Pediatric Pulmonology (Pediatr Pulmonol )

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Description

Pediatric Pulmonology publishes reports on laboratory research and clinical investigations or observations concerning the respiratory system during its entire development from the fetal stage throughout childhood and adolescence.

  • Impact factor
    2.38
  • 5-year impact
    2.18
  • Cited half-life
    7.40
  • Immediacy index
    0.57
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.73
  • Website
    Pediatric Pulmonology website
  • Other titles
    Pediatric pulmonology (Online), Pediatric pulmonology
  • ISSN
    1099-0496
  • OCLC
    39030100
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley & Sons

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • On personal web site or secure external website at authors institution
    • Not allowed on institutional repository
    • JASIST authors may deposit in an institutional repository
    • Non-commercial
    • Pre-print must be accompanied with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For the last thirty years, oral chloral hydrate has been used for sedation of infants for lung function testing. Recently, however, availability of chloral hydrate became severely limited in the United States after two manufacturers discontinued manufacturing in 2012. Due to these limitations and the recent and ongoing shortage of chloral hydrate, other medications have been proposed for lung function testing, including midazolam and propofol. Herein, we describe our limited experience using intravenous dexmedetomedine (DMED), a medication thus far described as having minimal effect on pulmonary function or respiratory drive. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: RationaleTo determine whether spirometry and regular medical review improved quality of life or other outcomes in children and adolescents with asthma.Methods We conducted two cluster randomized controlled trials. We recruited 238 asthma patients aged between 7 and 17 years from 56 general practices in South Eastern Australia.Participants were randomized to receive an intervention that included spirometry or usual care. The main outcome measure was asthma related quality of life.ResultsBaseline characteristics were well matched between the intervention and control groups. Neither trial found any difference in asthma related quality of life between groups. However because of measurement properties, a formal meta-analysis could not be performed. Nor were there any significant effects of the intervention upon asthma attacks, limitation to usual activities, nocturnal cough, bother during physical activity, worry about asthma, or written asthma action plans.Conclusions The findings do not support more widespread use of spirometry for the management of childhood asthma in general practice, unless it is integrated into a complete management model. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe lung function outcome of cohorts of very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight <1501 g) survivors born in the late 1970s or early 1980s into adulthood at an age when lung growth would be expected to have ceased is not well described. The aim of this study was to report lung function data in adulthood of VLBW survivors compared with normal birth weight controls (>2499 g), and in those who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) compared with those without BPD.Materials and Methods Spirometry and lung volumes were measured according to standard guidelines when subjects were in their mid-20s; there were 47 survivors of birth weight <1000 g, 40 of birth weight 1000–1500 g, and 20 controls of birth weight >2499 g. Results were converted to z-scores.ResultsBoth subgroups with birth weight <1501 g had significant reductions in airflow compared with controls, but not compared with each other. There were no significant differences between groups in variables reflecting air trapping. Within the VLBW cohort, those with BPD (n = 24) had reductions in airflow, including the z-score for the forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1), compared with those without BPD (n = 63). Within the VLBW cohort, there were positive relationships between FEV1 measurements earlier in childhood with those obtained at 25 years of age; these relationships were stronger in those who had BPD in the newborn period, and increased over time.ConclusionsVLBW survivors continue to have airways obstruction in their mid-20s compared with controls, particularly those who had BPD in the newborn period. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized in recent years as contributors to clinically significant lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Reports of prevalence vary from 6 to 22% around the world. Prevalence estimates in childhood CF is challenging since sputum producers are rare, bronchoalveolar lavage is an invasive procedure and may not be feasible, and mounting evidence deeming throat cultures to be unsuccessful in detecting NTM. We report a case of an overall healthy 13 year old young adolescent female with CF, who presented with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) as her first documented lung infection, and while only presenting with minor cough proved to have severe purulent bronchial infection. Contrary to common paradigms, NTM can be the first infection in a non-previously infected airway, and, this first infection can be of a serious nature unlike the more subtle anticipated pattern. The causes of the high and probably increasing overall incidence of NTM and specifically in CF elude explanation and mandate further study. Continuing efforts should be invested into the study of all aspects of this ominous infection. