Phytotherapy Research (Phytother Res)

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Phytotherapy Research is a bimonthly plus two additional issues international journal for the publication of original medical plant research including biochemistry and molecular pharmacology toxicology pathology and the clinical applications of herbs and natural products to both human and animal medicine. Papers are also published concerning chemical and botanical identification of herbs or their products where such information contributes to the overall safety of plant based medicines currently in use. Papers and communications concerned solely with the identification and structure elucidation of natural products will only be considered where the work contributes directly to the understanding of the use of the plant as a medicine. Phytotherapy Research publishes full-length original research papers short communications reviews and letters on medicinal plant research. Clincal papers on the applications of herbs and natural products to both human and animal medicine may vary from case histories to full clinical trials. Papers concerned with the effects of common food ingredients and standardised plant extracts including commercial products are welcome as are mechanistic studies on isolated natural products. Phytotherapy Research does not publish purely agricultural phytochemical structure elucidation and identification papers unless pertinent to the pharmacological effects or overall safety of plant based medicines currently in use. Papers dealing with the pharmacology and screening of crude extracts often deal with local medicinal plants and are of only limited interest to an international readership. Therefore please consider carefully whether your paper would be more appropriate to a national journal before sending it to Phytotherapy Research . Crude extract papers will still be considered for publication as short communications but only if they are a single published page in length (equivalent to 600 words to include due allowance for any illustrations). Longer manuscripts will be returned without being reviewed .

Current impact factor: 2.40

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.397
2012 Impact Factor 2.068
2011 Impact Factor 2.086
2010 Impact Factor 1.878
2009 Impact Factor 1.746
2008 Impact Factor 1.772
2007 Impact Factor 1.43
2006 Impact Factor 1.144
2005 Impact Factor 1.192
2004 Impact Factor 0.975
2003 Impact Factor 0.803
2002 Impact Factor 0.875
2001 Impact Factor 0.603
2000 Impact Factor 0.422
1999 Impact Factor 0.364
1998 Impact Factor 0.509
1997 Impact Factor 0.525
1996 Impact Factor 0.509
1995 Impact Factor 0.538
1994 Impact Factor 0.46
1993 Impact Factor 0.537
1992 Impact Factor 0.363

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.44
Cited half-life 6.60
Immediacy index 0.44
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.49
Website Phytotherapy Research website
Other titles Phytotherapy research (Online), Phytotherapy research, PTR
ISSN 1099-1573
OCLC 44085665
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Da Hee Lee, Yoon Jeong Nam, Min Sung Lee, Dong Suep Sohn, Yong Kyoo Shin, Chung Soo Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Caffeoyl derivatives exhibit antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, the effect of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid on the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes that may be involved in skin diseases has not been studied. In this respect, we investigated the effect of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes. 3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid and oxidant scavengers attenuated the decrease in the cytosolic levels of Bid, Bcl-2, and survivin proteins; the increase in the levels of cytosolic Bax, p53, and phosphorylated p53; the increase in the levels of phosphorylated p38; the increase in the mitochondrial levels of the voltage-dependent anion channel; loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential; the release of cytochrome c; activation of caspases (8, 9, and 3); cleavage of poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1; production of reactive oxygen species; the depletion of glutathione (GSH); nuclear damage; and cell death in keratinocytes treated with TRAIL. These results suggest that 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid may reduce TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes by suppressing the activation of the caspase-8 and Bid pathways and the mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway. The effect appears to be associated with the inhibitory effect on the production of reactive oxygen species and depletion of GSH. 3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid appears to be effective in the prevention of TRAIL-induced apoptosis-mediated skin diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5425
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    ABSTRACT: Tylosema esculentum (morama) is a highly valued traditional food and source of medicine for the San and other indigenous populations that inhabit the arid to semi-arid parts of Southern Africa. Morama beans are a rich source of phenolic acids, flavonoids, certain fatty acids, non-essential amino acids, certain phytosterols, tannins and minerals. The plant's tuber contains griffonilide, behenic acid and starch. Concoctions of extracts from morama bean, tuber and other local plants are frequently used to treat diarrhoea and digestive disorders by the San and other indigenous populations. Information on composition and bioactivity of phytochemical components of T. esculentum suggests that the polyphenol-rich extracts of the bean testae and cotyledons have great potential as sources of chemicals that inhibit infectious microorganisms (viral, bacterial and fungal, including drug-resistant strains), offer protection against certain non-communicable diseases and promote wound healing and gut health. The potential antinutritional properties of a few morama components are also highlighted. More research is necessary to reveal the full prophylactic and therapeutic potential of the plant against diseases of the current century. Research on domestication and conservation of the plant offers new hope for sustainable utilisation of the plant. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5419
