Zoo Biology (Zoo Biol)

Publisher: American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Wiley

Journal description

Zoo Biology is concerned with reproduction demographics genetics behavior medicine husbandry nutrition conservation and all empirical aspects of the exhibition and maintenance of wild animals in wildlife parks zoos and aquariums. This diverse journal offers a forum for effectively communicating scientific findings original ideas and critical thinking related to the role of wildlife collections and their unique contribution to conservation.

Current impact factor: 0.85

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.846
2012 Impact Factor 1.136
2011 Impact Factor 0.84
2010 Impact Factor 0.663
2009 Impact Factor 0.695
2008 Impact Factor 0.468
2007 Impact Factor 0.564
2006 Impact Factor 0.779
2005 Impact Factor 0.471
2004 Impact Factor 0.622
2003 Impact Factor 0.416
2002 Impact Factor 0.481
2001 Impact Factor 0.31
2000 Impact Factor 0.494
1999 Impact Factor 0.803
1998 Impact Factor 0.714
1997 Impact Factor 0.553
1996 Impact Factor 0.64
1995 Impact Factor 0.436
1994 Impact Factor 0.45
1993 Impact Factor 0.326
1992 Impact Factor 0.422

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.11
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.10
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.30
Website Zoo Biology website
Other titles Zoo biology (Online), Zoo biology
ISSN 1098-2361
OCLC 38866489
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Information on the parentage of captive reared clutches is vital for conservation head-starting programs. Molecular methods, such as genotyping individuals with hyper-variable markers, can elucidate the genealogical contribution of captive-reared, reintroduced individuals to native populations. In this study, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to infer parentage of a clutch of 18 eastern hellbenders collected from a single nest from Buffalo Creek, West Virginia, subsequently reared in captivity, and used for translocations in Indiana. Collectively, these markers successfully detected the presence of multiple parentage for this species of conservation concern presently used in captive management programs in zoos across many states. This study highlights the need for genetic analysis of captive reared clutches used in translocations to minimize the loss of genetic diversity and potential for genetic swamping at release sites. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21242
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    ABSTRACT: Two female polar bears at Dierenrijk Zoo in the Netherlands were monitored at their maternity den one day before the birth of their cubs and three days postpartum. Each bear was monitored for 96 hr to document behaviour and vocalisations. The goal was to obtain insight into the differences between the mother that lost her litter and the other that successfully reared her cubs. Six groups of cub vocalisations were identified: Comfort, Discomfort, Distress, Nursing Attempts, Nursing, and No Vocalisation. Maternal vocalisations were split into three groups: Calm, Grooming, and Stress. Maternal behaviours were also split into three groups: Active, Rest, and Stress. The unsuccessful mother produced more stress vocalisations before and during the birth of her cub, whereas the successful mother appeared less stressed. Vocalisations indicate that the cub that died tried to nurse but was unsuccessful. The unsuccessful mother showed less stress as her cub got weaker and vocalised less. From this I suggest that maternal stress was a factor in cub mortality. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21232
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    ABSTRACT: To the authors' knowledge there is currently no discrete index to measure the integrated intensity of a play bout in mammals, despite the potential for using intensity and duration of play bouts as a measure of physical activity and welfare. This study was developed to test an equation that quantified the intensity and duration of play bouts in a particularly gregarious mammal, African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA. To quantify these behaviors, we created a scale of intensity and a subsequent equation that produces an index value, giving each unique bout a score. A compilation of these scores provides a range of intensity of play behavior that is a representative value for that particular herd at that point in time, and thus a database to which later bouts can be compared. It can be argued that play behavior is an indicator of positive welfare, and if quantifiable, it is our belief that it can be used as an additional measure of positive welfare in zoo housed animals. Here we present the methods and technique used to calculate a standardized Integrated Play Index (IPI) that has potential for use in other socially living species that are known to exhibit play behavior. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21238
