Phytotherapy Research (Phytother Res)

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Phytotherapy Research is a bimonthly plus two additional issues international journal for the publication of original medical plant research including biochemistry and molecular pharmacology toxicology pathology and the clinical applications of herbs and natural products to both human and animal medicine. Papers are also published concerning chemical and botanical identification of herbs or their products where such information contributes to the overall safety of plant based medicines currently in use. Papers and communications concerned solely with the identification and structure elucidation of natural products will only be considered where the work contributes directly to the understanding of the use of the plant as a medicine. Phytotherapy Research publishes full-length original research papers short communications reviews and letters on medicinal plant research. Clincal papers on the applications of herbs and natural products to both human and animal medicine may vary from case histories to full clinical trials. Papers concerned with the effects of common food ingredients and standardised plant extracts including commercial products are welcome as are mechanistic studies on isolated natural products. Phytotherapy Research does not publish purely agricultural phytochemical structure elucidation and identification papers unless pertinent to the pharmacological effects or overall safety of plant based medicines currently in use. Papers dealing with the pharmacology and screening of crude extracts often deal with local medicinal plants and are of only limited interest to an international readership. Therefore please consider carefully whether your paper would be more appropriate to a national journal before sending it to Phytotherapy Research . Crude extract papers will still be considered for publication as short communications but only if they are a single published page in length (equivalent to 600 words to include due allowance for any illustrations). Longer manuscripts will be returned without being reviewed .

Current impact factor: 2.66

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.66
2013 Impact Factor 2.397
2012 Impact Factor 2.068
2011 Impact Factor 2.086
2010 Impact Factor 1.878
2009 Impact Factor 1.746
2008 Impact Factor 1.772
2007 Impact Factor 1.43
2006 Impact Factor 1.144
2005 Impact Factor 1.192
2004 Impact Factor 0.975
2003 Impact Factor 0.803
2002 Impact Factor 0.875
2001 Impact Factor 0.603
2000 Impact Factor 0.422
1999 Impact Factor 0.364
1998 Impact Factor 0.509
1997 Impact Factor 0.525
1996 Impact Factor 0.509
1995 Impact Factor 0.538
1994 Impact Factor 0.46
1993 Impact Factor 0.537
1992 Impact Factor 0.363

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.46
Cited half-life 7.00
Immediacy index 0.57
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.49
Website Phytotherapy Research website
Other titles Phytotherapy research (Online), Phytotherapy research, PTR
ISSN 1099-1573
OCLC 44085665
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • Non-Commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • Dalia Al-Karawi · Doaa Alem Al Mamoori · Yaman Tayyar ·
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    ABSTRACT: Major depression is a common, recurrent, and chronic disease that negatively affects the quality of life and increases the risk of mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that curcumin, the yellow-pigmented substance of the turmeric, possesses antidepressant properties. The aim of this review is to meta-analytically assess the antidepressant effect of curcumin in patients with major depressive disorders. We extensively searched the literature until August 2015. The random-effect model was used to calculate the pooled standardized difference of means (SMD). Subgroup analyses were also performed to examine the effect of different study characteristics on the overall model. Six clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Overall, curcumin administration showed a significantly higher reduction in depression symptoms [SMD = -0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.56, -0.13; p = 0.002]. Subgroup analyses showed that curcumin had the highest effect when given to middle-aged patients (SMD = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.59; -0.13; p = 0.002), for longer duration of administration (SMD = -0.40; 95% CI = -0.64, -0.16; p = 0.001), and at higher doses (SMD = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.59, -0.13; p = 0.002). The administration of new formulation of curcumin (BCM-95) had non-significantly higher effect on depression as compared with the conventional curcumin-piperine formula. We conclude that there is supporting evidence that curcumin administration reduces depressive symptoms in patients with major depression. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5524
  • Xu-Zhao Li · Shuai-Nan Zhang · Fang Lu · Shu-Min Liu ·
