Phytotherapy Research (Phytother Res)

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Phytotherapy Research is a bimonthly plus two additional issues international journal for the publication of original medical plant research including biochemistry and molecular pharmacology toxicology pathology and the clinical applications of herbs and natural products to both human and animal medicine. Papers are also published concerning chemical and botanical identification of herbs or their products where such information contributes to the overall safety of plant based medicines currently in use. Papers and communications concerned solely with the identification and structure elucidation of natural products will only be considered where the work contributes directly to the understanding of the use of the plant as a medicine. Phytotherapy Research publishes full-length original research papers short communications reviews and letters on medicinal plant research. Clincal papers on the applications of herbs and natural products to both human and animal medicine may vary from case histories to full clinical trials. Papers concerned with the effects of common food ingredients and standardised plant extracts including commercial products are welcome as are mechanistic studies on isolated natural products. Phytotherapy Research does not publish purely agricultural phytochemical structure elucidation and identification papers unless pertinent to the pharmacological effects or overall safety of plant based medicines currently in use. Papers dealing with the pharmacology and screening of crude extracts often deal with local medicinal plants and are of only limited interest to an international readership. Therefore please consider carefully whether your paper would be more appropriate to a national journal before sending it to Phytotherapy Research . Crude extract papers will still be considered for publication as short communications but only if they are a single published page in length (equivalent to 600 words to include due allowance for any illustrations). Longer manuscripts will be returned without being reviewed .

Current impact factor: 2.66

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.66
2013 Impact Factor 2.397
2012 Impact Factor 2.068
2011 Impact Factor 2.086
2010 Impact Factor 1.878
2009 Impact Factor 1.746
2008 Impact Factor 1.772
2007 Impact Factor 1.43
2006 Impact Factor 1.144
2005 Impact Factor 1.192
2004 Impact Factor 0.975
2003 Impact Factor 0.803
2002 Impact Factor 0.875
2001 Impact Factor 0.603
2000 Impact Factor 0.422
1999 Impact Factor 0.364
1998 Impact Factor 0.509
1997 Impact Factor 0.525
1996 Impact Factor 0.509
1995 Impact Factor 0.538
1994 Impact Factor 0.46
1993 Impact Factor 0.537
1992 Impact Factor 0.363

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.46
Cited half-life 7.00
Immediacy index 0.57
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.49
Website Phytotherapy Research website
Other titles Phytotherapy research (Online), Phytotherapy research, PTR
ISSN 1099-1573
OCLC 44085665
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • Non-Commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Young coconut juice (Cocos nucifera Linn.) (YCJ) has traditionally been consumed to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause by women in Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of YCJ on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Female 10-week-old Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following 4 groups: Baseline, Sham, Ovx, and Ovx + YCJ (n = 10 rats per group). Rats in the Baseline group were sacrificed immediately, and those in the other groups were subjected to either sham operation (Sham) or bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx and Ovx + YCJ). The Ovx + YCJ rats were administered 5×-concentrated YCJ at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight per day. Six weeks after surgery, the rats were sacrificed, and indices of bone mass and bone histomorphometry were measured. The bone mineral density of the left femur was significantly higher in the Ovx + YCJ group compared with the Ovx group. In addition, the Ovx + YCJ group showed significantly higher measurements for bone formation rate compared with the Ovx group. These findings suggest that YCJ supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and thus represents a possible intervention to slow the bone loss observed following menopause. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5489
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    ABSTRACT: Many publications have reported the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for senile vascular dementia (SVD), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM adjunctive therapy (CHMAT), which is CHM combined with RP, in the treatment of SVD. Publications in seven electronic databases were searched extensively, and 27 trials with a total of 1961 patients were included for analysis. Compared with RP alone, CHMAT significantly increased the effective rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30, 3.86]. In addition, CHMAT showed benefits in detailed subgroups of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD 3.01, 95% CI 2.15, 3.87), 8 weeks (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32), 12 weeks (WMD 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.69), and 24 weeks (WMD 3.25, 95% CI 2.61, 3.88), and in the