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    ABSTRACT: Restricting animals to different areas of their enclosure, for both brief and extended durations, is a key element of animal management practices. With such restrictions, available space decreases and the choices the animals can make are more limited, particularly in relation to social dynamics. When unfamiliar individuals are introduced to each other, group dynamics can be unpredictable and understanding space usage is important to facilitate successful introductions. We studied the behavioral, welfare-related responses of two groups of zoo-housed chimpanzees (n = 22) as they were introduced to each other and experienced a variety of enclosure restrictions and group composition changes. Our analysis of available space while controlling for chimpanzee density, found that arousal-related scratching and yawning decreased as the number of enclosure areas (separate rooms) available increased, whereas only yawning decreased as the amount of available space (m(2) ) increased. Allogrooming, rubbing, and regurgitation/reingestion rates remained constant as both the number of enclosure areas and amount of space changed. Enclosure space is important to zoo-housed chimpanzees, but during introductions, a decrease in arousal-related scratching indicates that the number of accessible areas is more important than the total amount of space available, suggesting that it is important to provide modular enclosures that provide choice and flexible usage, to minimize the welfare impact of short- and long-term husbandry needs. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21234
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    ABSTRACT: Various training methods have been developed for animal husbandry and health care in zoos and one of these trainings is blood collection. One training method, recently widely used for blood collection in Ursidae, requires setting up a sleeve outside the cage and gives access to limited blood collection sites. A new voluntary blood collection method without a sleeve was applied to the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) with access to various veins at the same time. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of this new method and suggests improvements. Two Andean and two Asiatic black bears in Yokohama and Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, respectively, were trained to hold a bamboo pipe outside their cages. We could, thereby, simultaneously access superficial dorsal veins, the dorsal venous network of the hand, the cephalic vein from the carpal joint, and an area approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint. This allowed us to evaluate which vein was most suitable for blood collection. We found that the cephalic vein, approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint, was the most suitable for blood collection. This new method requires little or no modification of zoo facilities and provides a useful alternative method for blood collection. It could be adapted for use in other clinical examinations such as ultrasound examination. Zoo Biol. 9999:1-4, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21237
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    ABSTRACT: A 47-day-old orphaned Goodfellow's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus goodfellowi) joey was successfully cross-fostered onto a yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus). The joey was subsequently taken for hand-rearing at age 5 months. This is the first report of the cross-fostering technique, well-established in other macropods, being applied to a Dendrolagus sp. This technique can be considered as a viable option to raise young orphaned tree kangaroos, and as a tool to accelerate breeding in captive breeding programs of Dendrolagus spp. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21236
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    ABSTRACT: Maintaining adequate welfare in captive elephants is challenging. Few studies have investigated overnight rest behavior in zoo elephants, yet time spent resting has been identified as a welfare indicator in some species. We investigated resting behavior in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in UK zoos, with the aim of identifying patterns or preferences in lying rest. Details of standing (SR) and lying (LR) rest behavior were identified by observing video footage of inside enclosures collected for 14 elephants (2 male, 12 female) housed at three UK zoos (Zoo A: 18 nights; Zoo B: 27 nights; Zoo C: 46 nights) from 16:00 to 08:30 (approximately). Elephants engaged in a mean of 58-337 min rest per night. Time of night affected mean duration of LR bouts (P < 0.001); longest bouts were observed between 22:01 and 06:00. Elephants showed a substrate preference when lying to rest; LR was not observed on concrete or tiled flooring. Where sand was available (to 11/14 elephants), all elephants engaged in LR on sand flooring. Only two elephants engaged in LR on rubber flooring (available to 7/14 elephants). Mean duration of rest bouts was greater when a conspecific was within two body lengths than when conspecifics were not (P < 0.01). Our study indicated that elephants show substrate preferences when choosing an area for rest and engage in more rest when conspecifics are in close proximity. The results of this study could be used as a basis for future studies investigating the link between rest and welfare in captive elephants. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21235
