Phytochemical Analysis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Description

Phytochemical Analysis is devoted to the publication of original articles on the utilization of analytical methodology in the plant sciences. The spectrum of coverage is broad encompassing methods and techniques relevant to the extraction separation purification identification and qualification of substances in plant biochemistry plant cellular and molecular biology plant biotechnology the food sciences agriculture and horticulture. The Journal welcomes papers on the analysis of whole plants (including bacteria and algae) plant cells tissues and organs plant-derived extracts and plant products (including those which have been partially or completely refined for use in the food agrochemical pharmaceutical and related industries). All forms of physical chemical biochemical spectroscopic radiometric electrometric and chromatographic investigations of plant products (monomeric species as well as polymeric molecules such as nucleic acids proteins lipids and carbohydrates) will be included. Phytochemical Analysis is intended to serve as a major resource for information on analytical and instrumental methodology in the plant sciences. Review articles will be published and they will set out to explain the fundamental basis of a specified methodology together with its applications placing special emphasis on the particular importance and likely potential in the field of plant analysis. It is intended to provide also for a number of rapid (i.e. accelerated) communications where special conditions of timeliness or significance can be demonstrated.

  • Impact factor
    2.48
  • 5-year impact
    2.28
  • Cited half-life
    7.20
  • Immediacy index
    0.29
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.52
  • Website
    Phytochemical Analysis website
  • Other titles
    Phytochemical analysis (Online), Phytochemical analysis, PCA
  • ISSN
    1099-1565
  • OCLC
    44085634
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley & Sons

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    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IntroductionAnalytical methods used in phytochemistry analysis are limited by the sample preparation step, which should ideally be fast, accurate, ecofriendly and achievable using low quantities of the sample. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) may be a good alternative for combining extraction and purification procedures, thereby reducing the indicated limitations.Objective Applying an MSPD extraction procedure coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD) as an alternative methodology to evaluate isoflavone profiles.Methods Isoflavone profiles were determined for the leaves of nine species of Medicago in the late flower phenological stage (one or more nodes with 50% open flowers, no seed pods). Extraction was performed following MSPD, and isoflavone profiles were characterised using HPLC/DAD. The quantified amounts were compared with previous results in different species commonly recognised as good sources of isoflavones.ResultsFormononetin was the major isoflavone in most species, except M. polymorpha and M. truncatula. The isoflavone amounts were significantly different among the assayed species, with M. orbicularis and M. arabica as the major isoflavone sources, while M. rigidula presented the lowest contents. Furthermore, the detected differences allow electing the best species as a primary source of a specific isoflavone.Conclusion The MSPD allowed good extraction efficiency, reproducibility and recovery. Some of the species showed relevant isoflavone contents, even when compared with acknowledged plant sources such as soy or red clover. To the best of our knowledge the results presented are reported for the first time in these species. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionMyrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (from broccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors.Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase.MethodsA high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section).ResultsMaking the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification.Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe genus Pluchea comprises about 80 species distributed worldwide, out of them, only Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, is used extensively in the traditional system of India. No chromatographic method is available for its quality.Objectives To perform the energy audit for the extraction of biogenetic pentacyclic triterpene, its acetate and sterol from P. lanceolata utilising organic and four alternative solvents. Additionally to resolve the uncertainty of TLC determination, on-line/off-line coupling with a diode-array detector (DAD), and near-infrared (NIR) and electrospray ionisation (ESI) MS was introduced.Methods The extraction of taraxasterol (Tx), taraxasterol acetate (TxAc) and stigmasterol (St) from P. lanceolata was performed using three energy modes. The effects of different operating parameters were studied for optimum extraction yield using the design of experiments, that is, the central composite design and Box–Behnken design. In addition to the retention factor (Rf) and visible spectral matching, two additional optical spectroscopic techniques, that is, NIR and ESI-MS, were applied for extended specificity.ResultsThe method was developed for Tx, TxAc and St determination using HPTLC at 645 nm. The optimum extraction yield of targeted compounds was found to be higher with organic solvents than eco-friendly surfactants. The pulse ultrasonic assisted extraction (PUAE) has resulted in optimum extraction of compounds comparable to hot extraction. Both NIR and ESI-MS provided extended specificity in determination.Conclusion The 5/1-PUAE was determined to be effective, reproducible, simple and energy efficient for the determination of Tx, TxAc and St in P. lanceolata. The offline coupling of NIR and ESI-MS with HPTLC led to considerable improvement in specificity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionSoybean protein hydrolysates (SPHs), especially