Phytochemical Analysis

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Phytochemical Analysis is devoted to the publication of original articles on the utilization of analytical methodology in the plant sciences. The spectrum of coverage is broad encompassing methods and techniques relevant to the extraction separation purification identification and qualification of substances in plant biochemistry plant cellular and molecular biology plant biotechnology the food sciences agriculture and horticulture. The Journal welcomes papers on the analysis of whole plants (including bacteria and algae) plant cells tissues and organs plant-derived extracts and plant products (including those which have been partially or completely refined for use in the food agrochemical pharmaceutical and related industries). All forms of physical chemical biochemical spectroscopic radiometric electrometric and chromatographic investigations of plant products (monomeric species as well as polymeric molecules such as nucleic acids proteins lipids and carbohydrates) will be included. Phytochemical Analysis is intended to serve as a major resource for information on analytical and instrumental methodology in the plant sciences. Review articles will be published and they will set out to explain the fundamental basis of a specified methodology together with its applications placing special emphasis on the particular importance and likely potential in the field of plant analysis. It is intended to provide also for a number of rapid (i.e. accelerated) communications where special conditions of timeliness or significance can be demonstrated.

Current impact factor: 2.34

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.341
2013 Impact Factor 2.45
2012 Impact Factor 2.48
2011 Impact Factor 2.633
2010 Impact Factor 1.848
2009 Impact Factor 1.744
2008 Impact Factor 1.542
2007 Impact Factor 1.524
2006 Impact Factor 1.228
2005 Impact Factor 1.398
2004 Impact Factor 1.385
2003 Impact Factor 1.394
2002 Impact Factor 1.439
2001 Impact Factor 0.973
2000 Impact Factor 1.206
1999 Impact Factor 0.798
1998 Impact Factor 0.912
1997 Impact Factor 1.198
1996 Impact Factor 0.833
1995 Impact Factor 1.5
1994 Impact Factor 1.395

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.48
Cited half-life 6.90
Immediacy index 0.53
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.56
Website Phytochemical Analysis website
Other titles Phytochemical analysis (Online), Phytochemical analysis, PCA
ISSN 1099-1565
OCLC 44085634
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


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    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
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  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe argan tree (Argania spinosa) is an endemic species from south-western Morocco. Argan-based preparations have been widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine for their biological properties, as well as for several cosmetic purposes. Whereas kernel, pulp of fruit and trunk have been extensively studied for their nutritional and pharmacological effects, relatively little is known about argan tree leaves.Objective The main purpose of the present study is to investigate and characterise the bioactive phenolic fractions in both crude and aqueous extracts derived from argan tree leaves.MethodologyA qualitative profile of the antioxidant phenolic compounds in argan leaves was obtained by means of structural hypothesis based on UV spectra and mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns. Moreover, selected phenolics were quantified in argan leaves by using a fully validated method based on liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS). All the extracts were purified by a fast and reliable microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) procedure, before analysing them by LC-MS/MS.ResultsBased on retention times, mass spectrometric fragmentation and UV spectra, 13 phenolic compounds were identified or tentatively elucidated from crude and aqueous extracts derived from Argania spinosa leaves, while seven compounds were quantified in both extracts.Conclusion The obtained results could represent a first step towards a complete characterisation of the argan plant, its bioactive profiling and the valorisation of its by-products as a source of potentially beneficial bioactive molecules. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2585
