Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology; International Society of Pharmacovigilance, Wiley

Journal description

The aim of Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety is to provide an international forum for the communication and evaluation of data methods and opinion in the emerging discipline of pharmacoepidemiology. The Journal publishes peer-reviewed reports of original research invited reviews and a variety of guest editorials and commentaries embracing scientific medical statistical and legal aspects of pharmacoepidemiology and post-marketing surveillance of drug safety. Appropriate material in these categories may also be considered for publication as a Brief Communication. Particular areas of interest include: design results analysis and interpretation of post-marketing surveillance and other studies looking at specific drugs populations and outcomes methods for detection and evaluation of drug-associated adverse events assessments of risk versus benefit ratios in drug therapy patterns of drug utilization relationships between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines The Publishers recognize the need of journal users to access articles through a variety of channels and are committed to providing a wide range of options in the future. The Publishers are also aware that new communication media increase the threat to authors' own rights through unauthorized distribution alteration or attribution. To enable the Publishers to make the published version of articles available as widely as possible while protecting authors' rights to be associated with their work it is essential that a Copyright Transfer Agreement form is signed for every article which is to be considered for publication in the journal. The form can be photocopied from the journal or copies can be obtained on request from the Publisher or printed from this Web site. Inclusion of a signed form with the manuscript at the original submission stage will speed up processing and eventual publication of the article.

Current impact factor: 2.94

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.939
2013 Impact Factor 3.172
2012 Impact Factor 2.897
2011 Impact Factor 2.528
2010 Impact Factor 2.339
2009 Impact Factor 2.527
2008 Impact Factor 2.516
2007 Impact Factor 2.475
2006 Impact Factor 2.155
2005 Impact Factor 1.773
2004 Impact Factor 2.098
2003 Impact Factor 1.257
2002 Impact Factor 1.092
2001 Impact Factor 1.33
2000 Impact Factor 0.867
1999 Impact Factor 0.848

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.14
Cited half-life 5.30
Immediacy index 0.57
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.21
Website Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety website
Other titles Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety (Online), Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety
ISSN 1099-1557
OCLC 44084438
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • Non-Commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Previous studies have documented increased risk of pneumonia with antipsychotic use in the elderly; however, differential risk across individual atypical antipsychotics remains unaddressed. This study examines the effect of individual atypical antipsychotics on risk of pneumonia in elderly patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large claims database. The study population included new users of atypical antipsychotics (≥65 years). The multiple propensity-score adjusted survival model was used to examine risk of pneumonia within a 1-year follow-up period. Results: A total of 92 234 patients newly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medication were identified. Of these, 41 780 (45.30%) were quetiapine users, 31 048 (33.66%) risperidone users, 11 375 (12.33%) olanzapine users, 6790 (7.36%) aripiprazole users, and 1241 (1.35%) ziprasidone users. Within the 1-year follow-up period, 12 411 (13.46%) patients taking atypical antipsychotics had a diagnosis of pneumonia. The multiple propensity-score-adjusted survival model revealed increased risk of pneumonia with the use of risperidone (hazard ratios (HR) 1.14, 95%CI 1.10-1.18) and olanzapine (HR 1.10, 95%CI 1.04-1.16) compared with the use of quetiapine. Conclusion: This large population-based study suggests that use of risperidone and olanzapine increases risk of pneumonia compared with use of quetiapine in elderly patients. This study provides new information on the comparative risk of pneumonia associated with different atypical antipsychotics in the elderly to support optimal treatment decisions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3882
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Ticagrelor increases serum adenosine concentrations, slowing conduction and possibly leading to bradycardia. Clinical trial data have shown numerically, though not statistically significantly, higher rates of bradyarrhythmias with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel. Additionally, recent case reports have further raised concerns for this adverse effect. We explored the association between ticagrelor and hospitalization for bradycardia in a real-world setting. Methods: We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study of Ontario residents, 66 years of age or older, discharged after a first acute coronary syndrome by linking multiple healthcare databases. Cases included patients hospitalized for bradycardia within 1 year of starting a P2Y12 inhibitor. For each case, we identified 4 controls matched on age, sex, index date, and current use of a P2Y12 inhibitor. The exposure of interest was a prescription for ticagrelor within 90 days, with clopidogrel use as the reference group. Results: From April 2012 to March 2014, we identified 140 cases and 560 controls who met the study criteria. We found no significant association between bradycardia and exposure to ticagrelor relative to clopidogrel in the previous 90 days prior to the index date (adjusted odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.65-2.21). Further adjustment for potential confounders also did not identify a significant association. Conclusions: Among older patients with a first acute coronary syndrome, use of ticagrelor was not associated with a greater risk of admission for bradycardia relative to clopidogrel. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3884
