Phytochemical Analysis

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Phytochemical Analysis is devoted to the publication of original articles on the utilization of analytical methodology in the plant sciences. The spectrum of coverage is broad encompassing methods and techniques relevant to the extraction separation purification identification and qualification of substances in plant biochemistry plant cellular and molecular biology plant biotechnology the food sciences agriculture and horticulture. The Journal welcomes papers on the analysis of whole plants (including bacteria and algae) plant cells tissues and organs plant-derived extracts and plant products (including those which have been partially or completely refined for use in the food agrochemical pharmaceutical and related industries). All forms of physical chemical biochemical spectroscopic radiometric electrometric and chromatographic investigations of plant products (monomeric species as well as polymeric molecules such as nucleic acids proteins lipids and carbohydrates) will be included. Phytochemical Analysis is intended to serve as a major resource for information on analytical and instrumental methodology in the plant sciences. Review articles will be published and they will set out to explain the fundamental basis of a specified methodology together with its applications placing special emphasis on the particular importance and likely potential in the field of plant analysis. It is intended to provide also for a number of rapid (i.e. accelerated) communications where special conditions of timeliness or significance can be demonstrated.

Current impact factor: 2.45

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.45
2012 Impact Factor 2.48
2011 Impact Factor 2.633
2010 Impact Factor 1.848
2009 Impact Factor 1.744
2008 Impact Factor 1.542
2007 Impact Factor 1.524
2006 Impact Factor 1.228
2005 Impact Factor 1.398
2004 Impact Factor 1.385
2003 Impact Factor 1.394
2002 Impact Factor 1.439
2001 Impact Factor 0.973
2000 Impact Factor 1.206
1999 Impact Factor 0.798
1998 Impact Factor 0.912
1997 Impact Factor 1.198
1996 Impact Factor 0.833
1995 Impact Factor 1.5
1994 Impact Factor 1.395

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.28
Cited half-life 7.20
Immediacy index 0.29
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.52
Website Phytochemical Analysis website
Other titles Phytochemical analysis (Online), Phytochemical analysis, PCA
ISSN 1099-1565
OCLC 44085634
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley

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    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Specific triterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Centella asiatica have been found to be bioactive. Harvesting the plant when these putative bioactive compounds are at their highest concentrations would provide consistency in their chemical profile, thus ensuring the quality and efficacy of derived medicinal products. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of harvesting time on the contents of major triterpenoid and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica. Australian C. asiatica was collected from a designated area in different months. The principal triterpenes (asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid), flavonoid compounds (rutin, quercetin and kaempferol) and chlorogenic acid were quantitatively determined by HPLC-DAD analysis. Triterpenoid, kaempferol and chlorogenic acid content showed significant variation (p < 0.05) in different collecting months. The total content of the four triterpenes reached its highest levels in January and February (83.15 ± 0.16 mg/g and 78.41 ± 0.16 mg/g, respectively), the summer season of the southern hemisphere, and their lowest values in winter (June) and spring (October) seasons (35.65 ± 0.20 and 35.50 ± 0.55 mg/g, respectively). Similarly, the contents of chlorogenic acid and kaempferol were the highest in December and January (1.62 ± 0.01 and 0.33 ± 0.01 mg/g, respectively), and the lowest in June (0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.01 mg/g, respectively). The results indicate that harvesting C. asiatica in summer returns the highest yield of the target triterpenoids, kaempferol and chlorogenic acid. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2578
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    ABSTRACT: Lipase inhibitory assays based on TLC bioautography have made recent progress; however, an assay with greater substrate specificity and quantitative capabilities would advance the efficacy of this particular bioassay. To address these limitations, a new TLC bioautographic assay for detecting lipase inhibitors was developed and validated in this study. The new TLC bioautographic assay was based on reaction of lipase with β-naphthyl myristate and the subsequent formation of the purple dye between β-naphthol and Fast Blue B salt (FBB). The relative lipase inhibitory capacity (RLIC) was determined by a TLC densitometry with fluorescence detection, expressed as orlistat equivalents in millimoles on a per sample weight basis. Six pure compounds and three natural extracts were evaluated for their potential lipase inhibitory activities by this TLC bioautographic assay. The β-naphthyl myristate as the substrate improved the detection sensitivity and specificity significantly. The limit of detection (LOD) of this assay was 0.01 ng for orlistat, the current treatment for obesity. This assay has acceptable accuracy (92.07-105.39%), intra-day and inter-day precisions [relative standard deviation (RSD), 2.64-4.40%], as well as intra-plate and inter-plate precisions (RSD, 1.8-4.9%). The developed method is rapid, simple, stable, and specific for screening and estimation of the potential lipase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2581