activity of daily living scale score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD -4.64, 95% CI -6.12, -3.17), 8 weeks (WMD -4.30, 95% CI -6.04, -2.56), 12 weeks (WMD -3.89, 95% CI -4.68, -3.09), and 24 weeks (WMD -4.04, 95% CI -6.51, -1.57). Moreover, CHMAT had positive effects on changes in the Hasegawa dementia scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, as well as blood fat levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E), platelet aggregation rate (1-min platelet aggregation rate, 5-min platelet aggregation rate, and maximal platelet aggregation rate), and blood rheology (whole-blood viscosity and hematocrit). No serious or frequently occurring adverse effects were reported. Weaknesses of methodological quality in most trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, while the quality level of Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) evidence classification indicated 'very low'. This systematic review suggests that CHM as an adjunctive therapy can improve cognitive impairment and enhance immediate response and quality of life in SVD patients. However, because of limitations of methodological quality in the included studies, further research of rigorous design is needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5481
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    ABSTRACT: Kursi Caper (KC) is a Uighur medicine based on caper which is widely used to treat arthritis and rheumatism, and preliminary studies in our laboratory showed that this traditional formula may possess potent antiinflammatory effects. This study confirms the antiinflammatory effect of KC in the adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) model, the carrageenan and cotton-pellet induced granuloma rat models, and further investigates in vivo the mechanism of action by measuring relevant indicators of anti-arthritic activity. KC showed significant and dose-dependent anti-arthritic and antiinflammatory effects, demonstrated by reduced paw edema and arthritic scores in all animal models. Histopathological examination showed that KC reduced levels of synovial inflammatory factors in AIA rats. The overproduction of TNF-α and IL-1β was attenuated, and CAT, MDA and SOD levels were restored to normal in KC-treated rats. KC also significantly reduced LPS-induced proliferation of B lymphocytes and ConA induced proliferation of T lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that the high dose KC-treated group had a significantly decreased frequency of Th17 cells. This study indicates that KC can significantly attenuate arthritis and inflammation in rats by decreasing the levels of inflammatory cytokines, regulating oxidative stress, reducing lymphocyte proliferation and decreasing Th17. This supports the traditional use of KC as a potential modern therapeutic agent for the treatment of arthritis and related conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5479
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    ABSTRACT: Brassinin (BSN), a type of indole compound derived from cruciferous vegetables, has shown anti-cancer effects in cells and animals. Capsaicin (CAP), an alkaloid derived from the chilli pepper, is also of interest in for its reported efficacy against various malignancies. The objective of our study was to analyze the potential synergistic anti-tumor effects of BSN combined with CAP on prostate cancer PC-3 cells. After treatment with BSN and CAP at various concentrations, the synergistic cytotoxic effect of PC-3 cells was analyzed by MTT method, proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, colony formation, and Western blotting. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of BSN and CAP on the constitutive expressions of MMP-9/2, their enzymatic activities, cellular migration, and cell invasion were also investigated. The cytotoxicity was synergistically increased in combination compared with the single drug used; moreover, proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and colony formation were significantly suppressed and anti-apoptotic-, proliferative-, and metastatic-related proteins were clearly abolished in the combination group. Besides, constitutive MMP-9/2 expression, their enzymatic activities, cell migration, and tumor cell invasion were inhibited, and TIMP-1 was up-regulated in the combination group in PC-3 cells. Our results indicate, for the first time, that BSN and CAP in combination exert synergistic anticancer effects in prostate carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5478
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate clinical symptoms in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) receiving berberine hydrochloride in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Overall, 196 patients with IBS-D were recruited for this study; consequently, 132 patients randomized to receive daily 400 mg of berberine hydrochloride, delivered twice daily or placebo for 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. After a 2-week run-in period, diarrhea, abdominal pain, urgent need for defecation frequency and any adverse events were recorded daily. Prior to administration of the medication and after completing the treatment, assessment of IBS symptom scores, depression and anxiety scale scores and the IBS scale for quality of life (QOL) was carried out. The effects of berberine hydrochloride on IBS-D, defined by a reduction of diarrhea frequency (P = 0.032), abdominal pain frequency (P < 0.01) and urgent need for defecation frequency (P < 0.01), were significantly more pronounced in the berberine group than the placebo group in the 8 weeks of treatment. A trend of improvement (P < 0.05) was observed with berberine hydrochloride for IBS symptom score, depression score and anxiety score and the IBSQOL, compared with placebo. At last, berberine hydrochloride was well tolerated. So we concluded that berberine hydrochloride is well tolerated and reduces IBS-D symptoms, which effectively improved patients QOL. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5475