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: A postmarketing study without a comparator group has been recognized as a problem as it provides no measure of association. Nevertheless, the design is sometimes used in company postmarketing studies particularly when the study involves the primary data collection. In this report, the "Symmetry Analysis Cohort Design" without a comparator group but with a control period is proposed. Methods and results: In the proposed design, the rate ratio is estimated using the method of prescription sequence symmetry analysis with slight modification so that the rate ratio can be estimated using data on subjects who have started the drug during the study period but no data on other subjects. Discussion: The proposed design has an advantage that it can provide the measure of association. Another advantage common to all self-controlled methods is that the effect of the measured and unmeasured confounders is automatically canceled out when the effect is stable over the study period. Compared with the standard design with a comparator group, the proposed design also has weaknesses. For example, adjustment of confounding by the indication may be difficult when the indication is an acute condition. In addition, the rate ratio is not valid when the probability of the prescription of the drug is dependent on the occurrence of the outcome in the unexposed (pre-dose) period. The design may be used to evaluate the need for further studies although its real usefulness is to be determined in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3886
  • Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 10/2015; 24(10):1117-1119. DOI:10.1002/pds.3848
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionAlthough recommendations for the antithrombotic management of atrial fibrillation (AF) are based on strong evidence, the European guidelines are not fully implemented into practice.Objectives The objective of this study is to analyse antithrombotic treatment in AF in Poland after the publication of the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines in 2012.Patients and Methods We retrospectively studied 1556 patients with AF from the Reference Cardiology University Centre in Poland in 2012–2014.ResultsCHA2DS2VASc and HAS-BLED scores were 3.5 ± 1.7 and 2.4 ± 1.1. Anti-vitamin K agent were prescribed in 59%, with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in 12%, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) alone in 18%. Older patients (p < 0.0001) and with paroxysmal AF were less likely to receive oral anticoagulation (OAC, p < 0.0001). The risk of stroke according to CHA2DS2VASc score was higher in patients who did not receive OAC (p < 0.0001). The use of OAC increased with increasing CHA2DS2VASc score but was less frequent in score ≥ 4. The risk of bleeding was higher in patients without OAC (p < 0.0001). The odds of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants use were lower for older patients, patients with ischaemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, anaemia, HAS-BLED ≥ 3 and valvular AF. ASA was given in 39% of the patients, especially in paroxysmal AF (p < 0.0001). The odds of ASA alone were higher for older patients, with ischaemic heart disease and history of myocardial infarction (p < 0.0001). The odds of use of ASA as the only treatment were 5.5 times higher for HAS-BLED ≥ 3 (p < 0.0001).Conclusions Antithrombotic management in AF is well implemented in Polish conditions, but we show the lack of pattern concerning who is being treated with OAC and ASA when it comes to the risk of stroke and bleeding. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3878
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: In cross-sectional observational data, evaluation of biomarker-to-exposure associations is often complicated by nonrandom medication use. Traditional approaches often lead to biased estimates, consistent with known results involving confounding by indication. More sophisticated, yet easy to implement approaches such as inverse probability weighting and censored normal regression can address medication use in certain settings but have poor performance when medication use depends on off-medication biomarker values. More sophisticated approaches are necessary. Methods: Heckman's treatment effects model resembles the process that gives rise to cross-sectional data. In this study, we conduct a variety of simulation studies to illustrate why traditional approaches are inappropriate when medication use depends on underlying biomarker values. We illustrate how Heckman's model can accommodate this feature. We also apply the models to data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Results: Inverse probability weighting and censored normal regression are sensitive to how strongly medication use is associated with untreated biomarker values (the untreated value acts as an unmeasured predictor of medication use in this context). Heckman's model can often adequately remove bias and is robust to certain forms of model misspecification but relies on knowing important predictors of medication use, even when they are independent of the biomarker. The advantages of Heckman's model can be negated if the effect of medication on biomarker values is proportionate to the underlying biomarker. Conclusions: If predictors of medication use are measured, data are cross-sectional, and effects are approximately additive, then Heckman's model is more accurate relative to alternative approaches. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3876