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    ABSTRACT: Lupeol is a triterpenoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antiinflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effects of lupeol on acute pancreatitis specifically have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated the effects of lupeol on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Acute pancreatitis was induced via an intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 µg/kg). In the lupeol treatment group, lupeol was administered intraperitoneally (10, 25, or 50 mg/kg) 1 h before the first cerulein injection. Blood samples were taken to determine serum cytokine and amylase levels. The pancreas was rapidly removed for morphological examination and used in the myeloperoxidase assay, trypsin activity assay, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we isolated pancreatic acinar cells using a collagenase method to examine the acinar cell viability. Lupeol administration significantly attenuated the severity of pancreatitis, as was shown by reduced pancreatic edema, and neutrophil infiltration. In addition, lupeol inhibited elevation of digestive enzymes and cytokine levels, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6. Furthermore, lupeol inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death. In conclusion, these results suggest that lupeol exhibits protective effects on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5423
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    ABSTRACT: Terpenoids from Salvia species have been identified to possess biological properties as antiprotozoal agents. Here, we evaluated the antiamoebic and antigiardial activities of 14 known clerodane and modified clerodane-type diterpenes isolated from five Mexican Salvia species against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia, and analyzed the effects of the functionalities in decalin ring or in the whole clerodane framework to visualize the structural requirements necessary to produce an antiprotozoal activity. Among these, linearolactone was the most active clerodane diterpene against both protozoa with IC50 values of 22.9 μM for E. histolytica and of 28.2 μM in the case of G. lamblia. In this context it may be a lead compound for the development of novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. The remaining diterpenes assayed showed moderate to weak activity against both protozoa. These findings give support to the use of Salvia species in the traditional medicine from México for the treatment of diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5421
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    ABSTRACT: Repeated low doses of alcohol have been shown to progressively enhance locomotor activity in mice, and this phenomenon is designated as behavioral sensitization. Thymoquinone, a major active component of Nigella sativa oil has been investigated in a number of studies for its neuroprotective effects against a variety of ailments. This study was conducted to explore the therapeutic potential of thymoquinone on the acquisition and expression of alcohol-induced behavioral sensitization. Mice treated with alcohol (2.2 g/kg/day) or saline for 13 days and subsequently challenged with an acute alcohol dose (2.2 g/kg) 5 days later were orally administered acute doses of thymoquinone (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg). Thymoquinone subacute treatment with all doses throughout alcohol exposure significantly inhibited both the development and expression phases of alcohol behavioral sensitization in a dose-dependent manner. However, acute treatment with thymoquinone (30 mg/kg) only reversed the expression phase of sensitization. These findings are explained in terms of the known GABA promoting action of thymoquinone in relation to the motive circuit within the limbic component of the basal ganglia. It is concluded that thymoquinone may be a potential therapeutic option for the treatment and prevention of alcohol induced behavioral sensitization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5409
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    ABSTRACT: [6]-Gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [10]-gingerol are pungent components of fresh ginger, extracts of which inhibit various components of the inflammatory response. Because little is known regarding the effect of gingerols with different unbranched alkyl side chain lengths on the activation and effector function of T lymphocytes, we compared the effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [10]-gingerol on murine T lymphocyte proliferation, expression of CD25 and CD69 activation markers, cytokine synthesis, and interleukin (IL)-2 receptor signaling. All three gingerols inhibited DNA synthesis by T lymphocytes, as well as interferon-γ synthesis. In contrast, only [8]-gingerol and [10]-gingerol inhibited CD25 and CD69 expression, and IL-2 synthesis. None of the gingerols affected IL-4 synthesis. Exogenous IL-2 enhanced T lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of [6]-gingerol but did not significantly increase T lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of [8]-gingerol or [10]-gingerol. In line with this finding, [8]-gingerol and [10]-gingerol impaired IL-2-induced proliferation of CTLL-2 cells, but constitutive CD25 expression was unaffected, indicating inhibition of IL-2 receptor signaling. In general, [10]-gingerol and [8]-gingerol were more potent inhibitors of T lymphocytes than [6]-gingerol. Suppression of T lymphocyte responses by gingerols suggests that these phytochemicals may be beneficial in chronic inflammatory conditions associated with excessive or inappropriate T lymphocyte activation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5414
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    ABSTRACT: Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine and has been used to treat diabetic symptoms. Notwithstanding its use, the scientific basis on anti-diabetic properties of L. japonica is not yet established. This study is designed to investigate anti-diabetic effects of L. japonica in type 2 diabetic rats. L. japonica was orally administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced rats. After the treatment of 4 weeks, L. japonica reduced high blood glucose level and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in diabetic rats. In addition, body weight and food intake were restored by the L. japonica treatment. In the histopathologic examination, the amelioration of damaged β-islet in pancreas was observed in L. japonica-treated diabetic rats. The administration of L. japonica elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor subunit-1 protein expressions. The results demonstrated that L. japonica had anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetic rats via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulatory action of L. japonica as a potential mechanism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5413