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    ABSTRACT: α-Synuclein is a key player in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders with Lewy bodies. Our previous studies have also showed that Acanthopanax senticosus harms (AS) could significantly suppress α-synuclein overexpression and toxicity. Identifying the RNAs related to α-synucleinopathies may facilitate understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases and the safe application of AS in the clinic. Microarray expression profiling of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs was undertaken in control non-transgenic and human α-synuclein transgenic mice. The effects of AS on central nervous system (CNS) in pathology and physiology were investigated based on the lncRNA/mRNA targets analysis. In total, 341 lncRNAs and 279 mRNAs were differentially expressed by α-synuclein stimulus, among which 29 lncRNAs and 25 mRNAs were involved in the anti-α-synucleinopathies mechanism of AS. However, the levels of 19/29 lncRNAs and 12/25 mRNAs in AS group were similar to those in α-synuclein group, which may cause potential neurotoxicity analogous to α-synuclein. This study demonstrated that some of lncRNAs/mRNAs were involved in α-synuclein related pathophysiology, and AS produced the bidirectional effects on CNS under pathological and physiological conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5522
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    ABSTRACT: Ginseng is one of the most commonly used adaptogens. Transformation into the minor ginsenosides produces compounds with more effective action. Beauveria bassiana, a teleomorph of Cordyceps bassiana, is a highly efficient producer of mammalian steroids and produces large amounts of sugar-utilizing enzymes. However, the fermentation of steroid glycosides in ginseng with B. bassiana has never been studied. Thus, we evaluated the bioconversion of the major ginsenosides in white ginseng by B. bassiana. Interestingly, B. bassiana increased the total amount of protopanaxadiols and hydrolyzed Rb1 into minor ginsenosides, exhibiting high levels of Rd and Rg3, as well as moderate levels of Rb2 and Rc analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detection. The β-glucosidase activity was highly increased, which led to the selective elimination of sugar moiety at the 20-C position of Rb1 to Rd, followed by Rg3. Rb2 and Rc accumulated because of the minimal activities of α-L-arabinopyranosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase, respectively. The fermentation product exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HCT-15 cells, which are resistant to ginseng. The product, but not white ginseng, exhibited apoptotic effects via the Fas ligand and caspase 8/9. This study demonstrates for the first time that the B. bassiana-fermented metabolites have potent apoptotic activity in colon cancer cells, linking to a therapeutic use. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5513
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in development of vascular dysfunction in diabetes. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) has been reported to exert antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). The rats were maintained in a state of hyperglycemia for 12 weeks. Then, PCA (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was administered orally or insulin (4 U/kg/day) was subcutaneous injected to the rats for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, vascular responses to vasoactive agents, vascular superoxide production, blood glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes were examined. The diabetic rats showed weight loss, insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, increased oxidative stress, decreased plasma nitric oxide, elevated blood pressure, increased vascular response to phenylephrine and decreased vascular responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. PCA significantly decreased blood glucose and oxidative stress, and increased plasma nitric oxide in diabetic rats. Interestingly, PCA treatment restored blood pressure and vascular reactivity, and antioxidant enzyme activity diabetic rats. This study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of PCA in restoring the vascular reactivity of diabetic rats. The mechanism of action may be associated with an alleviation of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5520
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    ABSTRACT: The flower bud of Zingiber mioga Roscoe, known as 'myoga' or Japanese ginger, has a pungent aroma and is commonly consumed as a spice, with pickles, or as a health supplement in Eastern Asia. Here, we evaluated the activity of myoga in the brain, focusing especially on nerve growth factor (NGF), which is believed to mediate synaptic plasticity, supporting learning and memory. In a rat primary hippocampal astrocyte culture system, treatment with myoga extract for 24 h significantly stimulated the production of NGF. In mice administered myoga extract for 14 days, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day treatment resulted in increased NGF levels in the hippocampus. Myoga extract treatment also regulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and cAMP response element-binding protein in the mouse hippocampus, leading to increased synaptic plasticity. In addition, it significantly increased novel object recognition time and spontaneous alternation, indicating improvement in learning and memory. These results suggest that myoga helps regulate NGF and synaptic plasticity, increasing memory ability. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5511