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionLeonurus sibiricus L. is regularly used in traditional Mongolian medicine including for the treatment of symptoms of diabetes mellitus.Objectives To provide a validated quantitation method for the quality control of Leonurus sibiricus and to prove in vitro insulin-sensitisation, thereby supporting the traditional use of Leonurus sibiricus.MethodologyPulverised Leonurus sibiricus material was either extracted with methanol or methanol:water (25:75, v/v). HPLC-CAD (charged aerosol detector) separations were performed on a Luna Phenyl-Hexyl column with water and acetonitrile (both modified with 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase. Gradient elution was employed using theophylline as internal standard. Tentative peak identification was facilitated by HPLC-MS. Validation was carried out according to ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) guidelines. Potential insulin-sensitisation of accordant extracts was assessed in glucose uptake experiments in C2C12 myocytes and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme assays.ResultsThirty-six compounds were tentatively identified based on their retention times, UV spectra, MS fragments and data from literature. They comprise phenolcarboxylic acids, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, and phenylpropanoids, among which acetylharpagide, ajugoside, lavandulifolioside, and verbascoside were selected for quantitation. The methanol extract contained 0.42% combined iridoids, and 1.58% combined phenylpropanoids. Validation showed good accuracy, intermediate precision and robustness. The methanol extract of Leonurus sibiricus led to a 1.5 fold increase in insulin-stimulated cellular glucose uptake and inhibition of PTP1B by 40% at a concentration of 10 µg/mL.ConclusionHPLC-CAD analysis allowed sensitive quantitation of the selected marker compounds in Leonurus sibiricus, thereby providing a reliable tool for its quality control. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2583
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    ABSTRACT: Compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity have received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Carotenoids such as lycopene, which in the human diet mainly derives from tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), have attracted much attention in this aspect and the study of their extraction, processing and storage procedures is of importance. Optical techniques potentially offer advantageous non-invasive and specific methods to monitor them. To obtain both fluorescence and Raman information to ascertain if ultrasound assisted extraction from tomato pulp has a detrimental effect on lycopene. Use of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor carotenoids in a hexane extract obtained from tomato pulp with application of ultrasound treatment (583 kHz). The resultant spectra were a combination of scattering and fluorescence. Because of their different timescales, decay associated spectra could be used to separate fluorescence and Raman information. This simultaneous acquisition of two complementary techniques was coupled with a very high time-resolution fluorescence lifetime measurement of the lycopene. Spectroscopic data showed the presence of phytofluene and chlorophyll in addition to lycopene in the tomato extract. The time-resolved spectral measurement containing both fluorescence and Raman data, coupled with high resolution time-resolved measurements, where a lifetime of ~5 ps was attributed to lycopene, indicated lycopene appeared unaltered by ultrasound treatment. Detrimental changes were, however, observed in both chlorophyll and phytofluene contributions. Extracted lycopene appeared unaffected by ultrasound treatment, while other constituents (chlorophyll and phytofluene) were degraded. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2584
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    ABSTRACT: Lipase inhibitory assays based on TLC bioautography have made recent progress; however, an assay with greater substrate specificity and quantitative capabilities would advance the efficacy of this particular bioassay. To address these limitations, a new TLC bioautographic assay for detecting lipase inhibitors was developed and validated in this study. The new TLC bioautographic assay was based on reaction of lipase with β-naphthyl myristate and the subsequent formation of the purple dye between β-naphthol and Fast Blue B salt (FBB). The relative lipase inhibitory capacity (RLIC) was determined by a TLC densitometry with fluorescence detection, expressed as orlistat equivalents in millimoles on a per sample weight basis. Six pure compounds and three natural extracts were evaluated for their potential lipase inhibitory activities by this TLC bioautographic assay. The β-naphthyl myristate as the substrate improved the detection sensitivity and specificity significantly. The limit of detection (LOD) of this assay was 0.01 ng for orlistat, the current treatment for obesity. This assay has acceptable accuracy (92.07-105.39%), intra-day and inter-day precisions [relative standard deviation (RSD), 2.64-4.40%], as well as intra-plate and inter-plate precisions (RSD, 1.8-4.9%). The developed method is rapid, simple, stable, and specific for screening and estimation of the potential lipase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2581
