Phytotherapy Research (Phytother Res)

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Phytotherapy Research is a bimonthly plus two additional issues international journal for the publication of original medical plant research including biochemistry and molecular pharmacology toxicology pathology and the clinical applications of herbs and natural products to both human and animal medicine. Papers are also published concerning chemical and botanical identification of herbs or their products where such information contributes to the overall safety of plant based medicines currently in use. Papers and communications concerned solely with the identification and structure elucidation of natural products will only be considered where the work contributes directly to the understanding of the use of the plant as a medicine. Phytotherapy Research publishes full-length original research papers short communications reviews and letters on medicinal plant research. Clincal papers on the applications of herbs and natural products to both human and animal medicine may vary from case histories to full clinical trials. Papers concerned with the effects of common food ingredients and standardised plant extracts including commercial products are welcome as are mechanistic studies on isolated natural products. Phytotherapy Research does not publish purely agricultural phytochemical structure elucidation and identification papers unless pertinent to the pharmacological effects or overall safety of plant based medicines currently in use. Papers dealing with the pharmacology and screening of crude extracts often deal with local medicinal plants and are of only limited interest to an international readership. Therefore please consider carefully whether your paper would be more appropriate to a national journal before sending it to Phytotherapy Research . Crude extract papers will still be considered for publication as short communications but only if they are a single published page in length (equivalent to 600 words to include due allowance for any illustrations). Longer manuscripts will be returned without being reviewed .

Current impact factor: 2.40

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.397
2012 Impact Factor 2.068
2011 Impact Factor 2.086
2010 Impact Factor 1.878
2009 Impact Factor 1.746
2008 Impact Factor 1.772

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.44
Cited half-life 6.60
Immediacy index 0.44
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.49
Website Phytotherapy Research website
Other titles Phytotherapy research (Online), Phytotherapy research, PTR
ISSN 1099-1573
OCLC 44085665
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ginger possesses analgesic and pharmacological properties mimicking non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We aimed to determine if ginger supplementation is efficacious for attenuating muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following high-intensity resistance exercise. Following a 5-day supplementation period of placebo or 4 g ginger (randomized groups), 20 non-weight trained participants performed a high-intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercise protocol to induce muscle damage. Markers associated with muscle damage and DOMS were repeatedly measured before supplementation and for 4 days following the exercise protocol. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed one repetition maximum lift decreased significantly 24 h post-exercise in both groups (p < 0.005), improved 48 h post-exercise only in the ginger group (p = 0.002), and improved at 72 (p = 0.021) and 96 h (p = 0.044) only in the placebo group. Blood creatine kinase significantly increased for both groups (p = 0.015) but continued to increase only in the ginger group 72 (p = 0.006) and 96 h (p = 0.027) post-exercise. Visual analog scale of pain was significantly elevated following eccentric exercise (p < 0.001) and was not influenced by ginger. In conclusion, 4 g of ginger supplementation may be used to accelerate recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise but does not influence indicators of muscle damage or DOMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5328
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    ABSTRACT: Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5329
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    ABSTRACT: As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5326
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    ABSTRACT: Glycitin is a soy isoflavone that exhibits antioxidant, antiallergic, and anti-osteoporosis activities. We investigated the effects of glycitin on dermal fibroblast proliferation and migration. Treatment of primary dermal fibroblasts with glycitin increased cell proliferation and migration. In addition, treatment with 20 μM glycitin for 24 h induced the synthesis of collagen type I and type III at both the mRNA and protein levels. Fibronectin was also increased by 20% after treatment. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 collagenase was decreased in the media after 24-h incubation with glycitin, and the synthesis of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) mRNA increased approximately twofold in cells following glycitin treatment. Phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 increased after 1 h of glycitin treatment, and phosphorylation continued for 24 h. Furthermore, the phosphorylated form of AKT was increased in glycitin-treated cells after 3 h and remained higher for 24 h. Thus, glycitin treatment produces anti-aging effects including increased total collagen in the culture media, decreased elastase, and decreased β-galactosidase. Together, these results indicate that glycitin stimulates TGF-β secretion, and the subsequent autocrine actions of TGF-β induce proliferation of fibroblasts, ultimately protecting skin cells from aging and wrinkling. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5313