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Many preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) demonstrate impaired lung function and respiratory symptoms during infancy. The relationships between initial BPD severity, lung function and respiratory morbidity are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association between BPD severity and subsequent lung function and whether lung function impairment is related to respiratory morbidity.Study design and methodsIn this longitudinal cohort study, 55 infants born preterm (23–30 weeks of gestation) with mild or moderate/severe BPD, based on oxygen requirement at 36 gestational weeks, were followed up at 6 and 18 months postnatal age. Respiratory symptoms, such as recurrent or chronic chough and wheeze, were noted and patient records were scrutinized. Lung function was assessed by passive lung mechanics, whole body plethysmography, and tidal and raised volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression techniques. Results were related to published normative values.ResultsBesides residual functional capacity (FRC) and respiratory system compliance (Cso) assessed at 18 months, all measures of lung function were significantly below normative values. Moderate/severe BPD differed significantly from mild BPD only with respect to reduced Cso. At follow-up at 6 and 18 months, participants with respiratory symptoms showed lower; maximal forced expiratory flow at FRC (FRC) (P = 0.006, P = 0.001), forced mid-expiratory flows (MEF50) (P = 0.006, P = 0.048), and Cso (P = 0.004, P = 0.015) as compared to participants without symptoms.Conclusions In the present study BPD severity did not predict lung function, but may be associated with impaired alveolarization, indicated by reduced Cso. Respiratory morbidity was associated with reduced airway function and respiratory compliance in infancy after preterm birth. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Several self-administered questionnaires have been developed to assess childhood asthma control in a simple and standardized way. This review discusses the most commonly used questionnaires and explores their usefulness in asthma management in children. We conclude that the use of asthma control questionnaires in daily practice and in research contributes to the standardized evaluation of children with asthma and helps to track asthma symptoms, but validation studies in a wider range of settings are needed. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a well-recognized disorder of the autonomic nervous system caused by mutations in the PHOX2B gene. The most characteristic feature is failure of ventilatory control, resulting in the need for respiratory support while asleep, and in some cases when awake also. Most cases present in infancy or early childhood. Technological advances allow patients with mild to moderate phenotypesto receive adequate support by non-invasive ventilation (NIV), or diaphragm pacing (or combination of the two) avoiding the need for long-term ventilation by tracheostomy. Daytime functioning of patients with CCHS who require sleep-time ventilation only is expected to be good, with some additional surveillance to ensure they don't accidentally fall asleep without respiratory support available. Some children with CCHS have other complications, such as Hirschprung's disease, learning difficulties, and cardiac arrhythmias (leading in some instances to heart block and the requirement for a pacemaker). In a few cases, patients can develop neurogenic malignancies. Parents bear a significant burden for the care of their child with CCHS including provision of NIV at home, close monitoring, and regular surveillance for complications. Information about patients with CCHS comes from databases in the United States and Europe, but these don't include infants or children for whom ventilator support was not offered. In this paper we use a case study to explore the ethical issues of provision of treatment, or non-treatment, of children with CCHS. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the depressed lung growth attributable to prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be modified by the intake of antihistamine medications. Individual prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in 176 children who were followed over nine years, in the course of which outdoor residential air monitoring, allergic skin tests for indoor allergens, lung function tests (FVC, FEV1, FEV05, and FEF25-75) were performed. The analysis with the General Estimated Equation (GEE) showed no association between prenatal PAH exposure and lung function in the group of children who were reported to be antihistamine users. However, in the group of antihistamine non-users all lung function tests except for FEF25-75 were significantly and inversely associated with prenatal airborne PAH exposure. The results of the study suggest that the intake of antihistamine medications in early childhood may inhibit the negative effect of fetal PAH exposure on lung growth and provides additional indirect evidence for the hypothesis that lung alterations in young children resulting from PAH exposure may be caused by the allergic inflammation within lung. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectiveThe mechanisms of Mycoplasma pneumoniae induced lung inflammation are not clearly understood yet. This study investigated whether activated T cells in the airway contributed to the pulmonary inflammation in patients with severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP).MethodsBALF were collected in all 45 patients with MPP (MPP, n = 45), including mild (Mild, n = 20) and severe (Severe, n = 25) group. BALF in 20 of all 25 severe cases with MPP at the recovery stage (Rec-severe, n = 20) were collected again. The control group consisted of 20 patients with airway foreign body aspiration (Con., n = 20). CD3+ T cells, CD69+, HLA-DR+, CD25+ on CD3+ T cells in BALF were determined by flow cytometry. Levels of IL-6, IL-10 in BALF were determined by ELISA, and percentage of neutrophils was counted.ResultsA significant increased percentage of neutrophils and levels of IL-6 and IL-10, decreased percentage of CD3+ T cells, increased expressions of CD69+, HLA-DR+ or CD25+ on CD3+ T cells were observed in children with MPP compared with the control group (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Compared to mild group, the percentage of neutrophils, CD3+ CD25+, IL-6, and IL-10 were increased in children with severe MPP (P < 0.01 or 0.05). Compared to acute stage, an increased percentage of CD3+ T cells, decreased percentage of neutrophils and IL-6 level, and expressions of CD3+ CD69+ or CD3+ CD25+ were observed at the recovery stage in children with severe MPP (P < 0.01 or 0.05).Conclusions Increased activation of T cell in BALF may play an important role in the inflammatory response of acute and severe MPP. IL-6 may predict the severity and prognosis and provide a better assessment for patient care. However, the underlying mechanism awaits further detailed investigations. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide plays an important role in several physiological and pathophysiological processes in the respiratory tract. Different ways to measure nasal nitric oxide levels in children are currently available. The possibility of obtaining nasal nitric oxide measurement from relatively young children, combined with the availability of portable devices that can be used even in the office setting, opens new perspectives for nasal nitric oxide analysis in the pediatric daily practice. This review presents a synopsis about the current clinical applications of nasal nitric oxide measurement in the pediatric clinical practice. A total of 3,775 articles on the topic were identified, of which 883 duplicates were removed, and 2,803 were excluded based on review of titles and abstracts. Eighty-nine full text articles were assessed for eligibility and 32 additional articles were obtained from the reference lists of the retrieved studies. Since very low nasal nitric oxide levels are found in the majority of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia, most publications support a central role for nasal nitric oxide to screen the disease, and indicate that it is a very helpful first-line tool in the real-life work-up in all age groups. Decreased nasal nitric oxide concentration is also typical of cystic fibrosis, even though nasal nitric oxide is not as low as in primary ciliary dyskinesia. In other upper airway disorders such as allergic rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and adenoidal hypertrophy, clinical utility of nasal nitric oxide is still critically questioned and remains to be established. Since nNO determination is flow dependent, a general consensus from the major investigators in this area is highly desirable so that future studies will be performed with the same flow rate. A shared nNO methodology will enable to overcome the challenges that lie ahead in incorporating nNO measurement into the mainstream clinical setting of pediatric airway diseases. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: RationaleLittle is known about breastfeeding and asthma in Puerto Ricans, the ethnic group most affected by this disease in the US. We examined the relation between the currently recommended duration of breastfeeding and asthma in school-aged Puerto Rican children.Methods Case-control study of 1,127 Puerto Rican children aged 6–14 years living in Hartford, Connecticut (n = 449) and San Juan, Puerto Rico (n = 678). Parental recall of breastfeeding was categorized based on duration and according to current guidelines (i.e., none, 0–6 months, and >6 months). Asthma was defined as parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the previous year. We used logistic regression for the multivariate analysis, which was conducted separately for each study site and for the combined cohort. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, gender, household income, atopy, maternal asthma, body mass index, early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and (for the combined cohort) study site.ResultsAfter adjustment for covariates, children who were breastfed for up to 6 months had 30% lower odds of asthma (95% CI = 0.5–1.0, P = 0.04) than those who were not breastfed. In this analysis, breastfeeding for longer than 6 months was not significantly associated with asthma (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0–2.4, P = 0.06).Conclusions Our results suggest that breastfeeding for up to 6 months (as assessed by parental recall) is associated with decreased odds of asthma in Puerto Rican children, and that there is no additional beneficial effect of breastfeeding for over 6 months. These results support current recommendations on the duration of breastfeeding in an ethnic group at risk for asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Palivizumab prophylaxis for RSV has been consistently reported to reduce the risk of hospital admissions related to RSV infection in children with symptomatic cardiac disease. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of palivizumab prophylaxis among infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) in Turkey.MethodsA total of 91 infants with CHD who received palivizumab prophylaxis and 96 infants with CHD without prophylaxis (0–12 months:52; 12–24 months:44) were included in this single-center retrospective case control study. Data on patient characteristics, household environment, and LRTIs were evaluated.ResultsIn patients without prophylaxis, the rate of overall lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) (P < 0.001), complicated LRTIs (P = 0.006), LRTI-related hospitalization (P < 0.001) and ICU admission (P = 0.008) were significantly higher than control patients. Weight <10th percentile (odds ratio (OR) 5.78, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.37; 24.4, P < 0.001) and concomitant chromosome abnormality (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.01;16.45, P < 0.001) in patients with prophylaxis, while presence of a sibling <11 years of age (OR 3.38, 95% CI: 1.21; 9.46, P < 0.001) and congestive heart failure (OR 8.63, 95% CI: 2.81; 26.6, P < 0.001) in the control group were the significant correlates of LRTI-related hospitalization.Conclusion Our findings revealed significantly lower rate of overall and complicated LRTIs, LRTI-related hospitalization and ICU admissions in infants with CHD via palivizumab prophylaxis. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Reliable interpretation of spirometry rests on appropriate reference values, but there are few published reference values for healthy children in China.Objective To develop the updated spirometric normative values for healthy children aged 5–15 years in Guangzhou, southern China, and to explore the differences by comparison with published reference values.Methods In this cross-sectional study, health questionnaire and physical examination conducted for screening healthy Han children. Spirometry was performed by well-trained technicians according to American Thoracic Society guidelines. Using Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) algorithm, predicted equations for the median and lower limits of normal were derived for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (FEF25–75%). Predicted values were compared with other published spirometric reference equations.ResultsData were obtained from 422 healthy children (226 boys and 196 girls) aged 5–15 years. Spirometric parameters showed moderate-to-strong positive correlations with age, height, and weight in both genders, with height being the most crucial predictor. There were significant differences between spirometric values and other published reference values. Spirometric values were comparable with the data derived from the same area population in 2002, with exception of increased height and weight in the equivalent age groups.Conclusions The present spirometric reference equations are feasible for assessment of lung function among children in southern China. Further studies for establishment of reference values for Chinese children in other regions are needed. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1–7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and absence of wheeze.Methods Data of 3,252 children from the PIAMA birth cohort were studied. Parents reported the presence of nocturnal dry cough, wheeze, and doctor-diagnosed asthma in the past 12 months yearly, from birth up to the age of 8 years.ResultsNocturnal dry cough without wheeze was significantly associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma at age 8, except for age 1 (range of Relative Risks (RR) at ages 2–7: 1.8 (age 5) – 7.1 (age 7), all P-values <0.048). As expected, wheeze without nocturnal dry cough was strongly associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma at age 8 (range of RR: 2.0 (age 1) – 22.2 (age 7), all P-values <0.003). Of interest, nocturnal dry cough with wheeze showed the strongest association with doctor-diagnosed asthma at age 8 (range of RR: 3.7 (age 1) – 26.0 (age 7), all P-values <0.001). The relative excess risk of asthma at age 8 due to interaction of nocturnal dry cough with wheeze at age 1 year was 1.8 (0.1–3.6, P < 0.01).Conclusion Nocturnal dry cough and wheeze in early childhood are both independently associated with asthma at school age. The presence of both nocturnal dry cough and wheeze at age 1 almost doubles the risk of asthma at age 8 compared to wheeze alone. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a ventilation mode which provides respiratory support proportional to the electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi). The aims of this trial were to assess the feasibility of aiming at peak Edi between 5 and 15 µV during NAVA in clinical practice, to study the effect of age, sedation level and ventilatory settings on the Edi signal and to give some reference values for Edi in a pediatric population.Methods As a part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 81 patients received Edi catheter for monitoring Edi and guiding NAVA ventilation. The goal for peak Edi during invasive ventilation was 5–15 µV. Edi activity and NAVA levels were observed during invasive ventilation and an hour after extubation.ResultsSixty-six patients with healthy lungs (81.5%) were ventilated, mostly as part of postoperative care, while respiratory distress was the indication for invasive ventilation in the remaining 15 patients (18.5%). NAVA levels varied from 0.2 to 2.0 cmH2O/µV in the patients with healthy lungs, but were higher, from 0.7 to 4.0 cmH2O/µV, in the respiratory distress patients (P < 0.001). The latter had higher peak Edi values in all phases of treatment. The effect of age and level of sedation on Edi was statistically significant, but carried only limited clinical relevance. The peak post-extubation Edi levels of the patients with healthy lungs and respiratory distress, respectively, were 9 ± 7 and 20 ± 14 µV. Two out of the three patients for whom extubation failed had an atypical Edi pattern prior to extubation.Conclusions Optimizing the level of support during NAVA by aiming at a peak Edi between 5 and 15 µV was an applicable strategy in our pediatric population. Relatively high post-extubation Edi signal levels were seen in patients recovering from respiratory distress. Information revealed by the Edi signal could be used to find patients with a potential risk of extubation failure. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background While the prevalence of childhood wheeze continues to increase in many countries, decreasing trends have also been reported. This may be explained by increased use of asthma medication, which effectively suppresses wheeze symptoms. In this study we investigated trends in wheeze in Dutch school children between 1989 and 2005, and their association with medication use.Methods In five repeated cross-sectional surveys between 1989 and 2005, parents of all 5- to 6-year-old and 8- to 11-year-old children eligible for a routine physical examination were asked to complete a questionnaire on their child's respiratory health. We identified all children for whom a questionnaire was completed in two successive surveys. Children were grouped according to birth year and classified into one out of four wheeze categories: “no wheeze,” “discontinued wheeze,” “continued wheeze,” or “new-onset wheeze.”ResultsIn total, 3,339 children, born in 1983 (N = 670), 1988 (N = 607), 1992 (N = 980), and 1995 (N = 1,082), participated twice. Over the study period, the proportion of children with “no wheeze” increased from 73.8% to 86.1% (Ptrend < 0.001), while the proportion of children with “discontinued” and “continued” wheeze decreased from 13.2% to 6.3% (Ptrend < 0.001) and from 8.8% to 3.1% (Ptrend < 0.001), respectively. Medication use was consistently associated only with the presence of wheeze symptoms and this association did not change over time (Pbirth year × medication use > 0.05 for all wheeze categories).Conclusion An increasing trend of Dutch school children with “no wheeze,” and decreasing trends of children with “discontinued” and “continued” wheeze between 1989 and 2005 could not be explained by (increased) medication use. This suggests that wheeze prevalence is not masked by medication use, but is truly declining. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We herein report a case of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) primarily presenting with asthma-like symptoms that had been misdiagnosed as severe asthma. Patients presenting with severe asthma symptoms along with systemic thrombosis should be systematically evaluated for APS. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cross-sectional studies have reported an association of vitamin D deficiency with increased asthma prevalence and severity, and with allergies. The effect of vitamin D as sole therapy on airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) and airway inflammation has not been reported.AimTo evaluate the effect of vitamin D therapy on AHR as assessed by methacholine concentration, causing a 20% reduction in FEV1 (PC20-FEV1) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), systemic markers of allergy and inflammation, and exhaled breath condensate cytokines.Patients and Methods Children aged 6–18 years with a clinical diagnosis of mild asthma currently not receiving anti-inflammatory therapy and with low vitamin D levels were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessing the effect of 6 weeks of treatment with oral vitamin D 14,000 units once weekly or placebo.ResultsOf the 39 patients included, 20 received vitamin D treatment and 19 received a placebo. Vitamin D replacement resulted in a significant increase in vitamin levels, which remained unchanged in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). There was no change in IgE, eosinophil count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, FeNO levels or PC20-FEV1 following treatment. Similar values of exhaled breath condensate cytokines (IL4, IL5, IL10, IL17, and γ interferon) were observed in both groups.Conclusions In our small group of children with mild asthma, no difference could be demonstrated between the effect of vitamin D and placebo, despite significant increases in vitamin D blood levels. Larger interventional studies are needed to fully explore the possible effect of vitamin D in asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 07/2014;

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