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    ABSTRACT: Nobiletin, a bioactive polymethoxylated flavone (5,6,7,8,3(') ,4(') -hexamethoxyflavone), is abundant in citrus fruit peel. Although nobiletin exhibits antitumor activity against various cancer cells, the effect of nobiletin on glioma cells remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nobiletin on the human U87 and Hs683 glioma cell lines. Treating glioma cells with nobiletin (20-100 µm) reduced cell viability and arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, as detected using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining, respectively; however, nobiletin did not induce cell apoptosis according to PI-annexin V double staining. Data from western blotting showed that nobiletin significantly attenuated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and E2 promoter-binding factor 1 (E2F1) and the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinases, including p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Our data also showed that nobiletin inhibited glioma cell migration, as detected by both functional wound healing and transwell migration assays. Altogether, the present results suggest that nobiletin inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt/protein kinase B pathways and downregulates positive regulators of the cell cycle, leading to subsequent suppression of glioma cell proliferation and migration. Our findings evidence that nobiletin may have potential for treating glioblastoma multiforme. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5517
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the anti-arthritic activity of Picrorhiza kurroa (PK), on formaldehyde and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat. Administration of Picrorhiza kurroa rhizome extract (PKRE) significantly inhibited joint inflammation in both animal models. In AIA-induced arthritic rat, treatment with PKRE considerably decreased synovial expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNF-R1) and vascular endothelial growth factor as compared with control. The anti-arthritic activity was found to be well substantiated with significant suppression of oxidative and inflammatory markers as there was decreased malonaldehyde, Nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha levels accompanied with increased glutathione and superoxide dismutase, catalase activities. Additionally, PKRE significantly inhibited the expression of degrading enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases-3 and matrix metalloproteinases-9 in AIA-induced arthritic rat. Histopathology of paw tissue displayed decreased inflammatory cell infiltration as compared with control. Taken together, these results demonstrated the anti-arthritic activity of PKRE against experimental arthritis, and the underlying mechanism behind this efficacy might be mediated by inhibition of inflammatory mediators and angiogenesis, improvement of the synovium redox status and decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5509
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the underlying apoptotic mechanism of sanggenol L was elucidated in ovarian cancer cells. Sanggenol L showed cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect in A2780, SKOV-3, and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. Consistently, sanggenol L increased sub-G1 phase population and early and late apoptotic portion in ovarian cancer cells. Also, sanggenol L activated caspase9/3, suppressed the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), attenuated the expression of Cyclin D1, and cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose -ribose) polymerase in SKOV-3, A2780, and OVCAR-3 cells. Furthermore, sanggenol L blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB and also attenuated the expression of NF-κB related genes such as c-Myc, Cyclin D1, and Bcl-X L, Bcl-2, in lipopolysaccharide-treated SKOV-3 cells. Overall, our findings for the first time suggest that sanggenol L induces apoptosis via caspase activation and inhibition of NF-κB/IκBα phosphorylation as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5505
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of lung airways, and pharmacological inhibitors of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) have been considered as therapeutics for the treatment of asthma. However, development of PDE4 inhibitors in clinical trials has been hampered because of the severe side effects of non-selective PDE4 inhibitors. Here, screening of a plant extract library in conjunction with dereplication technology led to identification of baicalin as a new type of PDE4-selective inhibitor. We demonstrated that while rolipram inhibited the enzyme activity of a range of PDE4 subtypes in in vitro enzyme assays, baicalin selectively inhibited the enzyme activity of PDE4A and 4B. In addition, baicalin suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α expression in macrophage where PDE4B plays a key role in lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling. Furthermore, baicalin treatment in an animal model of allergic asthma reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, indicating that the antiinflammatory effects of baicalin in vivo are attributable, in part, to its ability to inhibit PDE4. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5515