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Nigella sativa (NS) oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet on lipid peroxidation and oxidative status in obese women. In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 50 volunteer obese (body mass index = 30-35 kg/m(2) ) women aged 25-50 years old were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into intervention (n = 25) and placebo (n = 25) groups. They received a low-calorie diet with 3 g/day NS oil or low-calorie diet with 3 g/day placebo for 8 weeks. Forty-nine women (intervention group = 25; placebo group = 24) completed the trial. NS oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet decreased weight in the NS group compared to the placebo group (-4.80 ± 1.50 vs. -1.40 ± 1.90 kg; p < 0.01). Comparison of red blood cell superoxidase dismutase (SOD) indicated significant changes in the NS group compared to the placebo group at the end of the study (88.98 ± 87.46 vs. -3.30 ± 109.80 U/gHb; p < 0.01). But no significant changes in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity concentrations were observed. NS oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet decreased weight and increased SOD levels in obese women. However, more studies are suggested to confirm the positive effects of NS in obesity and its complications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5417
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    ABSTRACT: The increase in endothelial permeability often promotes edema formation in various pathological conditions. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a pro-atherogenic cytokine, impairs endothelial barrier function and causes endothelial dysfunction in early stage of atherosclerosis. Asiaticoside, one of the triterpenoids derived from Centella asiatica, is known to possess antiinflammatory activity. In order to examine the role of asiaticoside in preserving the endothelial barrier, we assessed its effects on endothelial hyperpermeability and disruption of actin filaments evoked by TNF-α in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). TNF-α caused an increase in endothelial permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran. Asiaticoside pretreatment significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced increased permeability. Asiaticoside also prevented TNF-α-induced actin redistribution by suppressing stress fiber formation. However, the increased F to G actin ratio stimulated by TNF-α was not changed by asiaticoside. Cytochalasin D, an actin depolymerizing agent, was used to correlate the anti-hyperpermeability effect of asiaticoside with actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, asiaticoside failed to prevent cytochalasin D-induced increased permeability. These results suggest that asiaticoside protects against the disruption of endothelial barrier and actin rearrangement triggered by TNF-α without a significant change in total actin pool. However, asiaticoside seems to work by other mechanisms to maintain the integrity of endothelial barrier rather than stabilizing the F-actin organization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5404
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    ABSTRACT: Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a biologically active molecule found in most of the medicinally valuable plants. The present study aims to evaluate the anticancer property of costunolide isolated from Costus speciosus against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Costunolide effectively reduced the viability of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines at an IC50 value of 40 μM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed costunolide mediated cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in both the cell types. Western blotting results confirmed the alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulators (cyclin D1, D3, CDK-4, CDK-6, p18 INK4c, p21 CIP1/Waf-1 and p27 KIP1) and apoptosis inducers (caspase-3 and caspase-9) upon costunolide treatment in comparison with their expressions in normal breast cell line (MCF-10A). Costunolide mediated downregulation of positive cell cycle regulators and upregulation of negative cell cycle regulators were related to the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The above results were validated with in-silico results that predicted stable interactions between costunolide and cancer targets. Thus costunolide effectively induced breast cancer cell apoptosis targeting cell cycle regulation, and the compound can be used as an effective herbal therapeutic molecule to treat breast cancer with further explorations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5408
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    ABSTRACT: Ethno-botanical inspired isolation from plant Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Sweet Broomweed) yielded six compounds, coixol (1), glutinol (2), glutinone (3), friedelin (4), betulinic acid (5), and tetratriacontan-1-ol (6). There structures were identified using mass and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their insulin secretory activity on isolated mice islets and MIN-6 pancreatic β-cell line, and compounds 1 and 2 were found to be potent and mildly active, respectively. Compound 1 was further evaluated for insulin secretory activity on MIN-6 cells. Compound 1 was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity assay against MIN-6, 3T3 cell lines, and islet cells, and in vivo acute toxicity test in mice that was found to be non-toxic. The insulin secretory activity of compounds 1 and 2 supported the ethno-botanic uses of S. dulcis as an anti-diabetic agent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5412