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    ABSTRACT: Systematic analyses of naphthoquinones in Juglans cathayensis have not yet been reported. It is very challenging to identify naphthoquinones with various structural diversities, especially those at trace levels. To develop an efficient analytical approach for systematic discovery and identification of naphthoquinones in Juglans cathayensis. A novel four-step approach was evaluated by utilizing various scan functions of liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QTRAP-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS) along with data mining strategies. First, MS/MS fragmentation behaviors of naphthoquinones were investigated. Second, multiple ion monitoring triggered enhanced product ion scan (MIM-EPI) with specified ions was conducted to identify targeted naphthoquinones. Third, other scan functions of QTRAP-MS/MS and data mining strategies were explored to identify untargeted naphthoquinones. Fourth, structural rationalization and confirmation of naphthoquinones were performed using QTOF-MS/MS via its accurate mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation functions. Optimal scan methods and data mining strategies using QTRAP-MS/MS were obtained for identification of targeted and untargeted naphthoquinones. Consequently, 48 naphthoquinones including 24 novel ones were identified or tentatively identified from Juglans cathayensis. A novel four-step approach for efficient discovery and identification of naphthoquinones was developed by exploring various scan functions of current LC-MS/MS technologies and data mining strategies, providing an example for systematic characterization of certain classes of phytochemicals, especially trace analytes in complex samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2575
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    ABSTRACT: Herbs are an important resource for new drug development. However, the conventional approach for the discovery of new compounds from herbs was time-consuming, tedious, and inefficient. Establish a quick approach to identify new minor constituents in herbs. The constituents in herbs were firstly analysed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Based on the accurate masses, isotopic ions, and the characteristic fragmentation ions in the mass spectra, the molecular compositions and possible structures of compounds were first deduced. After being enriched by a preparative HPLC method, the potential new minor structures were definitely identified by an on-line UHPLC-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-SPE-NMR-MS) approach. By combined the use of UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS, preparative HPLC and UHPLC-SPE-NMR, three new minor compounds were definitely identified as bis-3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropanoid-substituted catechins (A2 and A3) and 4″-formyl-astilbin (B5). In addition, five isomers of bis-dihydroxyphenylpropanoid-substituted catechin (A1, A4-A7), four isomers of 4″-formyl-astilbin (B1-B4), engeletin formates and isomers (C1-C5), formyl-cinchonains (D1-D4), formyl-caffeoylshikimic acid (E1-E4) were also tentatively determined by MS and MS/MS characterisation. The combination of UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS, preparative HPLC and UHPLC-SPE-NMR-MS techniques is a quick and effective approach for finding new minor constitutes from herbs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2577
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    ABSTRACT: The dried seeds of Iris lactea have been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have been focused on irisquinones while other chemical components are rarely reported. To establish an efficient high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) separation method with continuous sample load (CSL) and double-pump balancing (DPB) mode to isolate proanthocyanidins from I. lactea. Firstly, an ethyl acetate extract of I. lactea was pre-fractionated by silica column chromatography for the enrichment of proanthocyanidins. Secondly, the enriched proanthocyanidins sample (EPS) was further fractionated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system ethyl acetate:n-butanol:water (9:1:10, v/v/v) using DPB mode. The flow rate of the two phases was 2.2 mL/min, the revolution speed was 900 rpm, the separation temperature was 30 °C and the detection wavelength was 280 nm. Finally, the structures of the three isolated proanthocyanidins were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and compared with published data. Under the optimized conditions, 600 mg of the EPS with six continuous injections (100 mg/time) was fractionated, yielding 57 mg of prodelphinidin B3, 198 mg of procyanidin B3, and 162 mg of procyanidin B1, at purities of 97.2%, 98.1% and 97.3%, respectively. The HSCCC separation method with CSL and DPB proved to be rapid, convenient and economical, constituting an efficient strategy for the isolation of proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2579
