Advances in Polymer Technology (Adv Polymer Tech )

Publisher: Polymer Processing Institute, John Wiley & Sons

Description

Advances in Polymer Technology a quarterly peer-reviewed journal edited under the auspices of the Polymer Processing Institute presents important developments in polymeric materials production and processing methods and equipment and product design. In addition to original articles on trends and advances in polymer technology the editors welcome review articles technico-economic studies and patent reviews as well as short communications on new processing and product technologies for plastics elastomers and other polymers. Examples are technologies for reactive processing multiphase polymer systems simulation of processing and product design recycling and degradation on-line rheological morphological and compositional measurements and specialty polymers for specific applications. Submissions should be directed to the Editor Dr. Theodore Davidson Polymer Processing Institute Suite 3901 Guttenberg Building New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark NJ 07102-1982 or to the Editor - Europe Dr. Leno Mascia Loughborough University Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering Loughborough Leics LE11 3TU UK.

  • Impact factor
    1.10
  • 5-year impact
    1.16
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.10
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.31
  • Website
    Advances in Polymer Technology website
  • Other titles
    Advances in polymer technology (Online), Advances in polymer technology, Polymer technology
  • ISSN
    1098-2329
  • OCLC
    38866529
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley & Sons

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • On personal web site or secure external website at authors institution
    • Not allowed on institutional repository
    • JASIST authors may deposit in an institutional repository
    • Non-commercial
    • Pre-print must be accompanied with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural rubber powder (NRP) was prepared by spray drying and optimized via statistical experimental design. The yield of NRP obtained significantly depended on the percentage of dry rubber content (DRC) and the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The optimum condition for spray drying was found to be with an inlet air temperature of 130°C, a feed rate of 4 mL min−1, nozzle flow rate of 600 L h−1, 15% DRC, and 12 parts per hundred of rubber (phr) of SDS. Under these conditions, a NRP yield of 44.9%, and a total solid recovery of 98.7% with a moisture content of 0.4% was obtained. The resultant NRP particles were almost spherical with a diameter of less than 10 μm. The mechanical properties of NRP, in terms of the modulus, tensile strength, and hardness were greater than that for conventional block rubber (STR). Moreover, the addition of silica filler (25 phr) yielded better mechanical properties when prepared by spray drying (Si/NRP) than by the conventional silica-filled block rubber (Si/STR). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the silica was more remarkably evenly dispersed in the rubbery matrix of the Si/NRP composite compared to the agglomerated clumps found in the Si/STR composite prepared by the conventional mechanical mixing method.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: A series of chemically cross-linked hybrid composite hydrogel systems containing polysaccharide/clay polyelectrolyte based on the acrylamide/sodium methacrylate (AAm/SMA) and ɩ-carrageenan and clay such as montmorillonite were synthesized with free radical solution polymerization by using ammonium persulfate/N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine as a redox-initiating pair in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate as a cross-linker. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique were applied for characterization. The hydrogels, the semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi–IPNs), and the hybrid composite hydrogel systems that were synthesized in this study have shown high water absorbency. Some swelling and diffusion properties were calculated, and they were discussed for the hybrid hydrogel systems prepared under various formulations. They were used in experiments on sorption of water-soluble cationic dye such as Safranin T (ST). The sorption of ST into the polymeric systems was studied by a batch sorption technique at 25°C. For equilibrium sorption studies, dye removal capacity, adsorption percentage, and partition coefficient of the hydrogels, the semi-IPNs, and the hybrid composite hydrogel systems are investigated. Consequently, the hydrogels, the semi-IPNs, and the hybrid composite hydrogel systems developed in this study could serve as a potential device for water and dye sorbents. Some materials such as the hydrogels, the semi-IPNs, and the hybrid composite hydrogel systems developed in this study with the ability to absorb water in high amounts could be used as a water and dye sorbents because of their potential applications in agriculture, environment, separation processes, and water purification.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Two new intrinsically conducting polythiophenes, poly-1,4-bis(3-hexylthiophene)-dibutyne (P1) and poly-2′-thiophene-5-hexyl-2,3′-bithiophene (P2), are synthesized to improve the processability of polythiophene. P2 exhibits alternating thiophene and alkylthiophene rings, whereas P1 is characterized by triple bonds between alkylthiophene rings. Both polymers are characterized in terms of chemical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties using different techniques. The electrical conductivity of both polymers was determined, their values being significantly lower than that of polythiophene. However, the processability of P1 and P2 was higher in comparison with that of polythiophene because the compression process was possible. The conductivity range makes them suitable for electronic applications.