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    ABSTRACT: Systematic analyses of naphthoquinones in Juglans cathayensis have not yet been reported. It is very challenging to identify naphthoquinones with various structural diversities, especially those at trace levels. To develop an efficient analytical approach for systematic discovery and identification of naphthoquinones in Juglans cathayensis. A novel four-step approach was evaluated by utilizing various scan functions of liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QTRAP-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS) along with data mining strategies. First, MS/MS fragmentation behaviors of naphthoquinones were investigated. Second, multiple ion monitoring triggered enhanced product ion scan (MIM-EPI) with specified ions was conducted to identify targeted naphthoquinones. Third, other scan functions of QTRAP-MS/MS and data mining strategies were explored to identify untargeted naphthoquinones. Fourth, structural rationalization and confirmation of naphthoquinones were performed using QTOF-MS/MS via its accurate mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation functions. Optimal scan methods and data mining strategies using QTRAP-MS/MS were obtained for identification of targeted and untargeted naphthoquinones. Consequently, 48 naphthoquinones including 24 novel ones were identified or tentatively identified from Juglans cathayensis. A novel four-step approach for efficient discovery and identification of naphthoquinones was developed by exploring various scan functions of current LC-MS/MS technologies and data mining strategies, providing an example for systematic characterization of certain classes of phytochemicals, especially trace analytes in complex samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2575
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    ABSTRACT: Herbs are an important resource for new drug development. However, the conventional approach for the discovery of new compounds from herbs was time-consuming, tedious, and inefficient. Establish a quick approach to identify new minor constituents in herbs. The constituents in herbs were firstly analysed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Based on the accurate masses, isotopic ions, and the characteristic fragmentation ions in the mass spectra, the molecular compositions and possible structures of compounds were first deduced. After being enriched by a preparative HPLC method, the potential new minor structures were definitely identified by an on-line UHPLC-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-SPE-NMR-MS) approach. By combined the use of UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS, preparative HPLC and UHPLC-SPE-NMR, three new minor compounds were definitely identified as bis-3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropanoid-substituted catechins (A2 and A3) and 4″-formyl-astilbin (B5). In addition, five isomers of bis-dihydroxyphenylpropanoid-substituted catechin (A1, A4-A7), four isomers of 4″-formyl-astilbin (B1-B4), engeletin formates and isomers (C1-C5), formyl-cinchonains (D1-D4), formyl-caffeoylshikimic acid (E1-E4) were also tentatively determined by MS and MS/MS characterisation. The combination of UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS, preparative HPLC and UHPLC-SPE-NMR-MS techniques is a quick and effective approach for finding new minor constitutes from herbs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2577
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    ABSTRACT: The prevailing treatment for Alzheimer's disease is the use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Natural extracts are the principal source of AChE's inhibitors. However, their chemical complexity demands for simple, selective and rapid assays. To develop a strategy for identification of AChE inhibitors present in mixtures employing high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC)-biological staining. The strategy uses an autographic assay based on the α-naphthyl acetate - fast blue B system for the detection of AChE activity. The immobilisation of AChE in agar allowed the extraction of the compounds for analysis by HRMS. Three TLC experiments employing different solvent systems were used in parallel and the mass spectra of the compounds extracted from the inhibition halos, were compared. The analysis was performed under MatLab environment. The strategy was used to detect the presence of physostigmine in an extract of Brassica rapa L. spiked with the inhibitor. Similarly, caffeine was straightforwardly spotted as responsible for the inhibitory properties of an extract of Ilex paraguariensis Saint-Hilaire. Comparison of the HRMS profiles lead to the facile identification of the [M+H](+) and [M+Na](+) of the compounds responsible for the inhibition. The proposed methodology, coupling TLC-AChE autography-HRMS, illustrates the feasibility of assigning molecular formulas of active compounds present in complex mixtures directly from autography. The new AChE agar-immobilised assay presented a more homogenous colour and a better definition than direct spraying methods, reducing the cost of the assay and improving its sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2574
