Zoo Biology (Zoo Biol)

Publisher: American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Wiley

Journal description

Zoo Biology is concerned with reproduction demographics genetics behavior medicine husbandry nutrition conservation and all empirical aspects of the exhibition and maintenance of wild animals in wildlife parks zoos and aquariums. This diverse journal offers a forum for effectively communicating scientific findings original ideas and critical thinking related to the role of wildlife collections and their unique contribution to conservation.

Current impact factor: 0.85

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.846
2012 Impact Factor 1.136
2011 Impact Factor 0.84
2010 Impact Factor 0.663
2009 Impact Factor 0.695
2008 Impact Factor 0.468
2007 Impact Factor 0.564
2006 Impact Factor 0.779
2005 Impact Factor 0.471
2004 Impact Factor 0.622
2003 Impact Factor 0.416
2002 Impact Factor 0.481
2001 Impact Factor 0.31
2000 Impact Factor 0.494
1999 Impact Factor 0.803
1998 Impact Factor 0.714
1997 Impact Factor 0.553
1996 Impact Factor 0.64
1995 Impact Factor 0.436
1994 Impact Factor 0.45
1993 Impact Factor 0.326
1992 Impact Factor 0.422

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.11
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.10
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.30
Website Zoo Biology website
Other titles Zoo biology (Online), Zoo biology
ISSN 1098-2361
OCLC 38866489
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) are distributed across southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, United States. Their distribution has decreased over the past century and the species has been listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reduced genetic diversity, small population size, and isolation may affect Gunnison sage-grouse population persistence. Population augmentation can be used to counteract or mitigate these issues, but traditional translocation efforts have yielded mixed, and mostly unsuccessful, results. Captive-rearing is a viable, although much debated, conservation approach to bolster wild conservation-reliant species. Although there have been captive-rearing efforts with greater sage-grouse (C. urophasianus), to date, no information exists about captive-rearing methods for Gunnison sage-grouse. Therefore, we investigated techniques for egg collection, artificial incubation, hatch, and captive-rearing of chicks, juveniles, subadults, and adults for Gunnison sage-grouse. In 2009 we established a captive flock that produced viable eggs. From 2009-2011, we collected and artificially incubated 206 Gunnison sage-grouse eggs from 23 wild and 14 captive females. Our hatchability was 90%. Wild-produced eggs were heavier than captive-produced eggs and lost mass similarly during incubation. We produced 148 chicks in captivity and fed them a variety of food sources (e.g. invertebrates to commercial chow). Bacterial infections were the primary cause of chick mortality, but we successfully reduced the overall mortality rate during the course of our study. Conservationists and managers should consider the utility in developing a captive-rearing program or creating a captive population as part of a proactive conservation effort for the conservation-reliant Gunnison sage-grouse. Zoo Biol. XX:XXX-XXX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21228
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    ABSTRACT: Seasonal acclimatization in terrestrial mammals in the Northern Hemisphere involves changes in coat insulation. It is more economical to provide increased insulation than increased heat production for protection against the cold. This study was done to test a technique for the non-invasive measurement of mammal coat insulation and to measure coat insulation over several seasons on captive exotics. The working hypothesis was that species that have no coat or have a coat that does not change seasonally do not acclimatize seasonally. Three surface temperature readings were measured from the torso area. The insulation was calculated using measured metabolic rates and body temperature when possible. The African elephants, giraffe and okapi did not acclimatize with average maximum insulation values of 0.256°Cm(2) W(-1) . The Amur tigers and mountain goats acclimatized to seasonal ambient conditions by increasing the insulation values of the hair coats in the cold with an average maximum insulation values of 0.811°Cm(2) W(-1) . The cold adapted species are more than three times more insulated in the cold than the equatorial species. The husbandry implications of exotics that have no ability to acclimatize to Northern Hemisphere seasonal ambient changes are profound. Giraffe, African elephants, and okapi when exposed to cold conditions with ambient air temperatures below 21°C will use body energy reserves to maintain a heat balance and will require housing that provides ambient conditions of 21°C. Zoo Biol. 1:XX-6, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21219
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    ABSTRACT: Great hornbills (Buceros bicornis) are a long-lived, monogamous species that forms strong pair-bonds, and mate compatibility is thought to be important for successful reproduction. Within AZA, great hornbills are listed as a red SSP. The population consists of a limited number of individuals that do not breed reliably, and improving reproduction is a top priority for the Coraciiformes TAG. To better understand mating behavior and evaluate mate compatibility, this study documented the behavior of pairs of great hornbills during and immediately after courtship. Using live observations, the study followed one female, an experienced and successful breeder, as she was paired with four successive males over 11 breeding seasons. Initially, males frequently vocalized, investigated the nest, and approached the female. As the female spent more time in the nest, these behaviors were replaced by regurgitation and food offering. The female was most often observed plastering and vocalizing. Behavioral differences between successful and unsuccessful pairs, possibly indicative of pair compatibility, included rates of approaching, billing, and biting. Numerous behaviors occurred more frequently during years that a chick hatched, including pseudoregurgitation, regurgitation, offering food items, and nest investigation. Males also spent more time in proximity to both the female and the nest during years that a chick hatched. Together, these results suggest that the amount of time pairs spend in proximity, the amount of time a male spends near the nest, and the frequency of certain behaviors may help evaluate compatibility and the likelihood of successful reproduction for pairs of great hornbills. Zoo Biol. XX:1-7, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21221