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the fabrication and characterization of raw and surface-modified Grewia optiva fibers reinforced unsaturated polyester (UPE) matrix based composites. Raw and surface-modified fibers are used in different proportions (10, 20, 30, and 40%) for the fabrication of composites. The fiber proportion is optimized by studying various mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, and flexural strength of UPE matrix-based composites. After the optimization of fiber loadings, the optimized samples were evaluated for their physicochemical, thermal, fire retardancy, and biodegradability properties. Physicochemical and thermal stability of the composites is improved after fibers’ surface modification. The effect of different fire retardants (magnesium hydroxide and zinc borate) on the fire-retardant behavior of polymer composites is also evaluated. Biodegradability of polymer composites is checked by using a soil burial method.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pH-sensitive poly(acrylamide-co-maleic acid)/montmorillonite (P(AAm-MA)/MMT) nanocomposite hydrogels were synthesized through in situ polymerization. The chemical structure and morphology of nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The resulted disks were then loaded by caffeine, a moderately soluble model drug, using soaking method. The swelling and the drug release experiments were carried out in enzyme-free simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The release experiments showed that with the addition of MMT, the burst effect is well controlled, and the barrier property of nanocomposite hydrogels is improved. The effects of some compositional parameters including maleic acid to acrylamide (MA/AAm) molar ratio (MAR), weight percent of MMT (MMT%), cross-linker/AAm molar ratio (CR), and also the influence of pH of medium on the equilibrium swelling ratio (Q) as well as caffeine release behavior of disks were studied by Taguchi method. The results indicated that shifting the pH value from 1.2 to 7.4 leads to a greater Q. The Q value and the release percentage (P%) increased with increasing the MAR in the structure of disks at pH 7.4. The amounts of P% and Q in both external media decreased with increasing both MMT% and CR. Mathematical behavior of release process was well represented by Peppas Power law model (at short times) and a two-dimensional Fickian mass transfer model (at long times). The caffeine release behavior in both media was corresponded to the non-Fickian transport mechanism.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The main aim of this study was to investigate the usability of polyurethane (PU) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers for improving the sound absorption of conventional polyester nonwovens in wide band of frequencies along with weight and thickness reduction. The effect of nanofiber and nonwoven layers number, nanofiber layers surface density, and the type of nanofiber polymer on the sound absorption was studied. To find the optimum conditions for achieving high sound absorption, response surface methodology was used. The results showed that the sound absorption of composite samples is improved when the nanofiber layer number or its surface density increased. The results also showed that the sound absorption of composites is enhanced by using PAN instead of PU. At a constant surface density, the higher resonant peak, without shifting, was achieved with increasing the nanofiber layers number. Optimization process showed that samples containing PAN nanofiber layers with surface density of 4.72 g/m2 and six nonwoven layers have highest average sound absorption coefficient.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Polyamide 12 (PA12)/high-density polyethylene (PE)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites were prepared by three melt mixing sequences; premixing the CNT in the PA phase, premixing the CNT in the PE phase, and simultaneous mixing of all components. The interfacial tension and viscosity ratio between the components were altered by modifying the PE minor phase with PE-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH) and by using different melt flow rate PE minor phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and volume resistivity (VR) measurements show that when the matrix's viscosity is greater than that of the dispersed phase, simultaneous mixing and premixing the CNT in the PE phase form a unique microstructure that yields a VR that is 4–6 decades lower than when premixing the CNT in the PA phase. When the viscosity of the dispersed PE phase is greater, kinetic restrictions limit the migration of the CNTs from the PE phase, resulting in high VR values for all mixing procedures. The wetting parameter was used to calculate the thermodynamic drive of the CNTs localization. It was found that the MAH modification reduces the interfacial tension between the CNT and the modified PE phase, which results in selective localization of CNT in there rather than in the PA phase. This observation was confirmed in SEM imaging and also expressed in high VR values of these composites.