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    ABSTRACT: Extracted compounds from Caesalpinia sappan L. were examined for the inhibitory activity against NO, PGE2 , and TNF-α productions and on associated transcription levels using RAW264.7 cells. They were also tested for their effects on wound healing using fibroblast L929 cells. Among the compounds tested, brazilin (8) was the most effective against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 10.3 μM, followed by sappanchalcone (2, 31.0 μM). Brazilin (8) also inhibited PGE2 and TNF-α production with IC50 values of 12.6 and 87.2 μM, respectively. The antiinflammatory mechanism of brazilin involved down regulation of the mRNA expressions of the iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α genes in a dose-dependent manner. An ethanol (EtOH) extract of C. sappan significantly increased fibroblast proliferation, fibroblast migration, and collagen production, whereas brazilin (8) only stimulated fibroblast migration. In addition, the EtOH extract showed no acute toxicity in mice, and it was therefore safe to make use of its potent antiinflammatory and wound healing activities. Brazilin was mainly responsible for its antiinflammatory effect through its ability to inhibit the production of NO, PGE2 , and TNF-α. This study supports the traditional use of C. sappan for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5321
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    ABSTRACT: The present study involves evaluation of antioxidant potential of Crocus sativus and its main constituents, safranal (SFN) and crocin (CRO), in bronchial epithelial cells, followed antiinflammatory potential of the active constituent safranal, in a murine model of asthma. To investigate the antioxidizing potential of Crocus sativus and its main constituents in bronchial epithelial cells, the stress was induced in these cells by a combination of different cytokines that resulted in an increase in nitric oxide production (NO), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, peroxynitrite ion generation, and cytochrome c release. Treatment with saffron and its constituents safranal and crocin resulted in a decrease of NO, iNOS levels, peroxynitrite ion generation, and prevented cytochrome c release. However, safranal significantly reduced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells via iNOS reduction besides preventing apoptosis in these cells. In the murine model of asthma study, antiinflammatory role of safranal was characterized by increased airway hyper-responsiveness, airway cellular infiltration, and epithelial cell injury. Safranal pretreatment to these allergically inflamed mice lead to a significant decrease in airway hyper-responsiveness and airway cellular infiltration to the lungs. It also reduced iNOS production, bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis, and Th2 type cytokine production in the lungs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5315
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15 days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5317
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    ABSTRACT: Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu heartwood are rich source of catechin and epicatechin (gallic acid derivatives), with smaller amounts of flavonoids. Extracts have also been prepared with ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol, and the properties of these extracts have been studied and are reviewed. Potent antioxidant activity has been well established in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This antioxidant activity is believed to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory, tissue protectant, antineoplastic, and analgesic activities that have been demonstrated and clearly established in animal and cell culture systems. Furthermore, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities have been demonstrated in animal studies. No adverse effects have been observed in animal or human studies or in cell culture systems. In spite of the fact that Acacia products have been used for many years and the general safety of catechins and epicatechins is well documented, few human studies have ever been conducted on the efficacy or safety of A. catechu heartwood extracts. Several studies have shown that a two-ingredient combination product containing A. catechu extract exhibited no adverse effects when administered daily for up to 12 weeks while exhibiting significant anti-inflammatory activity in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. There is a need for additional human clinical studies with regard to efficacy and safety. © 2015 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5335
