolates were methicillin- and multi-drug resistant, respectively. Only two isolates were rifampicinresistant. All staphylococci were susceptible to glycopeptides and linezolid. This paper stresses the pathogenic role of staphylococci in patients suffering from implant loosening and reports high methicillin- and multidrug-resistance rates in these bacteria. Hence, antimicrobial susceptibility tests of individual bacterial isolates must always be performed to guide selection of the optimal therapeutic option.
    The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 01/2014; 37(2):209-218.