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    ABSTRACT: There is a substantial gap between the scientific evidence for anthropogenic climate change and the human response to this evidence. Perceptions of and responses to climate change can differ among regions of the world, as well as within countries. Therefore, information about the public's attitudes and perceptions related to climate change is essential to the development of relevant educational resources. In the present study, zoo visitors in four South American countries responded to a questionnaire regarding their attitudes and perceptions toward global climate change. Results indicated that most respondents are already highly concerned about global climate change and are interested in greater engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Visitors also perceive various obstacles to engagement in climate change mitigation behaviors. We discuss the results of our study in terms of addressing visitors' climate change attitudes and perceptions within the social and emotional context of zoo settings. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21224
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variability among captive and wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) was assessed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. A 529 bp segment of mtDNA was sequenced and 9 microsatellite loci were genotyped for 286 ring-tailed lemurs. Samples were obtained from the well-studied L. catta population at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve and from captive animals at six institutions worldwide. We found evidence of possible patrilineal contribution but the absence of matrilineal contribution from the Bezà area, and haplotypes not found in Bezà but present in Ambohimahavelona, Andringitra Massif, and other unknown locations, in the sampled captive population, indicating that the founders of the captive population originated from a wide geographic range. Total genetic variation and relatedness in captive L. catta in the six institutions were similar in extent to that of the wild population in Bezà. Based on the diverse origins of the captive population founders our results suggest the erosion of genetic diversity in the captive population. Sampled individuals from the same institution were more closely related to each other than members of a social group in the wild. Individuals housed at different institutions were less closely related than those of different social groups at Bezà, indicating lower genetic exchange between captive institutions than between social groups in a locality in the wild. Our findings underscore the usefulness of genotyping in determining the geographic origin of captive population founders, obtaining pedigree information if paternity is uncertain, and in maximizing preservation of extant genetic diversity in captivity. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21225
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    ABSTRACT: Domoic acid toxicosis in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is difficult to diagnose using presence of toxin alone because the duration of domoic acid presence in blood and urine is generally less than 48 hr following exposure. Because domoic acid toxicosis is often suggested by presentation of behavioral abnormalities, we asked whether assessment of behavior might be useful for diagnostic purposes. We developed an ethogram to categorize behavioral data collected via continuous focal animal sampling. In total, 169 subjects were observed at a rehabilitation center. Sea lions with domoic acid toxicosis displayed head weaving (P < 0.0001) and muscle fasciculations (P < 0.01) significantly more often than animals in a comparison group. Dragging hind flippers and swift scanning were observed exclusively in animals from the domoic acid toxicosis group. The data show that behavioral diagnostic criteria can be effective in the diagnosis of domoic acid toxicosis in the California sea lion. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21217
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    ABSTRACT: Repetitive movement patterns are commonly observed in zoo elephants. The extent to which these behaviors constitute a welfare concern varies, as their expression ranges from stereotypies to potentially beneficial anticipatory behaviors. Nevertheless, their occurrence in zoo animals is often viewed negatively. To better identify conditions that prompt their performance, observations were conducted on six African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo. Individuals spent most of their time engaged in feeding, locomotion, resting, and repetitive behavior. Both generalized estimating equation and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to identify factors associated with increased rates of repetitive behavior. Time of day in conjunction with location on- or off-exhibit best explained patterns of repetitive behavior. Repetitive behaviors occurred at a lower rate in the morning when on-exhibit, as compared to afternoons on-exhibit or at any time of day off-exhibit. Increased repetitive behavior rates observed on-exhibit in the afternoon prior to the evening transfer and feeding were possibly anticipatory responses towards those events. In contrast, consistently elevated frequencies of repetitive behavior off-exhibit at all times of day could be related to differences in exhibit complexity between off-exhibit and on-exhibit areas, as well as a lack of additional foraging opportunities. Our study contributes valuable information on captive elephant behavior and represents a good example of how behavioral research can be employed to improve management of zoo animals. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 04/2015; 34(3). DOI:10.1002/zoo.21211