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    ABSTRACT: Baicalein, the aglycone formed by hydrolysis of baicalin in the intestine, is well absorbed by passive diffusion but subjected to extensive intestinal glucuronidation. Efflux of baicalin, the low passive permeability glucuronide of baicalein from enterocytes, likely depends on a carrier-mediated transport. The present study was designed to explore potential drug-herb interaction by investigating the inhibitory effect of baicalin on the transport of reporter substrates by transporters and to identify the transporters responsible for the efflux of baicalin from enterocytes and hepatocytes. The interaction of baicalin with specific ABC transporters was studied using membranes from cells overexpressing human BCRP, MDR1, MRP2, MRP3 and MRP4. Baicalin was tested for its potential to inhibit vesicular transport by these transporters. The transport of baicalin by the selected transporters was also investigated. Transport by BCRP, MRP3 and MRP4 was inhibited by baicalin with an IC50 of 3.41 ± 1.83 μM, 14.01 ± 2.51 μM and 14.39 ± 5.69 μM respectively. Inhibition of MDR1 (IC50 = 94.84 ± 31.10 μM) and MRP2 (IC50 = 210.13 ± 110.49 μM) was less potent. MRP2 and BCRP are the apical transporters of baicalin that may mediate luminal efflux in enterocytes and biliary efflux in hepatocytes. The basolateral efflux of baicalin is likely mediated by MRP3 and MRP4 both in enterocytes and hepatocytes. Via inhibition of transport by ABC transporters, baicalin could interfere with the absorption and disposition of drugs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5477
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy is a major diabetic complication predominantly caused by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability in the retina; however, treatments targeting glycemic control have not been successful. Here, we investigated the protective effect of dammarenediol-II, a precursor of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis, on VEGF-induced vascular leakage using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and diabetic mice. We overproduced the compound in transgenic tobacco expressing Panax ginseng dammarenediol-II synthase gene and purified using column chromatography. Analysis of the purified compound using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system revealed identical retention time and fragmentation pattern to those of authentic standard dammarenediol-II. Dammarenediol-II inhibited VEGF-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, but it had no effect on the levels of intracellular Ca(2+) in HUVECs. We also found that dammarenediol-II inhibited VEGF-induced stress fiber formation and vascular endothelial-cadherin disruption, both of which play critical roles in modulating endothelial permeability. Notably, microvascular leakage in the retina of diabetic mice was successfully inhibited by intravitreal dammarenediol-II injection. Our results suggest that the natural drug dammarenediol-II may have the ability to prevent diabetic microvascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5480
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    ABSTRACT: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is closely associated with neuronal plasticity, cognitive function and the etiology of neurological diseases. We previously reported that the standardized ethanolic extract of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina (EEPV) can be used for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments associated with Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EEPV on cognitive ability in normal naive mice and the underlying mechanism(s) governing these effects, including adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In the passive avoidance task, sub-chronic administration of EEPV (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days markedly induced the improvement of cognitive function in mice. In addition, sub-chronic administration of EEPV (25 or 50 mg/kg) for 14 days significantly increased neural cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons, but not newly generated cell survival, in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Increased ERK, Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus were also observed after such administration. Our results indicate that EEPV may enhance cognitive function via the activation of various intracellular signaling molecules and the up-regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5449