oligopeptides, have shown a variety of functional properties, including immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects. Soybean protein hydrolysate products have been used as functional ingredients in food, sports nutrition or clinical nutrition. However, the mixture is mostly undefined due to its complex nature, containing peptides and minor amino acids as well as small proteins.Objectives To develop a specific and efficient method for the identification and structural characterisation of oligopeptides in SPHs, and to determine free amino acids in SPHs in the same analytical run, for evaluation of the chemical profile of SPH products.Methods Accurate mass spectrometry (MS) datasets of SPH samples were recorded on a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem high-resolution (HR) MS system. Potential oligopeptides were tentatively characterised based on their elemental compositions and ring double bond equivalent (RDBE) values, as well as HRMS/MS data. The analytical method to determine amino acids was evaluated in terms of linearity, precision, apparent recovery and limits of detection and quantitation.ResultsIn total, 186 oligopeptides spanning the mass range of m/z 200–1500 and three major free amino acids could be determined in SPH samples in a single sample injection. Ninety-nine oligopeptides were tentatively characterised. The sensitive and specific instrumental performances also permitted the determination of 19 amino acids with a limit of quantitation of ≤ 0.1 μg/mL.Conclusion The HPLC–HRMS technique has proven to be an advantageous tool for the rapid characterisation of oligopeptides and determination of amino acids in soybean protein hydrolysates. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative (1) H-NMR (qNMR) is a well-established method for quantitative analysis and purity tests. Applications have been reported in many areas, such as natural products, foods and beverages, metabolites, pharmaceuticals and agriculture. The characteristics of quantitative estimation without relying on special target reference substances make qNMR especially suitable for purity tests of chemical compounds and natural products. Ginsenosides are a special group of natural products drawing broad attention, and are considered to be the main bioactive principles behind the claims of ginsengs efficacy. The purity of ginsenosides is usually determined by conventional chromatographic methods, although these may not be ideal due to the response of detectors to discriminate between analytes and impurities and the long run times involved.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe Chrysanthemum genus consisting of about 200 species is mainly distributed over the Northern Hemisphere. Despite the pleasant odour of C. japonense var. debile (setonojigiku), no detailed analysis of the aroma-active compounds has been reported using sensory evaluation.Objectives Using a hydrodistillation (HD) and a solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) method to obtain the volatile oil from the leaf parts.Methods To clarify odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma-active compounds, the aroma-extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed through gas chromatography olfactometry (GC/O) analysis. In addition, the odour activity value (OAV) was calculated in order to determine the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma-active compounds.ResultsA total of 42 components by HD oil were identified by GC–MS, whereas 34 components were identified in SAFE oil. Thirteen compounds were identified by GC/O analysis in HD and SAFE oils respectively.Conclusion Each extraction method has its own advantages and disadvantages, and they are generally complementary to each other. On the basis of AEDA, OAV and sensory evaluations, [2.2.1] bicyclic monoterpenes (borneol, bornyl acetate and camphor) and β-caryophyllene are considered to be the main aroma-active compounds of both extraction methods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionPortulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea, purslane) is an edible plant that is widely distributed around the world, and flavonoids are its main bioactive constituents. Therefore, the detection of flavonoids is very important for a better understanding of its pharmacological actions and to monitor the product quality control of P. oleracea.Objective To develop a rapid method to extract and determine 26 bioflavonoids in P. oleracea, based on microwave extraction (MWE) and triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.Methods The optimal conditions of MWE for the extraction of flavonoids from P. oleracea involved the use of methanol as the extraction solvent, a microwave power of 300 W, an extraction time of 450 s, and a solvent-to-solid ratio of 30 mL/g. The samples were analysed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UPLC–MS/MS) system.ResultsThe calibration curves of all 26 analytes showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.999) and the intra- and interday precisions and repeatability were all within required limits. The mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were higher than 94.2%, with RSDs lower than 2.94% for the targets.Conclusion The established MWE/UPLC–MS/MS method is a rapid and effective method for quality evaluation of P. oleracea from different production regions and different harvest periods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionGraft incompatibility of Vitis spp is an unresolved worldwide problem with important economic consequences. Grafting comprises a complex set of morphological and physiological alterations, in which the phenolic compounds seem to be strongly involved. Therefore, a detailed analysis and recognition of structural phenolic compounds diversity in the two partners of a Vitis graft is of great importance to evaluate their role as markers of graft establishment.Objective To optimise a sample extraction method, and to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonols in the graft union so as to understand their behaviour in the metabolism of the scion–rootstock system, using compatible and incompatible combinations