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    ABSTRACT: Mulberroside A (MuA) is the major active anti-tyrosinase compound in the root bark extract of Morus alba L. (Moraceae). Typically, MuA is widely employed as an active ingredient in whitening cosmetics. A rapid and simple assay system utilizing a small quantity of test sample is essential for the detection of MuA in large number of samples. An immunoassay using highly specific MuA polyclonal antibodies may be useful for the determination of small quantities of MuA in test samples. To establish a rapid qualitative MuA test, an immunochromatographic strip test was developed using anti-MuA polyclonal antibodies (anti-MuA PAb). The qualitative assay was based on a competitive immunoassay where the detection reagent consisted of anti-MuA PAb colored with colloidal gold particles. The capture reagent was a MuA-ovalbumin (MuA-OVA) conjugate immobilized on the test strip membrane. A sample containing MuA and the detection reagent were incubated together with immobilized capture reagent on a nitrocellulose membrane. When MuA was present, it competed with the immobilized conjugates on the strip membrane to bind a limited amount of colored antibodies; thus, a positive sample showed no color on the capture spot zone. The detection limit for the strip test was 2 µg/mL. The developed immunochromatographic strip test was utilized to determine MuA in plants, medical preparations and cosmetic samples. This immunochromatographic strip test is advantageous as a rapid, simple and sensitive screening method for the detection of MuA in plant extracts, cosmetic samples and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/pca.2576
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    ABSTRACT: Polygonum aviculare L. also known as common knotgrass is an annual herbaceous weed occurring all over the world in the temperate regions. Recent studies report that flavonol glucuronides are major constituents of common knotgrass. There is no comprehensive analytical procedure for the standardisation of Polygoni Avicularis Herba available on the European market. To develop a method for the proper authentication and standardisation of Polygoni Avicularis Herba and to preliminary evaluate variability in qualitative and quantitative composition among commercial samples and samples from wild harvesting defined as Polygonum aviculare sensu lato. The UHPLC-ESI(+)-MS method was used for the qualitative screening of nine independent samples of Polygonum aviculare herb. The UHPLC-CAD method was developed for the quantitation of the major compounds in an extract using quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a standard. Twenty-five major constituents were detected and characterised. Among them three new natural products were tentatively identified. Twelve compounds were quantitated using a validated UHPLC-CAD method. In all nine samples flavonol glucuronides were confirmed as major compounds. The total flavonoid content was estimated for all samples and varied from 0.70 to 2.20%. The developed procedure may be used for the routine standardisation of common knotgrass. The results indicate that the pharmacopoeial approach to the authentication and standardisation of Polygonum aviculare herb should be revised. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; 26(5). DOI:10.1002/pca.2572
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    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. They are commonly extracted from plant materials with ethanol, methanol, water, their combination or even with acidified extracting solutions. The disadvantages of these methods are the use of high quantity of organic solvent, the possible loss of analytes in the different steps and the laborious process of the techniques. In addition, the complexity of the phenolic mixtures present in plant materials requires a preliminary clean-up and fractionation of the crude extracts. To develop a hollow fibre liquid phase micro-extraction (HF-LPME) method for a one step clean-up and pre-concentration of flavonoids. Two flavonoids (catechin and rutin) has been extracted by HF-LPME and analysed by HPLC. The related driving force for the liquid membrane has been studied by means of facilitated and non-facilitated transport. Different ionic and non-ionic water insoluble compounds [trioctylamine (TOA), tributyl phosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and methyltrioctylammonium chloride (aliquat 336)] were used as carriers. The liquid membrane was constituted by a solution of n-decanol in the presence or absence of carriers. Maximum enrichment factors were obtained with n-decanol/aliquat 336 (20%) as organic liquid membrane, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0.1 M) as donor solution, sodium chloride (NaCl) (2 M) as acceptor solution and 3 h as extraction time. Under these conditions, good results for validation parameters were obtained [for linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and repeatability]. The developed method is simple, effective and has been successfully applied to determine catechin and rutin in ethanolic extracts of faba beans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; 26(5). DOI:10.1002/pca.2569