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of harmine hydrochloride (HMH) on digestive tumor cells in vitro and its molecular mechanism. MTT assays showed that HMH inhibited the proliferation of some human cancer cell lines and had no obvious inhibitory effects on human LO2 cells. Flow cytometry assays showed that HMH trigged G2 phase arrest in MGC-803 cells and SMMC-7721 cells, while the expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, p21, Myt1, and p-cdc2 (Tyr15) was upregulated. Flow cytometry assays also showed that the percentages of apoptotic cells were increased, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) decreased, and the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly (Adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed, the expression of Bad increased, phospho-Bad (S112) decreased, pro-caspase-8 was cleaved, and Bid (22 kDa) was cleaved. The expression of p-ERK decreased in both cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that HMH upregulates the expression of p21, activates Myt1 and inhibits cdc2 by phospho-cdc2 (Y15), and triggers G2 phase arrest in both MGC-803 cells and SMMC-7721 cells. It can also activate the mitochondria-related cell apoptosis pathway through the caspase-8/Bid pathway, inhibiting the ERK/Bad pathway and promoting apoptosis in both of these two cell types. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5497
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    ABSTRACT: We have tested the effect of protolichesterinic acid (PA) on the activity of the volume-sensitive release pathway for the organic osmolyte taurine (VSOAC) and the expression of the leucine-rich-repeat-channel 8A (LRRC8A) protein, which constitutes an essential VSOAC component. Exposing human lung cancer cells (A549) to PA (20 µg/mL, 24 h) reduces LRRC8A protein expression by 25% and taurine release following osmotic cell swelling (320 → 200 mOsm) by 60%. C75 (20 µg/mL, 24 h), a γ-lactone with a C8 carbon fatty acid chain, reduces VSOAC activity by 30%, i.e. less than PA. Stearic acid (20 µg/mL, 24 h) has no effect on VSOAC. Hence, length of PA's fatty acid chain adds to γ-lactone's inhibitory action. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) activity is essential for swelling-induced activation of VSOAC. PA has no effect on cellular concentration of leukotrienes (5-HETE/LTB4 ) under hypotonic conditions, excluding that PA mediated inhibition of VSOAC involves 5-LO inhibition. A549 cells exposed to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin (10 μM, 24 h) reveal signs of apoptosis, i.e. 25% reduction in cell viability as well as 1.3-, 1.5- and 3.3-fold increase in the expression of LRRC8A, Bax (regulator of apoptosis) and p21 (regulator of cell cycle progression), respectively. PA reduces cell viability by 30% but has no effect on p21/Bax expression. This excludes PA as a pro-apoptotic drug in A549 cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5507
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    ABSTRACT: Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Its stringy seed pulp is freely eaten by humans and animals. Thus, L. owariensis stringy seed pulp was extracted serially with hexane and acetone to isolate and characterize its active pharmaceutical ingredients. Solvent/solvent partition and chromatographic separations afforded four bioactive compounds, (E)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxylcinnamoyl)quinic acid [(E)-Chlorogenic acid], I; (E)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxylcinnamoyl)quinic acid methyl ester [(E)-Chlorogenic acid methyl ester], II; 3,4-Dihydroxylbenzoic acid, (Protocatechuic acid), III; and 22,23-Dihydrostigmaster-3β-ol (3β-Sitosterol) (IV). Structures of I, II and III were assigned by combinations of high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and reference to published literatures, while compound IV was identified by chemical methods and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The phenylpropanoids and phenolic acid (compounds I, II and III) are notable standard antioxidants with confirmed hepatic-protective activity and other exciting biological activities. Compound IV has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity, anti-colon cancer action and a cholesterol-lowering effect. The described compounds are important medicinal constituents of L. owariensis stringy seed pulp, and this is the first major report on the phytochemistry of L. owariensis P. Beauv. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5503
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    ABSTRACT: PAK1 (RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1) is the major oncogenic kinase, and a number of herbal PAK1-blockers such as propolis and curcumin have been shown to be anti-oncogenic and anti-melanogenic as well as anti-alopecia (promoting hair growth). Previously, we found several distinct PAK1-inhibitors in Okinawa plants including Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia). Thus, here, we tested the effects of these herbal compounds and their derivatives on the growth of cancer or normal hair cells, and melanogenesis in cell culture of A549 lung cancer, hair follicle dermal papilla cell, and B16F10 melanoma. Among these herbal PAK1-inhibitors, cucurbitacin I from bitter melon (Goya) turned out to be the most potent to inhibit the growth of human lung cancer cells with the IC50 around 140 nM and to promote the growth of hair cells with the effective dose around 10 nM. Hispidin, a metabolite of 5,6-dehydrokawain from alpinia, inhibited the growth of cancer cells with the IC50 of 25 μM as does artepillin C, the major anti-cancer ingredient in Brazilian green propolis. Mimosine tetrapeptides (MFWY, MFYY, and MFFY) and hispidin derivatives (H1-3) also exhibited a strong anti-cancer activity with the IC50 ranging from 16 to 30 μM. Mimosine tetrapeptides and hispidin derivatives strongly suppressed the melanogenesis in melanoma cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5510