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    ABSTRACT: Potto (Perodicticus potto) reproductive biology has been minimally studied. Noninvasive endocrinology and ultrasonography are proven tools for reproductive assessment in other primates. In this study, we used fecal hormone metabolite analysis to monitor one adult male potto and four females at different life stages. Validated testosterone (T), estrone conjugate (EC), and progesterone (P4) enzyme immunoassays (EIA) were used to assess male testicular function and female ovarian and placental activity. The male excreted mean T concentrations of 4.72 (±1.66) μg/g feces, that did not differ (P > 0.05) over time or when paired with alternate females. Baseline concentrations of EC (range: 47.93-78.81 ng/g feces) and P4 (range: 2.29-12.46 μg/g feces) differed among adult females. Follicular phases averaged 9.1 days (±3.43, n = 30 phases), whereas luteal phases averaged 19.89 days (±9.49, n = 19 phases). Gestation length (n = 2 pregnancies) was 170 days. Gestational EC and P4 concentrations were positively correlated (pregnancy A, r (132) = 0.71; pregnancy B, r (145) = 0.76) and returned to non-pregnant luteal phase levels 3-7 days post parturition. Extreme differences between pregnant and non-pregnant EC and P4 concentrations may allow for one-sample pregnancy diagnosis. Trans-abdominal ultrasonography was validated for pregnancy diagnosis with the fetus observed between 100 and 110 days post breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first use of fecal endocrinology and ultrasonography to monitor reproductive function and pregnancy in this species, and the only study in any lorisid to measure progestagens in correlation with reproductive events. Zoo Biol. XX:1-11, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21213
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    ABSTRACT: Over a three-year period a captive American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) group showed recurring seasonal changes in the pattern of agonistic behavior. In spite of seasonal changes in the rates of agonistic behavior, dominance relations were generally stable across seasons. Males had significantly higher dominance status than females, and birds in long-term male-female pair bonds had significantly higher dominance than others. Unresolved agonistic encounters (URI), those with no clear winner or loser, were frequently observed; and their pattern of occurrence changed over the course of the year. URI were most frequent on the breeding "island" during the breeding season, and at the feeder in the post-breeding season. Thus, the frequency of URI reliably tracked seasonal changes regarding the resources most in contention; and, the extent of an individual's involvement in URI was indicative of privileged access to resources over which competition occurred. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21215
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal husbandry techniques are desirable for any headstart program, but frequently are unknown for rare species. Here we describe key reproductive variables and determine optimal incubation temperature and diet diversity for Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi) grown in laboratory settings. Optimal incubation temperature was estimated from two variables dependent on temperature, shell dimpling, a surrogate for death from fungal infection, and deviation of an egg from an ovoid shape, a surrogate for death from developmental anomalies. Based on these relationships and size at hatching we determined optimal incubation temperature to be 26°C. Additionally, we used incubation data to assess the effect of temperature on duration of incubation and size of hatchlings. We also examined hatchling diets necessary to achieve optimal growth over a 21-month period. These snakes exhibited a positive linear relationship between total mass eaten and growth rate, when individuals were fed less than 1711 g of prey, and displayed constant growth for individuals exceeding 1711 g of prey. Similarly, growth rate increased linearly with increasing diet diversity up to a moderately diverse diet, followed by constant growth for higher levels of diet diversity. Of the two components of diet diversity, diet evenness played a stronger role than diet richness in explaining variance in hatchling growth. These patterns document that our goal of satiating snakes was achieved for some individuals but not others and that diets in which total grams consumed over the first 21 months of life is distributed equivalently among at least three prey genera yielded the fastest growth rates for hatchling snakes. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 04/2015; 34(3). DOI:10.1002/zoo.21205
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known of the different freezing and thawing techniques for post-thaw survival of spermatozoa in Sambar deer. So, this study determined the effect of seminal plasma, egg yolk and glycerol extenders and their concentrations, plus cooling, freezing, and thawing protocols on the post-thaw quality of their semen. Semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation from four Thai Sambar deer stags (Cervus unicolor equinus). As evaluated by post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity removal of seminal plasma was beneficial; Tris-egg yolk was the most efficient extender; a 20% egg yolk concentration was better than the 0%, 10%, or 30%; and a 3% glycerol concentration was better than 5%, 7%, or 9%. Using the optimum dilution techniques, semen was loaded in 0.5 ml plastic straws. Cooling times from ambient temperature to 5°C in 3 hr resulted in higher post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity than 1, 2, or 4 hr. Suspending the straws 4 cm above the surface for 15 min before plunging into liquid nitrogen was better than suspending at 2 or 6 cm. For thawing frozen semen, an intermediate thawing (50°C, 8 sec) protocol was more effective than the slower (37°C, 10 sec) or faster (70°C, 5 sec) thawing rates. Timed insemination following estrus synchronization of 10 hinds resulted in six confirmed pregnancies at 60 days. Five hinds delivered live fawns. This study provides an effective approach for semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI), which should be valuable to scientists for genetics and reproductive management of Sambar deer in developing countries. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21214
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    ABSTRACT: Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 03/2015; 34(3). DOI:10.1002/zoo.21210
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. Zoo Biol. 9999:1-6, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 03/2015; 34(3). DOI:10.1002/zoo.21208