Phytochemical Analysis

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons


Phytochemical Analysis is devoted to the publication of original articles on the utilization of analytical methodology in the plant sciences. The spectrum of coverage is broad encompassing methods and techniques relevant to the extraction separation purification identification and qualification of substances in plant biochemistry plant cellular and molecular biology plant biotechnology the food sciences agriculture and horticulture. The Journal welcomes papers on the analysis of whole plants (including bacteria and algae) plant cells tissues and organs plant-derived extracts and plant products (including those which have been partially or completely refined for use in the food agrochemical pharmaceutical and related industries). All forms of physical chemical biochemical spectroscopic radiometric electrometric and chromatographic investigations of plant products (monomeric species as well as polymeric molecules such as nucleic acids proteins lipids and carbohydrates) will be included. Phytochemical Analysis is intended to serve as a major resource for information on analytical and instrumental methodology in the plant sciences. Review articles will be published and they will set out to explain the fundamental basis of a specified methodology together with its applications placing special emphasis on the particular importance and likely potential in the field of plant analysis. It is intended to provide also for a number of rapid (i.e. accelerated) communications where special conditions of timeliness or significance can be demonstrated.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IntroductionHesperidin, a flavonoid known to have important pharmacological effects, accumulates particularly in the peels of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). Although histochemical studies have suggested that hesperidin forms crystals in some tissues of the Rutaceae and Umbelliferae, there has been no rigorous in situ detection or identification of hesperidin crystals in C. unshiu.Objective To characterise the chemical component of the crystals found in C. unshiu peels using Raman microscopy.Methods Sections of C. unshiu peels were made. The distribution and morphology of crystals in the sections were analysed microscopically. Raman microscopy was used to detect hesperidin in the sections directly.ResultsThe crystals were more abundant in immature peel and were observed particularly in areas surrounding vascular bundles, around the border between the flavedo and albedo layers and just below the epidermal cells. In the morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy, needle-shaped crystals aggregated and formed clusters of spherical crystals. Spectra obtained by Raman microscopy of the crystals in the peel sections were consistent with those of the hesperidin standard.Conclusion This study showed the detailed distribution of crystals in C. unshiu peels and their main component was identified using Raman microscopy to be hesperidin for the first time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution of metabolites in the different root parts of Cortex Moutan (the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) is not well understood, therefore, scientific evidence is not available for quality assessment of Cortex Moutan.
    Phytochemical Analysis 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionPlants from the Lamiaceae family have been known traditionally for their beneficial health-promoting properties, attributed to their anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and anti-microbial effects.Objective The purposes of this study was to characterise the essential oils from four Lamiaceae plants by applying different extraction techniques.Methods Accelerated solvent (ASE), Soxhlet and supercritical fluid (SFE) extraction methods were compared for their efficiency in obtaining the essential oils from plants. The volatile compounds were identified by GC–MS and the main chemotype was quantified by GC with flame ionisation detection (FID). Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC and electrospray ionisation (ESI) with MS/MS.ResultsThe essential oils Mentha piperita (ct. menthol/menthone), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ct. eucalyptol/camphor) and Origanum vulgare (ct. carvacrol/thymol), whereas Thymus vulgaris L. was found to be a pure chemotype (ct. thymol). All three extracts also contained six phenolic compounds. The highest extraction yields were achieved by the Soxhlet and ASE techniques, with M. piperita and R. officinalis L. producing the highest concentrations of rosmarinic and carnosic acids. Finally, it was observed that M. piperita and O. vulgare produced the highest total phenolic content, whereas R. officinalis L. and T. vulgaris L. produced the highest anti-oxidant activity.Conclusion The ASE and Soxhlet extraction techniques presented the highest yields of volatile and phenolic compounds, showing their suitability to characterise the chemical profile of aromatic plants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionIxora coccinea L. leaves and stem are used in traditional Sudanese and Ayurvedic medicinal systems for the treatment of diarrhoea, fever, headache, skin diseases, eye trouble, wounds, sores and ulcers. Recent studies show that