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    ABSTRACT: Bauhinia forficata Link. is recognised by the Brazilian Health Ministry as a treatment of hypoglycemia and diabetes. Analytical methods are useful to assess the plant identity due the similarities found in plants from Bauhinia spp. HPLC-UV/PDA in combination with chemometric tools is an alternative widely used and suitable for authentication of plant material, however, the shifts of retention times for similar compounds in different samples is a problem. To perform comparisons between the authentic medicinal plant (Bauhinia forficata Link.) and samples commercially available in drugstores claiming to be "Bauhinia spp. to treat diabetes" and to evaluate the performance of multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) associated to principal component analysis (PCA) when compared to pure PCA. HPLC-UV/PDA data obtained from extracts of leaves were evaluated employing a combination of MCR-ALS and PCA, which allowed the use of the full chromatographic and spectrometric information without the need of peak alignment procedures. The use of MCR-ALS/PCA showed better results than the conventional PCA using only one wavelength. Only two of nine commercial samples presented characteristics similar to the authentic Bauhinia forficata spp., considering the full HPLC-UV/PDA data. The combination of MCR-ALS and PCA is very useful when applied to a group of samples where a general alignment procedure could not be applied due to the different chromatographic profiles. This work also demonstrates the need of more strict control from the health authorities regarding herbal products available on the market. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2015; 26(5). DOI:10.1002/pca.2571
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionHairy root cultures of Linum sp. are an alternative for the high production of lignans. Linum perenne is known to produce arylnaphthalene-type lignans such as justicidin B, isojusticidin and diphyllin.Objective To elucidate the presence of aryltetralin-type lignan diastereoisomers, besides the known arylnaphthalene-type lignans, in hairy roots of Linum perenne, and to determine the configurations of one diastereoisomer of 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (6-MPTOX).Methods Lignans from hairy root cultures of Linum perenne were extracted and separated by HPLC. Arylnaphthalene-type lignans were identified by LC-MS, according to the literature. Two diastereoisomers of aryltetralin-type lignans were analysed by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.ResultsNumerous arylnaphthalene-type lignans (diphyllin-2-hexose-pentose, diphyllin-3-pentose and diphyllin-hexose) were identified in hairy root cultures. Methoxypodophyllotoxin, an aryltetralin-type lignan, was also identified, as well as one diastereoisomer. This aryltetralin-type lignan could be derived via 7-hydroxymatairesinol as a hypothetical biosynthetic pathway. The stereochemical configurations of aryltetralin isomers were determined.Conclusion Arylnaphthalene and two diastereoisomers of aryltetralin-type lignans are produced in Linum perenne hairy root cultures. Matairesinol, the precursor of justicidin B, also seems to be converted into 6-MPTOX via 7-hydroxymatairesinol. This is the first report of the stereochemical configurations of an aryltetralin-type lignan other than podophyllotoxin (PTOX). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 05/2015; 26(5). DOI:10.1002/pca.2565
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThere has been increasing interest dedicated to the phenolic compounds with a view to their antioxidant and healthy properties. Recent studies have focused on plants from the Lamiaceae family with special interest in phenolic compounds antioxidant potential.Objective The metabolite profile of methanolic extracts from two Lamiacea medicinal plants was investigated.Materials and Methods Mentha pulegium and Origanum majorana methanolic extracts were analysed using reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) detection in the negative ion mode.ResultsA total of 85 metabolites were characterised from different families, such as organic acids and derivatives, amino acids and derivatives, nucleosides, phenolic compounds as well as other polar metabolites, by using the MS and MS/MS information provided by the QTOF-MS. However, the total phenols and flavonoids were also quantified spectrophotometrically and they registered higher amounts in Mentha pulegium than in Origanum majorana extract. Gallocatechin was the major compound in M. pulegium extract whereas quercetin dimethyl ether, jaceidin and dihydrokaempferide were the major ones in O. majorana extract.Conclusion The distribution of phenolic compounds in the methanolic extract showed a variation among studied plants. Mentha pulegium can be considered as a source of gallocatechin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 05/2015; 26(5). DOI:10.1002/pca.2566