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    ABSTRACT: Food procurement can play an important role in sustainable food supply chain management by zoos, linking organizational operations to the biodiversity conservation and sustainability mission of zoological collections. This study therefore examines the critical factors that shape sustainable food procurement in zoo and aquariums. Using a web-based survey data was collected from 41 members of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA). This included information on the sustainable food procurement practices of these institutions for both their human and animal food supply chains, as well as profile information and data on the factors contributing to and inhibiting sustainable procurement practices. Zoological collections operated by charities, and those with a certified sustainability standard, were found to have significantly higher levels of sustainable food procurement. Zoos and aquariums whose human food operations were not contracted to an external party were also found to have significantly higher levels of sustainable food procurement in their human food supply chain. The most important drivers of sustainable food procurement were cost savings, adequate financial support and improved product quality. The highest ranking barriers were higher costs, other issues taking priority and a lack of alternative suppliers. The results suggest that a number of critical factors shape sustainable food procurement in zoological collections in the British Isles. Financial factors, such as cost savings, were important considerations. The significance of mission-related factors, such as charity status, indicated that core values held by zoos and aquariums can also influence their food procurement practices. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21230
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species-each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli across species, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21227
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    ABSTRACT: The European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) emits alarm calls that warn conspecifics of potential danger. Although it has been observed that inexperienced juveniles of this species emit alarm calls that sound similar to those of adults, studies focusing on juvenile alarm calls are lacking. We analyzed the acoustic structure of alarm calls emitted by six permanently marked European ground squirrels living in a semi-natural enclosure when they were juveniles and after 1 year as adults. We found that the acoustic structure of the juvenile alarm calls was significantly different from those of adults and that the alarm calls underwent nearly the same changes in all studied individuals. All juveniles emitted alarm calls consisting of one element with almost constant frequency, but their alarm calls included a second frequency-modulated element after their first hibernation as adults. Our data show that the duration of the first element is significantly shorter in adults than in juveniles. Additionally, the frequency of the first element is significantly higher in adults than in juveniles. Similar to previous findings in other Palearctic ground squirrel species, our data are inconsistent with the assumption that juvenile mammals emit vocalizations with higher fundamental frequencies than adults. However, our results do not support the previously suggested hypothesis that juvenile ground squirrels conceal information regarding their age in their alarm calls because we found significant differences in alarm calls of juveniles and adults. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21233
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    ABSTRACT: Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) are distributed across southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, United States. Their distribution has decreased over the past century and the species has been listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reduced genetic diversity, small population size, and isolation may affect Gunnison sage-grouse population persistence. Population augmentation can be used to counteract or mitigate these issues, but traditional translocation efforts have yielded mixed, and mostly unsuccessful, results. Captive-rearing is a viable, although much debated, conservation approach to bolster wild conservation-reliant species. Although there have been captive-rearing efforts with greater sage-grouse (C. urophasianus), to date, no information exists about captive-rearing methods for Gunnison sage-grouse. Therefore, we investigated techniques for egg collection, artificial incubation, hatch, and captive-rearing of chicks, juveniles, subadults, and adults for Gunnison sage-grouse. In 2009 we established a captive flock that produced viable eggs. From 2009-2011, we collected and artificially incubated 206 Gunnison sage-grouse eggs from 23 wild and 14 captive females. Our hatchability was 90%. Wild-produced eggs were heavier than captive-produced eggs and lost mass similarly during incubation. We produced 148 chicks in captivity and fed them a variety of food sources (e.g. invertebrates to commercial chow). Bacterial infections were the primary cause of chick mortality, but we successfully reduced the overall mortality rate during the course of our study. Conservationists and managers should consider the utility in developing a captive-rearing program or creating a captive population as part of a proactive conservation effort for the conservation-reliant Gunnison sage-grouse. Zoo Biol. XX:XXX-XXX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/zoo.21228