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    ABSTRACT: Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine. In the present work, we explored the effects of decoction, traditional Ayurvedic preparation, and hydroalcoholic extract, a phytocomplex more traditionally studied and commercialized as food supplement in western medicine, from the roots as possible source of chemicals with new functional potential linked to their nutritional uses. The antiproliferative and antioxidant properties were assayed. To test antiproliferative affects, different cancer cell lines, growing both as monolayers (CaCo2, MCF-7, A549, K562, MDA-MB-231, Jurkat, HepG2, and LoVo) and in suspension (K562 and Jurkat) were used. The decoction showed strong activity on HepG2 cells, while the hydroalcoholic extracts were active on HepG2, LoVo, MCF-7, K562, and Jurkat cell lines. Weak inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was observed for the principal constituents of the preparations: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that were tested alone. The antiradical activity was tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt tests and inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Interesting result has also been obtained for hydroalcoholic extract regarding genoprotective potential (58.79% of inhibition at 37.5 µg/mL). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5322
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    ABSTRACT: Galbanic acid (GBA), a major compound of Ferula assafoetida, was known to have cytotoxic, anti-angiogenic and apoptotic effects in prostate cancer and murine Lewis lung cancer cells; the underling apoptotic mechanism of GBA still remains unclear so far. Thus, in the present study, the apoptotic mechanism of GBA was investigated mainly in H460 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells because H460 cells were most susceptible to GBA than A549, PC-9 and HCC827 NSCLC cells. Galbanic acid showed cytotoxicity in wild EGFR type H460 and A549 cells better than other mutant type PC-9 and HCC827 NSCLC cells. Also, GBA significantly increased the number of Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells and sub G1 population in H460 cells. Western blotting revealed that GBA cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), activated Bax and caspase 9, attenuated the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL , and Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) in H460 cells. However, interestingly, overexpression of Mcl-1 blocked the ability of GBA to exert cytotoxicity, activate caspase9 and Bax, cleave PARP, and increase sub G1 accumulation in H460 cells. Overall, these findings suggest that GBA induces apoptosis in H460 cells via caspase activation and Mcl-1 inhibition in H460 cells as a potent anticancer agent for NSCLC treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5320
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    ABSTRACT: Mucus overproduction is a significant component of the pathophysiology of obstructive lung diseases. Currently, there are only a few medications available that inhibit mucus production. Previous studies showed that glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis inhibits mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) mRNA and protein expression. Other potential mucus production inhibitory compounds contained within in G. uralensis have not been fully investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine if the G. uralensis flavonoid 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone (7,4'-DHF) inhibits MUC5AC gene expression, mucus production, and secretion, and if so, to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition. 7,4'-Dihydroxyflavone significantly decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated NCI-H292 human airway epithelial cell MUC5AC gene expression and mucus production, at a 28-fold lower concentration than glycyrrhizin (The half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 value of 1.4 μM vs 38 μM, respectively); 7,4'-DHF also inhibited MUC5AC mucus secretion. Inhibition was associated with the suppression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) activation, and enhanced histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression. In a murine model of asthma, 7,4'-DHF-treated mice exhibited a marked reduction in MUC5AC secretion in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with control mice. These findings, together with previous findings linking NF-κB, STAT6, and HDAC2 modulation to the control of MUC5AC expression, demonstrate that 7,4'-DHF is a newly identified component of G. uralensis that regulates MUC5AC expression and secretion via regulation of NF-κB, STAT6, and HDAC2. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5334