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    ABSTRACT: Drug-metabolizing enzymes inhibition-based drug-drug interaction remains to be the key limiting factor for the research and development of efficient herbal components to become clinical drugs. The present study aims to determine the inhibition of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) isoforms by two important efficient herbal ingredients isolated from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, atractylenolide I and III. In vitro recombinant UGTs-catalysed glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone was used to determine the inhibition capability and kinetics of atractylenolide I and III towards UGT2B7, and in silico docking method was employed to explain the possible mechanism. Atractylenolide I and III exhibited specific inhibition towards UGT2B7, with negligible influence towards other UGT isoforms. Atractylenolide I exerted stronger inhibition potential than atractylenolide III towards UGT2B7, which is attributed to the different hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Inhibition kinetic analysis was performed for the inhibition of atractylenolide I towards UGT2B7. Inhibition kinetic determination showed that atractylenolide I competitively inhibited UGT2B7, and inhibition kinetic parameter (Ki) was calculated to be 6.4 μM. In combination of the maximum plasma concentration of atractylenolide I after oral administration of 50 mg/kg atractylenolide I, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve ration AUCi /AUC was calculated to be 1.17, indicating the highly possible drug-drug interaction between atractylenolide I and drugs mainly undergoing UGT2B7-catalysed metabolism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5496
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of verbascoside in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI). Verbascoside (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered from the day of surgery for 14 days. Spinal cord levels of apoptotic factors and glia markers were quantified on days 3, 7, and 14 post-CCI. Oxidative stress markers were assessed on days 7 and 14. CCI rats exhibited a marked mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and thermal hyperalgesia on days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 post-CCI. A significant increase in the levels of Iba (a marker of microglia activation) and Bax (a proapoptotic factor) was observed on day 3. Iba remained high on day 7. In contrast, there were no differences in glial fibrillary acidic protein contents between sham and CCI animals. Malondialdehyde increased and reduced glutathione decreased on day 14. Verbascoside significantly attenuated behavioral changes associated with neuropathy. Bax decreased, while Bcl-2 was increased by verbascoside on day 3. Verbascoside also reduced Iba protein on days 3 and 7. The results support evidence that microglial activation, apoptotic factors, and oxidative stress may have a pivotal role in the neuropathic pain pathogenesis. It is suggested that antinociceptive effects elicited by verbascoside might be through the inhibition of microglia activation, apoptotic pathways, and antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5512
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    ABSTRACT: Zingiber officinale is used for the management of fever, bronchial asthma and cough for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in human, the active principle of the formulation remains unknown. Herein, we have investigated a water extracted polysaccharides (WEP) containing fraction from its rhizome. Utilizing a traditional aqueous extraction protocol and using chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods a fraction containing a branched glucan and polygalaturonan in a ratio of 59:1 was characterized. This glucan, which has a molecular mass of 36 kDa, is made up of terminal-, (1,4)- and (1,4,6)-linked α-Glcp residues. Oral administration of WEP in doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight significantly inhibited the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts in guinea pigs. It does not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity significantly. Thus, traditional aqueous extraction method provides molecular entities, which induces antitussive activity without addiction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5508
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    ABSTRACT: A combination of extracts from chamomile, silverweed, licorice, angelica, blessed thistle and wormwood, Gastritol(®) Liquid, is registered for the use of indigestion and gastrointestinal spasmodic complaints. To gain data on the experience in practice, a non-interventional open study was conducted in ambulatory patients including diabetics which were treated for 2 weeks. The efficacy of treatment was assessed by medical examination and evaluation of typical symptoms by patients. A total of 149 patients was enrolled, 90 without and 59 with diabetes. The treatment led to relevant improvements in all symptoms in both study groups. The most notable improvements were seen for the symptoms vomiting (-66.7%; diabetics: -63.9%) and retching (-52.2%; diabetics: -53.6%). An overall improvement was rated by about 90% in both study groups. In seven patients adverse events had been reported (5 times temporary nausea after intake, one time gastric spasm and one time oral burning sensation), all of them of mild nature. The global tolerability was assessed as good or very good in more than 80% by practitioners and patients. Under the conditions of this open study method Gastritol(®) Liquid had been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of mild gastrointestinal disorders, including diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5502