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research work is to investigate adsorption of mercury ions from an aqueous solution on a biocompatible polymeric polypyrrole-chitosan (PPy/CTN) nanocomposite. The PPy/CTN nanocomposite was prepared in aqueous media by chemical polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of ferric chloride as an oxidant. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherms were applicable to the adsorption process, and their constants were evaluated. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant and the Gibbs free energy were determined. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data than the other two equations. The adsorption capacity (qmax) of PPy/CTN for Hg(II) ions in terms of monolayer adsorption was 40 mg/g. The negative value of Gibbs free energy (ΔGo) indicates feasible and spontaneous adsorption of Hg(II) on the PPy/CTN nanocomposite. Also the change in entropy (ΔSo) and enthalpy (ΔHo) were estimated to be –0.21 KJ (mol K)−1 and –18.183 kJ mol−1, respectively.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Properties of natural rubber (NR) filled with various fillers, i.e., furnace black (N330), conductive carbon black (XE2-B), and carbon nanotube (CNT) were investigated. Both untreated and sonicated carbon nanotubes were used and designated as U-CNT and S-CNT, respectively. The filler content was varied from 0 to 8 phr. Regardless of the filler type, the increase in the filler content not only results in increased compound viscosity, reduced cure time, and enhanced cross-link density but also leads to the increase in the modulus and hardness of the vulcanizates. For N330 and XE2-B, the tensile strength increases continuously with increasing filler content. However, for both U-CNT and S-CNT, the tensile strength tends to increase with increasing filler content up to 2 phr and decreases noticeably afterward. At any given filler content, the CNTs give the vulcanizates with the highest values of electrical and thermal conductivities, storage modulus, and tan δ, followed by XE2-B and N330, respectively. Results also elucidate that the sonication of CNT without the presence of surfactant prior to mixing could not improve the degree of CNT dispersion, leading to insignificant difference in properties of the U-CNT-filled and S-CNT-filled vulcanizates.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The cross-linked cassava xanthate (CCX) was synthesized and used to remove Cr6+ ions from aqueous solution. The influence of multiple factors on the sorption process, including pH, temperature, contact time, sulfur content, and sorbent/sorbate ratio, was quantitatively investigated. The sorption capacity of the CCX was confirmed under different conditions. The adsorption equilibrium was fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Cr-containing cross-linked cassava xanthate (CCX-Cr) could be cyclically regenerated by HNO3 solution. The pyrolysis of the CCX and CCX-Cr was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric/differential thermal analysis coupling method. The CCX had higher percentage of the residues than the CCX-Cr due to the ion exchange mechanism in the adsorption process.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The electrospinning method for scaffold production has emerged as a technique of great versatility within the field of tissue engineering. It is a relatively simple technique that enables scaffolds to be manufactured of the required specifications without much ado. Bone scaffolds are challenging in their requirements for mechanical strength and degradability. Polymeric materials can be most efficiently tailored to meet these demands for such scaffolds. This review focuses on the existing technologies involved in the fabrication of polymeric fibrous and porous scaffolds in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, as well as on the emerging technologies that are more promising.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The preparation of a new antiwear composites based on polyurethane (PU) elastomer blended and modified with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been described. The performance of PU-based composites (PUC) with different proportions of UHMWPE micropowder was demonstrated with mechanical testing, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and friction and wear testing. Compared with the single PU elastomeric material, the composites showed excellent mechanical properties (including tensile strength, break elongation, and flexible modulus), thermal stability, extremely good wear resistance, and low coefficient of friction, especially in water. PUC fabricated in this study is a kind of typical wear-resistant material, which is especially suitable for water-lubricated bearings widely used in metallurgy, mining, hydraulic engineering, and other harsh working conditions.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, surface modifications of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films were performed with the plasma polymerization process. For this purpose, allylamine was used as a hydrophilic polymer for surface modification of PVC films. The wettability of PVC films was investigated using contact angle measurement. The water contact angle values increased from 116.4° to 12° by 104.4° for the coated PVC film. Surface free energies of PVC films were calculated using acid–base approaches and increased with increasing plasma treatment time. According to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results, N–H peaks appeared in the expected wavelength. The thermal degradation behaviors of PVC films were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The degradation temperature of PVC films was altered by the plasma treatment from 275°C to 380°C. Surface topography of PVC films was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Distinct changes were observed in the topography of plasma-treated PVC surface using AFM results. The results showed that allylamine plasma treatment can be used to enhance hydrophilicity of PVC surfaces.