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    ABSTRACT: Bone is constantly controlled by a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Liquiritigenin is a plant-derived flavonoid and has various pharmacological effects, such as antioxidative, antitumor, and antiinflammatory effects. Here, we show that liquiritigenin has dual effects on the proliferation of bone cells, regarding the promotion of osteoblast differentiation and the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. Liquiritigenin-treated murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells showed an increased alkaline phosphatase activity and enhanced phosphorylation of Smad1/5 compared with untreated cells. Moreover, liquiritigenin inhibited osteoclast differentiation, its bone-resorption activity through slightly decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa Bα; however, the phosphorylation of Akt and p38 slightly increased in bone marrow-derived osteoclasts. The expression levels of the osteoclast marker proteins nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic-1, Src, and cathepsin K diminished. These results suggest that liquiritigenin may be useful as a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for osteoporosis or inflammatory bone diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5416
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    ABSTRACT: Decreasing numbers, and impaired function, of pancreatic β-cells are key factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. This study was designed to investigate whether phloroglucinol protected pancreatic β-cells against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis using a rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1). High glucose treatment (30 mM) induced INS-1 cell death; however, the level of glucose-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced in cells treated with 100-μM phloroglucinol. Treatment with 10-100-μM phloroglucinol increased cell viability and decreased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation dose-dependently in INS-1 cells pretreated with high glucose. Furthermore, phloroglucinol treatment markedly reduced the protein expression of Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 9, while increasing anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. Cell death type was examined using annexin V/propidium iodide staining, revealing that phloroglucinol markedly reduced high glucose-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrated that phloroglucinol could be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for the protection of pancreatic β-cells against glucose-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5407
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    ABSTRACT: Pachymic acid (PA) is a lanostane-type triterpenoid derived from Poria cocos mushroom that possess various biological effects such as anti-cancer, antiinflammatory and anti-metastasis effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of PA in EJ bladder cancer cells. The results showed that PA significantly inhibited proliferation of EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner. PA induced accumulation of sub-G1 DNA content (apoptotic cell population), apoptotic bodies and chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation in EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner. PA also induces activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and subsequent cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and significantly suppressed the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PA activates Bid and induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) with up-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bad), down-regulated anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and cytochrome c release. In turn, PA increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); also, the ROS production was blocked by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The expressions of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand and death receptor 5 were up-regulated by PA in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting extrinsic pathway also involved in PA-induced apoptosis. This study provides evidence that PA might be useful in the treatment of human bladder cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5402
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a well-known inflammatory cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggested potential anti-atherosclerosis effects of becatamide found in Houttuynia cordata. Therefore, in this study, we investigated potential effect of becatamide (1) and its analogues (enferamide (2), veskamide (3), oretamide (4) and amkamide (5)) on cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 and the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which are critically involved in platelet activation. Among them, becatamide was the most potent compound able to inhibit COX-1 (IC50 = 0.27 µm) and -2 (IC50 = 0.78 µm) (p < 0.05). The decreasing order of COX-1 and -2 inhibition activity was becatamide > veskamide > enferamide > oretamide > amkamide. As a result of the inhibition, the production of thromboxane B2 and P-selectin expression were suppressed by 35% (p < 0.05) and 28% (p < 0.05), respectively, in mouse blood treated with becatamide (0.25 µm). However, becatamide did not increase intracellular cAMP in platelets. Therefore, the suppression of P-selectin expression was not blocked by beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonists, suggesting that the COX inhibition is likely an underlying mechanism for the P-selectin suppression. In summary, becatamide may be a potent compound to inhibit platelet activation by inhibiting COX enzymes, not by increasing cAMP. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
    Phytotherapy Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5391
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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis is the main cause of death in lung cancer. Targeting the process of metastasis is a strategy to lung cancer treatment. Trillium tschonoskii Maxim., a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for treatment of many diseases, including cancer. This study aims to determine the anti-metastatic effect of paris saponin VII (PS VII) which was extracted from T. tschonoskii Maxim. by using human lung cancer cell line A549 cells. Our results showed that PS VII could significantly suppress the viability as well as cell migration and invasion abilities of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. PS VII reduced the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 by elevating the expression of TIMP1/2. These data indicated that PS VII could reduce the metastatic capability of A549 cells, probably through up-regulating the expression of TIMP1/2. These findings demonstrated a new therapeutic potential for PS VII in anti-metastatic therapy of lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5389