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    ABSTRACT: The dried seeds of Iris lactea have been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have been focused on irisquinones while other chemical components are rarely reported. To establish an efficient high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) separation method with continuous sample load (CSL) and double-pump balancing (DPB) mode to isolate proanthocyanidins from I. lactea. Firstly, an ethyl acetate extract of I. lactea was pre-fractionated by silica column chromatography for the enrichment of proanthocyanidins. Secondly, the enriched proanthocyanidins sample (EPS) was further fractionated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system ethyl acetate:n-butanol:water (9:1:10, v/v/v) using DPB mode. The flow rate of the two phases was 2.2 mL/min, the revolution speed was 900 rpm, the separation temperature was 30 °C and the detection wavelength was 280 nm. Finally, the structures of the three isolated proanthocyanidins were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and compared with published data. Under the optimized conditions, 600 mg of the EPS with six continuous injections (100 mg/time) was fractionated, yielding 57 mg of prodelphinidin B3, 198 mg of procyanidin B3, and 162 mg of procyanidin B1, at purities of 97.2%, 98.1% and 97.3%, respectively. The HSCCC separation method with CSL and DPB proved to be rapid, convenient and economical, constituting an efficient strategy for the isolation of proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2579
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    ABSTRACT: Mulberroside A (MuA) is the major active anti-tyrosinase compound in the root bark extract of Morus alba L. (Moraceae). Typically, MuA is widely employed as an active ingredient in whitening cosmetics. A rapid and simple assay system utilizing a small quantity of test sample is essential for the detection of MuA in large number of samples. An immunoassay using highly specific MuA polyclonal antibodies may be useful for the determination of small quantities of MuA in test samples. To establish a rapid qualitative MuA test, an immunochromatographic strip test was developed using anti-MuA polyclonal antibodies (anti-MuA PAb). The qualitative assay was based on a competitive immunoassay where the detection reagent consisted of anti-MuA PAb colored with colloidal gold particles. The capture reagent was a MuA-ovalbumin (MuA-OVA) conjugate immobilized on the test strip membrane. A sample containing MuA and the detection reagent were incubated together with immobilized capture reagent on a nitrocellulose membrane. When MuA was present, it competed with the immobilized conjugates on the strip membrane to bind a limited amount of colored antibodies; thus, a positive sample showed no color on the capture spot zone. The detection limit for the strip test was 2 µg/mL. The developed immunochromatographic strip test was utilized to determine MuA in plants, medical preparations and cosmetic samples. This immunochromatographic strip test is advantageous as a rapid, simple and sensitive screening method for the detection of MuA in plant extracts, cosmetic samples and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2576
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    ABSTRACT: Polygonum aviculare L. also known as common knotgrass is an annual herbaceous weed occurring all over the world in the temperate regions. Recent studies report that flavonol glucuronides are major constituents of common knotgrass. There is no comprehensive analytical procedure for the standardisation of Polygoni Avicularis Herba available on the European market. To develop a method for the proper authentication and standardisation of Polygoni Avicularis Herba and to preliminary evaluate variability in qualitative and quantitative composition among commercial samples and samples from wild harvesting defined as Polygonum aviculare sensu lato. The UHPLC-ESI(+)-MS method was used for the qualitative screening of nine independent samples of Polygonum aviculare herb. The UHPLC-CAD method was developed for the quantitation of the major compounds in an extract using quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a standard. Twenty-five major constituents were detected and characterised. Among them three new natural products were tentatively identified. Twelve compounds were quantitated using a validated UHPLC-CAD method. In all nine samples flavonol glucuronides were confirmed as major compounds. The total flavonoid content was estimated for all samples and varied from 0.70 to 2.20%. The developed procedure may be used for the routine standardisation of common knotgrass. The results indicate that the pharmacopoeial approach to the authentication and standardisation of Polygonum aviculare herb should be revised. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2572