of a Syrah cultivar and two rootstocks (R110 and SO4).Methods Sixty extracts of Vitis grafting tissues were prepared and analysed by HPLC for the qualitative and quantitative determination of their phenolic profile.ResultsAmong the phenolic compounds identified in the samples, one benzoic acid (gallic acid), three cinnamic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) and two flavonols (catechin and epicatechin) are potentially suitable as markers of graft incompatibility.Conclusion The method developed presents good performance and lends itself readily for application in routine analysis of the phenolic composition of Vitis grafting tissues to distinguish compatible and incompatible combinations in the graft callusing stage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionBecause of increased resistance to current drugs, there is an urgent need to discover new anti-mycobacterial compounds for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs. The microplate resazurin assay (MRA) is commonly used to evaluate natural products and synthetic compounds for anti-mycobacterial activity. However, the assay can be problematic and unreliable when screening methanolic phytochemical extracts.Objective To optimise the MRA for the screening and bioassay-guided fractionation of phytochemical extracts using Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra.Methods The effects of varying assay duration, resazurin solution composition, solvent (dimethyl sulphoxide – DMSO) concentration and type of microtitre plate used on the results and reliability of the MRA were investigated. The optimal bioassay protocol was applied to methanolic extracts of medicinal plants that have been reported to possess anti-mycobacterial activity.ResultsThe variables investigated were found to have significant effects on the results obtained with the MRA. A standardised procedure that can reliably quantify anti-mycobacterial activity of phytochemical extracts in as little as 48 h was identified. The optimised MRA uses 2% aqueous DMSO, with an indicator solution of 62.5 µg/mL resazurin in 5% aqueous Tween 80 over 96 h incubation.Conclusion The study has identified an optimal procedure for the MRA when used with M. tuberculosis H37Ra that gives rapid, reliable and consistent results. The assay procedure has been used successfully for the screening and bioassay-guided fractionation of anti-mycobacterial compounds from methanol extracts of Canadian medicinal plants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe diversity of structure and, particularly, stereochemical variation of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids can present challenges for analysis and the isolation of pure compounds for the preparation of analytical standards and for toxicology studies.Objective To investigate methods for the separation of gram-scale quantities of the epimeric dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine and intermedine and to compare their NMR spectroscopic data with those of their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine.Methods Lycopsamine and intermedine were extracted, predominantly as their N-oxides and along with their acetylated derivatives, from commercial samples of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) root. Alkaloid enrichment involved liquid–liquid partitioning of the crude methanol extract between dilute aqueous acid and n-butanol, reduction of N-oxides and subsequent continuous liquid–liquid extraction of free base alkaloids into CHCl3. The alkaloid-rich fraction was further subjected to semi-automated flash chromatography using boronated soda glass beads or boronated quartz sand.ResultsBoronated soda glass beads (or quartz sand) chromatography adapted to a Biotage Isolera Flash Chromatography System enabled large-scale separation (at least up to 1–2 g quantities) of lycopsamine and intermedine. The structures were confirmed using one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Examination of the NMR data for lycopsamine, intermedine and their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine allowed for some amendments of literature data and provided useful comparisons for determining relative configurations in monoester dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. A similar NMR comparison of lycopsamine and intermedine with their N-oxides showed the effects of N-oxidation on some key chemical shifts. A levorotatory shift in specific rotation from +3.29° to −1.5° was observed for lycopsamine when dissolved in ethanol or methanol respectively.ConclusionA semi-automated flash chromatographic process using boronated soda glass beads was standardised and confirmed as a useful, larger scale preparative approach for separating the epimers lycopsamine and intermedine. The useful NMR correlations to stereochemical arrangements within this specific class of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid cannot be confidently extrapolated to other similar dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) is widespread in the Mediterranean area. This plant has a solid tradition in ethnomedicine because of its various biological activities. Based on previous reports, the main volatile constituents of R. chalepensis are 2-undecanone and 2-nonanone, but most are still unknown, particularly fatty acid composition. To exhaustively characterise the chemical composition of the aerial parts from R. chalepensis plants collected from the wild in Sicily, within a project aiming at the evaluation and characterisation of medicinal plants from the Mediterranean flora. The study was directed toward the determination of volatiles and fatty acids in samples of R. chalepensis obtained from different aerial plant parts and from plants harvested at different times. GC with flame ionisation detection, GC-MS and two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) advanced techniques, with support of dedicated mass spectral databases provided with retention index (RI) information, were applied to determine both volatiles and fatty acids. Samples were extracted by hydrodistillation and underwent methylic transesterification in order to be transformed into the