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine the vasorelaxant effects of hexahydrocurcumin (HHC), one of the major natural metabolites of curcumin from Curcuma longa, on rat isolated aortic rings, and the underlying mechanisms. Isometric tension of the aortic rings was recorded using organ bath system. HHC (1 nM to 1 mM) relaxed the endothelium-intact aortic rings pre-contracted with PE and KCl in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of the endothelium did not alter the effect of HHC-induced relaxation. In Ca2+-free Krebs solution, HHC significantly inhibited the CaCl2-induced contraction in high K+ depolarized rings and suppressed the transient contraction induced by PE and caffeine in a concentration-dependent manner. HHC was also observed to relax phobal-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), precontracted aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner with EC50 values equivalent to 93.36 ± 1.03 μM. In addition, pre-incubation with propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor blocker) significantly attenuated the HHC-induced vasorelaxation. These results suggest that the vasorelaxant effect of HHC is mediated by the endothelium-independent pathway, probably because of the inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, the inhibition of Ca2+mobilization from intracellular stores, as well as inhibition of PKC-mediated Ca2+-independent contraction. Moreover, HHC produces vasorelaxant effects probably by stimulating the β-adrenergic receptor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5448
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    ABSTRACT: The Eugenia jambolana is used in folklore medicine. Leaves of E. jambolana contain flavonoids as their active constituents which possess in vitro antiinflammatory, antioxidant and the antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of a flavonoid glucoside, trimeric myricetin rhamnoside (TMR) isolated from leaves of E. jambolana. TMR was studied for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema and antioxidant activity in lung by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Results of the present study indicated that TMR significantly attenuated the oedema, myeloperoxidase (MPO), cytokines and prostaglandin levels in the paw after 5 h of carrageenan injection as compared to vehicle control. It also reduced the lung MPO, lipid peroxides, and serum nitrite plus nitrate levels and increased lung reduced glutathione levels 20 h of CLP as compared to vehicle control. Thus the results of this study concluded that the TMR appears to have potential benefits in diseases that are mediated by both inflammation and oxidative stress and support the pharmacological basis of use of E. jambolana plant as traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5446
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    ABSTRACT: Because of health benefits that are manifested across various disease areas, the consumption of herbal products and/or health supplements containing different kinds of flavonoids has been on the rise. While the drug-drug interaction potential between flavonoids and co-ingested drugs still remain an issue, opportunities exist for the combination of flavonoids with suitable anti-cancer drugs to enhance the bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and thereby reduce the dose size of the anti-cancer drugs and improve its therapeutic index. In recent years, scores of flavonoids have undergone preclinical investigation with variety of drugs encompassing therapeutic areas such as oncology (etoposide, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, tamoxifen etc.), immunosuppression (cyclosporine) and hypertension (losartan, felodipine, nitrendipine etc.). The review provides examples of the recent trends in the preclinical investigation of 14 flavonoids (morin, quercetin, silibinin, kaempferol etc.) with various co-administered drugs. The relevance of combination of flavonoids with anti-cancer drugs and a framework to help design the in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies to gain better mechanistic insights are discussed. Also, concise discussions on the various physiological factors that contribute for the reduced bioavailability of flavonoids along with the significant challenges in the data interpretation are provided. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5447
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    ABSTRACT: The leaves of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), a medicinal species found in the Brazilian cerrado biome, are traditionally used to treat wounds and inflammatory disorders. The goal of the present study was to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of ethanolic extract of H. speciosa leaves and its isolated compounds, using the scratch assay, and to evaluate their effects on the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human acute monocytic (THP-1) cells. H. speciosa ethanolic extract significantly increased (42.8% ± 5.4 at 25 µg/mL) cell migration and proliferation of fibroblasts compared with control cells, as well as the isolated compounds bornesitol (80.8% ± 5.1) and quinic acid (69.1% ± 6.2), both assayed at 50 μM. TNF-α release by LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells was significantly reduced by the ethanolic extract (62.9% ± 8.2, i.e. 1791.1 ± 394.7 pg/mL) at 10 µg/mL, bornesitol (48.9% ± 0.9, i.e. 2461.6 ± 43.1 pg/mL) at 50 μM, and quinic acid (90.2% ± 3.4, i.e. 473.5 ± 164.4 pg/mL) and rutin (82.4% ± 5.6, i.e. 847.0 ± 271.8 pg/mL) at 10 μM. These results provided evidences to support the traditional use of H. speciosa leaves to treat wounds and inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5438