I. coccinea has anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, analgaesic, anti-diarrhoeal, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-mutagenic, wound healing and anti-tumour activities. Ixora coccinea is a rich source of polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins, flavonoids, flavonoids glycosides and tannins.Objectives To develop a LC–MSn method for the identification and characterisation of phenolic compounds of I. coccinea L. leaves and stem.Methods Aqueous methanolic (70% methanol) extracts of I. coccinea leaves and stem were used for LC–MSn to ensure efficient extraction of phenolics. A C18 amide reverse-phase HPLC column allowed separation of the phenolic compounds, including different isomers. For the LC–MS measurements, negative ion mode was used in order to obtain better tandem mass spectra and high-resolution mass spectra.ResultsThe phenolics were identified by their typical UV absorptions at 254, 280 and 320 nm. All the flavonol glycosides showed a neutral loss of the glycan part; hydroxycinnamates showed loss of the cinnamoyl/cinnamic acid part; while proanthocyanidins showed a Diels-Alder fragment in negative ion mode mass spectra.Conclusion It was possible to identify C-3 and C-7 flavonol glycosides by their order of elution and it was also possible to predict the glycosylation position in flavonol diglycosides from their tandem mass spectra. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionBambusa tuldoides Munro, a bamboo species, is used as a health food, dietary supplement and folk medicine in China, and produces lignans that can be used to supplement other natural sources.Objective To simultaneously separate eight stereoisomers of a particular type of oxyneolignan by chiral chromatography.Methods Ninety-five per cent ethanol extracts of B. tuldoides Munro were analysed using HPLC/UV with a chiral column. The structures and configurations of isolated compounds were elucidated using NMR and circular dichroism (CD).ResultsFour diastereoisomers were characterised and given the names oxyneolignans A, B, C and D. Furthermore, each oxyneolignan occurred as a pair of enantiomers. The oxyneolignans A–D consisted of the erythro-diastereoisomer of oxyneolignan at C7 and C8.Conclusion The chiral chromatography combined with the analysis techniques of NMR and CD reported here were reliable methods for discovering and separating the enantiomers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionAnalytical methods used in phytochemistry analysis are limited by the sample preparation step, which should ideally be fast, accurate, ecofriendly and achievable using low quantities of the sample. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) may be a good alternative for combining extraction and purification procedures, thereby reducing the indicated limitations.Objective Applying an MSPD extraction procedure coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD) as an alternative methodology to evaluate isoflavone profiles.Methods Isoflavone profiles were determined for the leaves of nine species of Medicago in the late flower phenological stage (one or more nodes with 50% open flowers, no seed pods). Extraction was performed following MSPD, and isoflavone profiles were characterised using HPLC/DAD. The quantified amounts were compared with previous results in different species commonly recognised as good sources of isoflavones.ResultsFormononetin was the major isoflavone in most species, except M. polymorpha and M. truncatula. The isoflavone amounts were significantly different among the assayed species, with M. orbicularis and M. arabica as the major isoflavone sources, while M. rigidula presented the lowest contents. Furthermore, the detected differences allow electing the best species as a primary source of a specific isoflavone.Conclusion The MSPD allowed good extraction efficiency, reproducibility and recovery. Some of the species showed relevant isoflavone contents, even when compared with acknowledged plant sources such as soy or red clover. To the best of our knowledge the results presented are reported for the first time in these species. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionMyrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C., is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (from broccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors.Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase.MethodsA high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section).ResultsMaking the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification.Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionSoybean protein hydrolysates (SPHs), especially oligopeptides, have shown a variety of functional properties, including immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects. Soybean protein hydrolysate products have been used as functional ingredients in food, sports nutrition or clinical nutrition. However, the mixture is mostly undefined due to its complex nature, containing peptides and minor amino acids as well as small proteins.Objectives To develop a specific and efficient method for the identification and structural characterisation of oligopeptides in SPHs, and to determine free amino acids in SPHs in the same analytical run, for evaluation of the chemical profile of SPH products.Methods Accurate mass spectrometry (MS) datasets of SPH samples were recorded on a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem high-resolution (HR) MS system. Potential oligopeptides were tentatively characterised based on their elemental compositions and ring double bond equivalent (RDBE) values, as well as HRMS/MS data. The analytical method to determine amino acids was evaluated in terms of linearity, precision, apparent recovery and limits of detection and quantitation.ResultsIn total, 186 oligopeptides spanning the mass range of m/z 200–1500 and three major free amino acids could be determined in SPH samples in a single sample injection. Ninety-nine oligopeptides were tentatively characterised. The sensitive and specific instrumental performances also permitted the determination of 19 amino acids with a limit of quantitation of ≤ 0.1 μg/mL.Conclusion The HPLC–HRMS technique has proven to be an advantageous tool for the rapid characterisation of oligopeptides and determination of amino acids in soybean protein hydrolysates. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe genus Pluchea comprises about 80 species distributed worldwide, out of them, only Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, is used extensively in the traditional system of India. No chromatographic method is available for its quality.Objectives To perform the energy audit for the extraction of biogenetic pentacyclic triterpene, its acetate and sterol from P. lanceolata utilising organic and four alternative solvents. Additionally to resolve the uncertainty of TLC determination, on-line/off-line coupling with a diode-array detector (DAD), and near-infrared (NIR) and electrospray ionisation (ESI) MS was introduced.Methods The extraction of taraxasterol (Tx), taraxasterol acetate (TxAc) and stigmasterol (St) from P. lanceolata was performed using three energy modes. The effects of different operating parameters were studied for optimum extraction yield using the design of experiments, that is, the central composite design and Box–Behnken design. In addition to the retention factor (Rf) and visible spectral matching, two additional optical spectroscopic techniques, that is, NIR and ESI-MS, were applied for extended specificity.ResultsThe method was developed for Tx, TxAc and St determination using HPTLC at 645 nm. The optimum extraction yield of targeted compounds was found to be higher with organic solvents than eco-friendly surfactants. The pulse ultrasonic assisted extraction (PUAE) has resulted in optimum extraction of compounds comparable to hot extraction. Both NIR and ESI-MS provided extended specificity in determination.Conclusion The 5/1-PUAE was determined to be effective, reproducible, simple and energy efficient for the determination of Tx, TxAc and St in P. lanceolata. The offline coupling of NIR and ESI-MS with HPTLC led to considerable improvement in specificity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative (1) H-NMR (qNMR) is a well-established method for quantitative analysis and purity tests. Applications have been reported in many areas, such as natural products, foods and beverages, metabolites, pharmaceuticals and agriculture. The characteristics of quantitative estimation without relying on special target reference substances make qNMR especially suitable for purity tests of chemical compounds and natural products. Ginsenosides are a special group of natural products drawing broad attention, and are considered to be the main bioactive principles behind the claims of ginsengs efficacy. The purity of ginsenosides is usually determined by conventional chromatographic methods, although these may not be ideal due to the response of detectors to discriminate between analytes and impurities and the long run times involved.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe Chrysanthemum genus consisting of about 200 species is mainly distributed over the Northern Hemisphere. Despite the pleasant odour of C. japonense var. debile (setonojigiku), no detailed analysis of the aroma-active compounds has been reported using sensory evaluation.Objectives Using a hydrodistillation (HD) and a solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) method to obtain the volatile oil from the leaf parts.Methods To clarify odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma-active compounds, the aroma-extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed through gas chromatography olfactometry (GC/O) analysis. In addition, the odour activity value (OAV) was calculated in order to determine the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma-active compounds.ResultsA total of 42 components by HD oil were identified by GC–MS, whereas 34 components were identified in SAFE oil. Thirteen compounds were identified by GC/O analysis in HD and SAFE oils respectively.Conclusion Each extraction method has its own advantages and disadvantages, and they are generally complementary to each other. On the basis of AEDA, OAV and sensory evaluations, [2.2.1] bicyclic monoterpenes (borneol, bornyl acetate and camphor) and β-caryophyllene are considered to be the main aroma-active compounds of both extraction methods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionPortulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea, purslane) is an edible plant that is widely distributed around the world, and flavonoids are its main bioactive