correspondent fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The monodimensional analysis by GC-MS with RI confirmed that 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone are the predominant components in all the plant parts, followed by esters and monoterpenes. A different distribution was observed of the main compounds in the various plant parts depending on the life cycle of the plant (vegetative or reproductive stage). The multidimensional GC × GC analysis allowed for a complete screening of the fatty acids. About 65% of the total were polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), followed by 30% of saturated fatty acids (SFA). A detailed GC volatile fingerprint of R. chalepensis flowers, leaves, fruits and stems was established, highlighting the compositional differences depending on plant organs and life cycle. The results indicated R. chalepensis as a good source of fatty acids from the w3 and w6 series. In both essential oil and lipidic extract, many compounds were determined for the first time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionAs an essential medicine and tea source in many countries, Plumula Nelumbinis potentially exerts its major biological activities through its alkaloids. However, the activities of Plumula Nelumbinis are not fully understood due to the lack of studies on its chemical components.Objective To establish an ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode-array detector (UPLC/DAD) method, coupled to an electrospray ionisation with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI/QTOF/MS) method, for the separation and identification of Plumula Nelumbinis alkaloids.Methods The eluant from an UPLC separation of an ethanol extract of Plumula Nelumbinis was directly infused into an ESI/QTOF/MS system. Both positive and negative ion modes of ESI with low and high collision energy (CE) were used to obtain sufficient MS information.ResultsTwenty-one alkaloids were tentatively identified based on their chromatographic characteristics, UV spectra, exact mass, MS fragments and literature reports. They consist of six bis-1-benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline, eleven benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline (including two glycoalkaloids and two quaternary ammoniums), two aporphine, one proaporphine and one indole alkaloids. Eleven were identified in Plumula Nelumbinis for the first time and seven were first reported in Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Five compounds, namely norcoclaurine-4′-O-glucoside, norcoclaurine-6-O-glucoside, isolotusine, 6-demethyl-4-demethylN-methylcoclaurine and N-norisoliensinine, were characterised and proposed as new compounds.Conclusion The established UPLC/DAD − ESI/QTOF/MS method is efficient for systematic identification of the alkaloids in Plumula Nelumbinis extract. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionStems and roots of Salacia genus plants have been used in Ayurveda as a specific remedy for early stage diabetes. Previous investigations identified four sulphonium sulphates, that is, salacinol (1), kotalanol (3), ponkoranol (5) and salaprinol (7), as the compounds responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. Their desulphonates (2, 4, 6 and 8) were also isolated as active constituents. Two separate quantitative analytical protocols, that is, for 1 and 3 and for 2 and 4, have been developed recently.Objective To: validate the two analytical protocols with respect to all eight sulphoniums; evaluate the quality of a variety of Salacia samples collected in different geographical regions, that is, Thailand, Sri Lanka and India; and determine their distribution in each part of the plant, that is, stems/roots, leaves and fruits.Methods Analyses of four sulphonium sulphates in 32 Salacia extracts were carried out on an Asahipak NH2P-50 column, and those of the corresponding desulphonates were conducted on an Inertsil ODS-3 column.ResultsNeokotalanol (4) was the major constituent in Salacia samples from Thailand, whereas 1 was the primary constituent in extracts of the stems/roots of plants from Sri Lanka and India. These sulphoniums were only present in trace amounts in leaves and fruits of the plants.Conclusion Two analytical protocols were successfully applied to analyse 32 Salacia samples, and revealed that sulphoniums (1–8) had characteristic distributions due to the plant part and/or due to geographical region. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionAsparagus is esteemed in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda, and it is commercially one of the most important drugs in the global herbal market. Comparative metabolite profiling of different species would help in determining the similarities and ascertain their validity for being used as substitutes for each other. Laser microdissection (LMD) facilitates identification of metabolites in specific tissues, and thus it can aid in exploration of metabolic pathways in target tissues.Objective To compare tissue-specific metabolites and protodioscin content of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. and Asparagus racemosus Willd. used in China and India.Methods Metabolite analysis of laser-dissected tissues was carried out using UHPLC–QTOF/MS and LC–MS/MS. The protodioscin contents were determined and the method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidelines.ResultsMetabolite analysis reveals that the velamen tissue, among other tissues such as cortex, vascular bundles and pith, contained maximum components, specifically those belonging to the steroidal saponin class. Although the metabolite profiles were similar, the content of protodioscin was found to be higher in Chinese than Indian species.Conclusion The study provided a suitable methodology for metabolite profiling and protodioscin content determination of Asparagus by use of LMD, UHPLC–QTOF/MS and LC–MS/MS. The similarities in metabolite profiles indicate that Asparagus species from India and China can serve as substitute for each other in various therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 04/2014;

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