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    ABSTRACT: As a natural traditional Chinese medicine, Galla chinensis has been widely used since ancient times for its astringency, stypticity, detoxification, and antibacterial activity. Our group has concentrated on the research about its potential of being an applicable anti-caries agent. The crude extract and some other components purified from it show remarkable efficacy on anticaries, and the most likely mechanism is proposed through specific research. For the fact that crude drugs consist of numerous compounds, and their bioactivity is a result of synergistic effects and/or antagonistic effects of several compounds, it is difficult to clarify the exact mechanism and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of G. chinensis. This review article systematically summarizes previous findings from the following aspects: (1) inhibitory effect on oral bacteria; (2) the demineralization inhibition property; (3) the remineralization-enhancing property; and (4) stability and toxicity evaluation, and thus indicates the further research direction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5444
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites that possess potentially health-promoting properties and which occur in various edible plants and plant products. Especially the stilbenoid resveratrol has been extensively studied regarding its anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive activities. However, research has recently focused on the investigation of other natural or synthetic compounds in order to find substances that show a higher bioactivity and/or bioavailability than resveratrol. In this context, we exemplarily investigated the cytotoxic/growth-inhibiting properties of the resveratrol tetramer r-viniferin on the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and compared them with those of resveratrol. By using the sulforhodamine B assay followed by cell cycle analysis via flow cytometry and commercially available apoptosis/necrosis assay kits, we show that both compounds were able to inhibit the growth of LNCaP cells and to induce a cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. However, r-viniferin was significantly more potent in inhibiting cellular growth than resveratrol and the only compound that increased the apoptotic cellular fraction as well as the activity of apoptosis-associated enzymes. In conclusion, r-viniferin leads to cytotoxicity in LNCaP cells at fairly low concentrations, and it is therefore conceivable that it might be used as a chemopreventive agent or as an adjuvant in prostate cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5443
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    ABSTRACT: Mangosenone F (MSF), a natural xanthone, was isolated form Carcinia mangotana, and a few studies have reported its glycosidase inhibitor effect. In this study we investigated the anti lung cancer effect of MSF both in vitro and in vivo. MSF inhibited cancer cell cytotoxicity and induced and induced apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in NCI-H460. MSF treatment also showed in pronounced release of apoptogenic cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and upregulation of Bax, suggesting that caspase-mediated pathways were involved in MSF-induced apoptosis. ROS activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway was shown to play a predominant role in the apoptosis mechanism of MSF. Compared with cisplatin treatment, MSF treatment showed significantly increased inhibition of the growth of NCI-H460 cells xenografted in nude mice. Together, these results indicate the potential of MSF as a candidate natural anticancer drug by promoting ROS production. © 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5428
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the preventive effect of two different concentrations of α-hederin, the active constituent of Nigella sativa, on lung inflammation and blood cytokines in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs was examined. Forty eight male adult guinea pigs were divided into control (C), sensitized (S) and sensitized pretreated groups; with thymoquinone (S+TQ), low dose (S+LAH) and high dose of α-hederin (S+HAH) and inhaled fluticasone propionate (S+FP). The lung histopathology and blood levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 were assessed. Compared to sensitized animals, all pathological changes improved significantly in pretreated groups (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). These improvements in α-hederin pretreated groups were similar to S+TQ and S+FP groups except cellular infiltration in S+LAH and S+HAH groups which was lower than S+TQ group (p < 0.05). The blood IL-4 and IL-17 levels in S+HAH groups showed a significant decrease compared to S group (p < 0.05) which were similar to S+TQ and S+FP groups. The level of IFN-γ in S+LAH and S+HAH groups increased significantly compared to S group (p < 0.05) which was higher than S+FP group (p < 0.05). Blood IL-4 in S+HAH group was significantly lower than S+LAH group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, α-hederin could attenuate the lung inflammation and improve the changes of cytokines like thymoquinone and fluticasone in used dosages. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5429