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: The comparative effectiveness of dihydropyridine (DHP) and non-DHP calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in maintenance dialysis patients has not been well-studied. Methods: A retrospective cohort of hypertensive patients initiating dialysis was created. New CCB initiators, defined as individual who had no evidence of CCB use in the first 90 days of dialysis but who were initiated by day 180, were followed from their first day of medication exposure until event or censoring; events consisted of all-cause mortality (ACM) and a combined endpoint of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality (CVMM). Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) comparing the effect of DHPs vs. non-DHPs. Results: There were 2900 and 2704 new initiators of CCBs in the ACM and CVMM models, respectively. Adjusted for other factors, use of DHPs, compared to non-DHPs, was associated with an AHR of 0.77 (99% confidence intervals, 0.64 - 0.93, P = 0.0004) for ACM and 0.86 (0.72 - 1.02, P = 0.024) for CVMM. Results were similar when individuals who initiated therapy at any point after the cohort inception were included, with AHRs of 0.60 (0.53 - 0.69, P < 0.0001) and 0.77 (0.67 - 0.89, P < 0.0001) for ACM and CVMM, respectively. Further, elimination of individuals with chronic atrial fibrillation resulted in AHRs of 0.71 and 0.70 for ACM and CVVM, respectively. Conclusion: DHPs, as compared to non-DHPs, were associated with reduced hazard of death or cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; potential mechanisms of action require further study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3869
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Pharmacoepidemiologic studies are often expected to be sufficiently powered to study rare outcomes, but there is sequential loss of power with implementation of study design options minimizing bias. We illustrate this using a study comparing pancreatic cancer incidence after initiating dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) versus thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas. Methods: We identified Medicare beneficiaries with at least one claim of DPP-4i or comparators during 2007-2009 and then applied the following steps: (i) exclude prevalent users, (ii) require a second prescription of same drug, (iii) exclude prevalent cancers, (iv) exclude patients age <66 years and (v) censor for treatment changes during follow-up. Power to detect hazard ratios (effect measure strongly driven by the number of events) ≥ 2.0 estimated after step 5 was compared with the naïve power estimated prior to step 1. Results: There were 19 388 and 28 846 DPP-4i and thiazolidinedione initiators during 2007-2009. The number of drug initiators dropped most after requiring a second prescription, outcomes dropped most after excluding patients with prevalent cancer and person-time dropped most after requiring a second prescription and as-treated censoring. The naïve power (>99%) was considerably higher than the power obtained after the final step (~75%). Conclusions: In designing new-user active-comparator studies, one should be mindful how steps minimizing bias affect sample-size, number of outcomes and person-time. While actual numbers will depend on specific settings, application of generic losses in percentages will improve estimates of power compared with the naive approach mostly ignoring steps taken to increase validity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3872
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: Controlling blood pressure (BP) for patients with stage 2 hypertension remains challenging. This research aimed to: (i) identify predictors of failure to achieve BP control, (ii) determine the association of adding one additional antihypertensive class with achieving BP control, and (iii) describe the prescribed antihypertensive regimens. Methods: Electronic medical record data from 25 multi-specialty medical groups in the USA were used. The study cohort included patients with stage 2 hypertension in 2012. BP control rates were determined at 6 months from the date of the stage 2 BP. Using multivariable logistic regression and validation by Monte Carlo simulation, we determined independent baseline predictors of not achieving BP control (<140/90). Results: Included were 107 903 patients. Baseline predictors of failure to achieve BP control included the following: a prior stage 2 BP, systolic BP ≥ 165, Black race, male sex, income ≤ $35 000, body mass index ≥ 30, age ≥ 65 years, and no office visits. Increasing from single-class to dual-class antihypertensive therapy was associated with a 42% increased odds of achieving BP control (odds ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.22, 1.64); however, this effect was attenuated as the number of baseline antihypertensive classes increased. The 10 most frequently prescribed regimens accounted for only 40% of all antihypertensive regimens. Conclusions: Among patients with stage 2 hypertension, a prior stage 2 BP, a systolic BP ≥ 165, and fewer office visits were strong predictors of failure to achieve BP control. Increasing to dual-class antihypertensive therapy was significantly associated with achieving BP control. There is broad heterogeneity in the antihypertensive regimens prescribed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3849
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    ABSTRACT: Medications Prescription in Pregnancy: Is There an Association With Sociodemographic Features?