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    ABSTRACT: Xylaria nigripes (XN) is a medicinal fungus with a high-economic value. The aim of this study was to explore the hypoglycemic effects and mechanisms of the XN aqueous extract in steroid-induced insulin-resistant (SIIR) rats. Significant hypoglycemic effects were observed 60 min after administration of XN aqueous extract. In normal Wistar, hypoglycemic effects were 21% (the plasma glucose level decreased from 128.6 ± 12.5 to 100.9 ± 10.7 mg/dL). In SIIR, hypoglycemic effects were 26% (the plasma glucose level decreased from 177.6 ± 12.5 to 133.3 ± 29.7 mg/dL) rats refer to their baseline. The signaling proteins for insulin-receptor substrate-1 and glucose transporter-4 increased 0.51-fold and 1.12-fold, respectively, as determined by Western blotting; the increase in the proteins was 13% and 9%, respectively, as determined by immunohistochemistry. The serotonin antagonist, α-p-chlorophenylalanine, effectively blocked the hypoglycemic effects and increased the signaling protein levels. After XN administration, none of the animals showed significant changes in plasma-free fatty acids in 60 min. In summary, the XN extract may have hypoglycemic effects in normal Wistar and SIIR rats that may have a serotonin-related hypoglycemic effect and enhance insulin sensitivity in the SIIR rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5314
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    ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia sappan L. (Caesalpiniaceae) has been traditionally used as blood tonic, expectorant, and astringent by boiling with water. Searching for HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors from this plant is a promising approach. The EtOH extract of C. sappan and its isolated compounds were tested for their anti-HIV-1 IN effect using the multiplate integration assay, and the active compounds were determined for their mechanisms by molecular docking technique. Extraction from the heartwoods and roots of C. sappan led to the isolation of nine compounds. Among the compounds tested, sappanchalcone (2) displayed the strongest effect against HIV-1 IN with an IC50 value of 2.3 μM followed by protosappanin A (9, IC50 = 12.6 μM). Structure-activity relationships of compounds from C. sappan were found, in which the vicinal hydroxyl moiety were essential for anti-HIV-1 IN effect of compounds 2 and 9 by binding with the amino acid residues Gln148 and Thr66 in the core domain of the HIV- 1 IN enzyme, respectively. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5307
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    ABSTRACT: This is a report on the synergistic interactions (SIs) between melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones 1-8 from Acanthospermum hispidum DC., and oxacillin or gentamicin, against four pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis; two of them were multi-resistant strains obtained from chronic infectious processes. Our results showed that all associations of 1-8 with antibiotics (ATBs) are more effective than pure ATBs to control pathogenic strains of S. aureus and E. faecalis. The most relevant SIs were observed when the major lactone of A. hispidum, acanthospermal B [5], was combined with gentamicin (protein synthesis inhibitor) against an ex vivo culture of methicillin-resistant S. aureus SAR 1, displaying a significant MIC reduction in 5 (312.5 to 78.1 µg/mL), and gentamicin (120 µg/mL to 3 µg/mL). Compound 4 improved the antibiotic potency of oxacillin (cell wall synthesis inhibitor) against ampicillin-resistant E. faecalis (60 µg/mL to 1.5 µg/mL). It is important to remark that three beneficial lactobacilli were resistant to 1-8 and their mixtures with gentamicin or oxacillin in effective concentrations against pathogenic bacteria. Synergism between ATBs and phytochemicals is a therapeutically helpful concept to improve ATB efficacy and prevent resistance. The present results show that selective SIs occur between melampolides and gentamicin or oxacillin, and open a new field of research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5301
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) and its constituent, carvacrol, in guinea pigs model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were examined. Animals were divided into control, COPD, COPD + drinking water containing three concentrations of extract of Z. multiflora (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/ml), COPD + drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (60, 120 and 240 µg/ml) and COPD + dexamethasone (50 µg/ml). COPD was induced by exposing animals to cigarette smoke for 3 months. Emphysema as a pathological change of the lung and tracheal responsiveness were measured (n = 5 for control and COPD groups and n = 6 for another groups). Tracheal responsiveness (p < 0.05) and emphysema were significantly increased (p < 0.001) in COPD compared to the control group. Tracheal responsiveness in COPD groups treated with two higher concentrations of the Z. multiflora and three concentrations of carvacrol, and emphysema in treated with highest concentration of Z. multiflora and carvacrol were significantly improved compared to COPD group. Studied parameters were also significantly improved in the treated group with dexamethasone compared to COPD animals (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). The results indicated a preventive effect of Z. multiflora extract and its constituent, carvacrol, on tracheal responsiveness and pathological changes of the lung. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/ptr.5309