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    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. They are commonly extracted from plant materials with ethanol, methanol, water, their combination or even with acidified extracting solutions. The disadvantages of these methods are the use of high quantity of organic solvent, the possible loss of analytes in the different steps and the laborious process of the techniques. In addition, the complexity of the phenolic mixtures present in plant materials requires a preliminary clean-up and fractionation of the crude extracts. To develop a hollow fibre liquid phase micro-extraction (HF-LPME) method for a one step clean-up and pre-concentration of flavonoids. Two flavonoids (catechin and rutin) has been extracted by HF-LPME and analysed by HPLC. The related driving force for the liquid membrane has been studied by means of facilitated and non-facilitated transport. Different ionic and non-ionic water insoluble compounds [trioctylamine (TOA), tributyl phosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and methyltrioctylammonium chloride (aliquat 336)] were used as carriers. The liquid membrane was constituted by a solution of n-decanol in the presence or absence of carriers. Maximum enrichment factors were obtained with n-decanol/aliquat 336 (20%) as organic liquid membrane, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0.1 M) as donor solution, sodium chloride (NaCl) (2 M) as acceptor solution and 3 h as extraction time. Under these conditions, good results for validation parameters were obtained [for linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and repeatability]. The developed method is simple, effective and has been successfully applied to determine catechin and rutin in ethanolic extracts of faba beans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2569
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    ABSTRACT: Bauhinia forficata Link. is recognised by the Brazilian Health Ministry as a treatment of hypoglycemia and diabetes. Analytical methods are useful to assess the plant identity due the similarities found in plants from Bauhinia spp. HPLC-UV/PDA in combination with chemometric tools is an alternative widely used and suitable for authentication of plant material, however, the shifts of retention times for similar compounds in different samples is a problem. To perform comparisons between the authentic medicinal plant (Bauhinia forficata Link.) and samples commercially available in drugstores claiming to be "Bauhinia spp. to treat diabetes" and to evaluate the performance of multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) associated to principal component analysis (PCA) when compared to pure PCA. HPLC-UV/PDA data obtained from extracts of leaves were evaluated employing a combination of MCR-ALS and PCA, which allowed the use of the full chromatographic and spectrometric information without the need of peak alignment procedures. The use of MCR-ALS/PCA showed better results than the conventional PCA using only one wavelength. Only two of nine commercial samples presented characteristics similar to the authentic Bauhinia forficata spp., considering the full HPLC-UV/PDA data. The combination of MCR-ALS and PCA is very useful when applied to a group of samples where a general alignment procedure could not be applied due to the different chromatographic profiles. This work also demonstrates the need of more strict control from the health authorities regarding herbal products available on the market. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2571
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionPotentilla tormentilla has many biological and pharmacological properties and can be used as an ingredient of some herbal medicines or beverages.Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of individual polyphenols, especially condensed and hydrolysable tannins in commercially available tormentil rhizomes and tinctures using chromatographic methods.MethodsA quantitative analysis (HPLC-PDA) was preceded by qualitative studies (UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS) and the isolation (CC) of the major tannin compounds.ResultsThe tested plant material is characterised by a high content of tannins and related polyphenols, i.e. in rhizomes even at the level above 20% and in tinctures above 2%. The main components of tormentil rhizomes are procyanidin B3 (mean ~ 3.6%), procyanidin C2 (mean ~ 2.8%), agrimoniin (mean ~ 2.5%), 3-O-galloylquinic acid (mean ~ 1.7%), catechin (mean ~ 1.6%), other flavan-3-ol oligomers (mean ~ 0.5–1.1) and laevigatins (mean ~ 0.2–0.6%). Free ellagic acid and glycosides of ellagic and methylellagic acids are secondary components.Conclusions Underground parts of tormentil are a source of oligomeric proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins, but in smaller quantity of gallotannins. Monogalloylquinic acids are new identified compounds, which had not been described in Potentilla tormentilla before we started our research. In the analysed tormentil tinctures agrimoniin concentration is lower in relation to other tannins. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2570
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionHairy root cultures of Linum sp. are an alternative for the high production of lignans. Linum perenne is known to produce arylnaphthalene-type lignans such as justicidin B, isojusticidin and diphyllin.Objective To elucidate the presence of aryltetralin-type lignan diastereoisomers, besides the known arylnaphthalene-type lignans, in hairy roots of Linum perenne, and to determine the configurations of one diastereoisomer of 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (6-MPTOX).Methods Lignans from hairy root cultures of Linum perenne were extracted and separated by HPLC. Arylnaphthalene-type lignans were identified by LC-MS, according to the literature. Two diastereoisomers of aryltetralin-type lignans were analysed by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.ResultsNumerous arylnaphthalene-type lignans (diphyllin-2-hexose-pentose, diphyllin-3-pentose and diphyllin-hexose) were identified in hairy root cultures. Methoxypodophyllotoxin, an aryltetralin-type lignan, was also identified, as well as one diastereoisomer. This aryltetralin-type lignan could be derived via 7-hydroxymatairesinol as a hypothetical biosynthetic pathway. The stereochemical configurations of aryltetralin isomers were determined.Conclusion Arylnaphthalene and two diastereoisomers of aryltetralin-type lignans are produced in Linum perenne hairy root cultures. Matairesinol, the precursor of justicidin B, also seems to be converted into 6-MPTOX via 7-hydroxymatairesinol. This is the first report of the stereochemical configurations of an aryltetralin-type lignan other than podophyllotoxin (PTOX). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2565