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 08/2015; 47(474).
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    ABSTRACT: Sex Difference in Antidepressant Use in Brain Injury Rehabilitation Centres
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 08/2015; 139(218).
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe aim of this research was to examine the association between statin use and the risk of acute pancreatitis.Methods This register-based case–control study with incidence density sampling was based on 4376 patients hospitalized in 2008–2010 for acute pancreatitis and 19 859 randomly selected age and sex-matched controls from the adult population of Finland. The relationship between statin use from 1 January 2004 to the index date and the relative incidence rate of acute pancreatitis was modelled by conditional logistic regression. The rate ratios were adjusted for comorbidities.ResultsA total of 826 (19%) cases and 2589 (13%) controls had been exposed to statins. Statin use was associated with an increased incidence rate of acute pancreatitis (odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–1.39). This increase was seen especially during the first year of use both among current (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.94–2.00 for at most 3 months of use and OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.07–1.63 for 4–12 months of use) and former users (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.33–2.03). The overall association remained when restricting analyses to participants with current use only, or with no history of gallstone or alcohol-related diseases, or with no comorbidities or medicines other than statins.Conclusions Statin use seems to be associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. The association is more apparent during the first year of statin use and among former users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3858
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    ABSTRACT: To determine which 10 prescription-only drugs used in outpatient treatment in Germany are most frequently reported to induce severe drug hypersensitivity reactions taking into account their prescription numbers. In addition, the reader should be made aware of respective databases available to the public and their limitations. Reports of anaphylactic and severe cutaneous adverse reactions were identified in the adverse drug reaction database of the German competent authority for the time period January 1998 to December 2012. For frequently reported drugs, the total number of reports was matched with their total number of prescriptions resulting in the reporting rate. Among the 10 drugs with the highest reporting rate for anaphylactic reactions, there were six antibiotics (moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and amoxicillin), three of which were fluoroquinolones. The other four drugs were glatiramer, metamizole and two angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. Concerning severe cutaneous adverse reactions, four out of ten drugs were antibiotics (clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol + trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin), and three were anticonvulsives. Because dental prescription numbers were not available to the public, the real reporting rates for clindamycin and to a lesser extent for amoxicillin are presumably lower. The predominance of antibiotics among the reports of severe immediate and delayed-type drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely in accordance with literature although fluoroquinolones seem to be slightly overrepresented concerning anaphylactic reactions. The reader should be aware of the limitations of adverse drug reaction and prescription databases available to the public, and that over-the-counter drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and drugs typically administered in hospitals could not be considered. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3857
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe purpose of this review is to assist researchers in developing, using, and interpreting case-identifying algorithms in electronic healthcare databases.Methods We review clinical characteristics of health outcomes, data settings and informatics, and epidemiologic and statistical methods aspects as they pertain to the development and use of case-identifying algorithms.ResultsWe offer a framework for thinking critically about the use of electronic health insurance data and electronic health records to identify the occurrence of health outcomes. Accuracy of case ascertainment in database research depends on many factors, including clinical and behavioral aspects of the health outcome, and details of database construction as it pertains to completeness and reliability of database content. Existing methods for diagnostic and screening tests, misclassification, validation studies, and predictive modelling can be usefully applied to improve case ascertainment in database research.Conclusions Good case-identifying algorithms are based on a sound understanding of care-seeking behavior and patterns of clinical diagnosis and treatment in the study population and details about the construction and characteristics of the database. Researchers should use quantitative bias analyses to take into account the performance characteristics of case-identifying algorithms and their impact on study results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3856