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12/2014; 33(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The present work deals with the photopolymerization of difunctional macromonomer with a polyether chain and urethane methacrylate terminations. Macromonomeric formulations were prepared by mixing macromonomer with two different concentrations of photoinitiator. Formulations were also prepared by the addition of 10 wt% of soft-segmented difunctional cross-linker to the abovementioned macromonomic formulations. All formulations were then subjected to photopolymerization studies and the effects of light intensity on the photopolymerization kinetics were studied at two different isothermal conditions using photo differential scanning calorimetry (Photo DSC) with polychromatic radiation. The isothermal heat flow against time was recorded for all formulations and the kinetic parameters were noted. It was observed that the rate of maximum polymerization as well as peak maximum time showed a general trend. However, the ultimate conversion as well as the conversion at maximum rate did not show any trend due to diffusional restrictions imparted by the increase in viscosity with conversion. The photopolymerization of the formulations and curing kinetics including evaluation of autocatalytic model are discussed.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 09/2014; 33(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The chemical formulation and rheological properties of a novel self-assembling polymer (SAP) network system were investigated for potential application in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The inclusion complexes formed by surfactant (S) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) can associate with hydrolyzed polyacrylamides (HPAM) in aqueous solution, and subsequently establish the SAP network, which exhibits advanced viscoelasticity at the optimum molar ratio (S:β-CD = 2:1). Furthermore, this system presents enhanced surface activity and superior mechanical and thermal stability, as well as tolerance to elevated brine salinity and hardness due to the network “interlocking effect”. Sandpack flood tests suggest the excellent mobility control ability of this system during polymer flooding, and also a moderate permeability reduction capacity, which makes it more cost effective in oil fields than the currently used HPAM. Regarding EOR performance, this polymeric system (SAP) produced approximately 19% more incremental oil than the baseline HPAM under the same experimental conditions.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 09/2014; 33(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of sodium sulfite (SS) content and injection molding temperature on the viscoelasticity of bloodmeal-based thermoplastics were assessed using creep, recovery, and stress relaxation. Both SS and processing temperature affected standard mechanical properties and time-dependent behavior. Increased SS content led to greater creep, greater strain at break, and reduced modulus and mechanical strength of the material. Furthermore, the use of a higher injection molding temperature also reduced modulus and strength. Higher molding temperature also caused an increase in the fraction of creep recovered in 20 min. These results confirmed that increased SS increased chain mobility and that injection molding at 140°C instead of 120°C did not cause excessive thermal cross-linking.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 09/2014; 33(3).
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    ABSTRACT: A diamine containing pyridine ring, amide, and ether groups was prepared via two-step reactions from 6-chloronicotinoyl chloride. A novel polyimide was prepared from polycondensation of pyromellitic dianhydride with the diamine. In addition, nanoporous polyimide films were prepared from graft copolyimides. A thermally labile oligomer, poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), was incorporated into the polyimide backbone to obtain graft copolyimides that left voids into the polymer matrix through thermolysis of the labile PPG blocks. The properties of polyimide and nanofoams were compared. The dielectric constant of nanofoams was reduced, whereas their thermal stability and mechanical properties were almost maintained in comparison to the homopolyimide.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 09/2014; 33(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamics of long-chain polyelectrolyte complexed with a globular protein is investigated basing on dynamic light scattering in three phases respecting the pH of medium. In diluted regime, the data are analyzed in the context of multicomponent light scattering theory to treat the pairwise interaction. The adjustment of experimental results with theoretical prediction shows explicit expressions of the interaction parameter and diffusion coefficient of complex particle. The second virial coefficient A2, 12 is evaluated and discussed. By dynamic light scattering technique, we suggest an approximation of the number of protein molecules bound per polyelectrolyte chain in each phase. The aggregation process is less prone in the higher ratio, and the patches binding are more favored.
    Advances in Polymer Technology 09/2014; 33(3).

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