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThere has been increasing interest dedicated to the phenolic compounds with a view to their antioxidant and healthy properties. Recent studies have focused on plants from the Lamiaceae family with special interest in phenolic compounds antioxidant potential.Objective The metabolite profile of methanolic extracts from two Lamiacea medicinal plants was investigated.Materials and Methods Mentha pulegium and Origanum majorana methanolic extracts were analysed using reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) detection in the negative ion mode.ResultsA total of 85 metabolites were characterised from different families, such as organic acids and derivatives, amino acids and derivatives, nucleosides, phenolic compounds as well as other polar metabolites, by using the MS and MS/MS information provided by the QTOF-MS. However, the total phenols and flavonoids were also quantified spectrophotometrically and they registered higher amounts in Mentha pulegium than in Origanum majorana extract. Gallocatechin was the major compound in M. pulegium extract whereas quercetin dimethyl ether, jaceidin and dihydrokaempferide were the major ones in O. majorana extract.Conclusion The distribution of phenolic compounds in the methanolic extract showed a variation among studied plants. Mentha pulegium can be considered as a source of gallocatechin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2566
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    ABSTRACT: Sample preparation is a crucial step in medicinal herb analysis because the desired chemical components need to be extracted from the herbal materials for further separation and characterisation. Thus, the development of " modern" sample preparation techniques with significant advantages over conventional methods is very important. The aim of this study was the development of a new preparation method using circulating ultrasonic-assisted extraction (CUAE) coupled with centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) for continuous extraction and on-line isolation of chemical constituents from Stellera chamaejasme L. The stationary or mobile phase was used as the extraction solvent. Extraction parameters, including the ultrasound power, extraction time, temperature, and liquid:solid ratio, were optimised using a response surface methodology. The extraction time, temperature, and power considerably affected the extraction yield. The optimised extraction parameters were an ultrasound power of 800 W, extraction time of 30 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C, and liquid:solid ratio of 8 mL/g. The solvent system for CUAE and CPC was optimised using mathematical equations, and the two-phase solvent system of n-hexane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water at a volume ratio of 3:5:4:6 was calculated. Four target compounds (daphnoretin, chamaechromone, neochamaejasmin A, and isochamaejasmin) with purities above 96% were successfully extracted and isolated on-line via CUAE/CPC. Compared with the reference extraction methods, the instrumental setup achieved a scientific and systematic extraction and isolation of natural products and has great potential for industrial application. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2564
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    ABSTRACT: Carbohydrates are important constituents in fruits. Among the carbohydrates, disaccharides have rarely been studied in apple and peach. Indeed, the abiotic stress biomarker and preservation agent α,α-trehalose is a disaccharide. To establish a comprehensive method based on two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight MS detection (GC × GC-ToF/MS) to analyse the disaccharide composition of apple and peach. The sample preparation was based on aqueous-methanolic extraction of the analytes, followed by oxime formation and trimethylsilylation of the disaccharides. First, three columns were tested with standards on the one-dimensional system. Next, to perform the sample analysis using GC × GC-MS (which offers significant advantages over conventional GC because it allows higher separation efficiencies), various column configurations were assessed on the two-dimensional system to obtain enhanced separation and low detection limits. The column sets tested included non-polar/semi-polar, semi-polar/polar and polar/non-polar. Using the method that proved to be more efficient, namely the method developed with the semi-polar/non-polar configuration, ten disaccharides were identified, based on analytical standards, retention index and mass spectra. These compounds were quantified in several varieties of apple and peach fruit using the developed GC × GC method and linear curve calibration, resulting in substantial differences among the fruits. However, cultivars within the fruits exhibited no significant differences. The proposed method allowed for the identification and quantification of several disaccharides in apple and peach, including the biomarker α,α-trehalose. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 03/2015; 26(4). DOI:10.1002/pca.2561