constituents. Therefore, the detection of flavonoids is very important for a better understanding of its pharmacological actions and to monitor the product quality control of P. oleracea.Objective To develop a rapid method to extract and determine 26 bioflavonoids in P. oleracea, based on microwave extraction (MWE) and triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.Methods The optimal conditions of MWE for the extraction of flavonoids from P. oleracea involved the use of methanol as the extraction solvent, a microwave power of 300 W, an extraction time of 450 s, and a solvent-to-solid ratio of 30 mL/g. The samples were analysed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UPLC–MS/MS) system.ResultsThe calibration curves of all 26 analytes showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.999) and the intra- and interday precisions and repeatability were all within required limits. The mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were higher than 94.2%, with RSDs lower than 2.94% for the targets.Conclusion The established MWE/UPLC–MS/MS method is a rapid and effective method for quality evaluation of P. oleracea from different production regions and different harvest periods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe diversity of structure and, particularly, stereochemical variation of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids can present challenges for analysis and the isolation of pure compounds for the preparation of analytical standards and for toxicology studies.Objective To investigate methods for the separation of gram-scale quantities of the epimeric dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine and intermedine and to compare their NMR spectroscopic data with those of their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine.Methods Lycopsamine and intermedine were extracted, predominantly as their N-oxides and along with their acetylated derivatives, from commercial samples of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) root. Alkaloid enrichment involved liquid–liquid partitioning of the crude methanol extract between dilute aqueous acid and n-butanol, reduction of N-oxides and subsequent continuous liquid–liquid extraction of free base alkaloids into CHCl3. The alkaloid-rich fraction was further subjected to semi-automated flash chromatography using boronated soda glass beads or boronated quartz sand.ResultsBoronated soda glass beads (or quartz sand) chromatography adapted to a Biotage Isolera Flash Chromatography System enabled large-scale separation (at least up to 1–2 g quantities) of lycopsamine and intermedine. The structures were confirmed using one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Examination of the NMR data for lycopsamine, intermedine and their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine allowed for some amendments of literature data and provided useful comparisons for determining relative configurations in monoester dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. A similar NMR comparison of lycopsamine and intermedine with their N-oxides showed the effects of N-oxidation on some key chemical shifts. A levorotatory shift in specific rotation from +3.29° to −1.5° was observed for lycopsamine when dissolved in ethanol or methanol respectively.ConclusionA semi-automated flash chromatographic process using boronated soda glass beads was standardised and confirmed as a useful, larger scale preparative approach for separating the epimers lycopsamine and intermedine. The useful NMR correlations to stereochemical arrangements within this specific class of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid cannot be confidently extrapolated to other similar dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionStems and roots of Salacia genus plants have been used in Ayurveda as a specific remedy for early stage diabetes. Previous investigations identified four sulphonium sulphates, that is, salacinol (1), kotalanol (3), ponkoranol (5) and salaprinol (7), as the compounds responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. Their desulphonates (2, 4, 6 and 8) were also isolated as active constituents. Two separate quantitative analytical protocols, that is, for 1 and 3 and for 2 and 4, have been developed recently.Objective To: validate the two analytical protocols with respect to all eight sulphoniums; evaluate the quality of a variety of Salacia samples collected in different geographical regions, that is, Thailand, Sri Lanka and India; and determine their distribution in each part of the plant, that is, stems/roots, leaves and fruits.Methods Analyses of four sulphonium sulphates in 32 Salacia extracts were carried out on an Asahipak NH2P-50 column, and those of the corresponding desulphonates were conducted on an Inertsil ODS-3 column.ResultsNeokotalanol (4) was the major constituent in Salacia samples from Thailand, whereas 1 was the primary constituent in extracts of the stems/roots of plants from Sri Lanka and India. These sulphoniums were only present in trace amounts in leaves and fruits of the plants.Conclusion Two analytical protocols were successfully applied to analyse 32 Salacia samples, and revealed that sulphoniums (1–8) had characteristic distributions due to the plant part and/or due to geographical region. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2014;