Journal of Applied Polymer Science (J Appl Polymer Sci )

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Description

The Journal of Applied Polymer Science reports progress and significant results in the systematic practical application of polymer science. Areas of focus include plastics and their composites blends elastomers films and membranes fibers coatings and adhesives studies of emulsions and latices aging of polymers structural property-processing relationships extrusion and molding diffusion and permeability.

  • Impact factor
    1.40
  • 5-year impact
    1.53
  • Cited half-life
    8.30
  • Immediacy index
    0.28
  • Eigenfactor
    0.05
  • Article influence
    0.32
  • Website
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science website
  • Other titles
    Journal of applied polymer science (Online), Journal of applied polymer science
  • ISSN
    1097-4628
  • OCLC
    38145842
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley & Sons

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • On personal web site or secure external website at authors institution
    • Not allowed on institutional repository
    • JASIST authors may deposit in an institutional repository
    • Non-commercial
    • Pre-print must be accompanied with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) were produced with latexes synthesized via starved semibatch emulsion polymerization processes with butyl acrylate, three different kinds of hard monomers [styrene (St), methyl methacrylate, and 2-phenoxy ethyl methacrylate (SR340)], acrylic acid, and 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate. The management of both the copolymer composition and the polymerization process allowed us to control the behavior of the PSAs. For the acrylate latexes, the types of hard monomers and their contents, the concentration of buffer [bicarbonate (NaHCO3)], and three kinds of semibatch processes were manipulated to modify the polymer properties. The performance of the PSA films cast from these latexes was evaluated by the peel strength. The results show that the PSA prepared with St exhibited the highest peel strength among the three hard monomers, and the latex synthesized by SR340 showed the largest gel content compared with the other two hard monomers. With increasing buffer, the latex particle size increased, and the peel strength initially increased to a maximum and then decreased. Nevertheless, the stability of the latexes decreased with increasing buffer concentration. In addition, the effects of the three kinds of semibatch processes on the peel strength of the PSA were also evaluated. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40095.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 10/2014; 131(19).
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Microbial reduction of silver ion (conc. 1mM AgNO3) was performed by Alkaliphilus oremlandii strain ohILAs in an alkaline pH 10. The synthesized silver nanoparticle was stabilized by poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) biopolymer which was also synthesized by the microbial culture of Alkaliphilus oremlandii strain ohILAs at pH8. The particle size and shape of the silver nanoparticles was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and under a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and it was found that the particle size of polymer stabilized colloidal silver was comparatively lower (22-43nm) than that for the unstabilized one (63-93 nm). The stabilization of nanoparticles in polymer dispersed medium after around 60 days was confirmed from analysis of UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystalline peaks as recorded with X-ray’s diffraction (XRD) were observed at 2Ө values of 38o and 43o, indicating the fcc crystalline structure of the silver nanoparticle. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles on gram-negative bacteria strain (Escherichia coli XL1B) and gram-positive strain (Lysinibacillus fusiformis) showed better performance by the solution of polymer stabilized nanoparticle than that for the non polymer stabilized one. The reduction of nitro group in p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol was observed from the analysis of UV-Visible spectroscopy in which, the shifting of absorption peak at 400nm to 295 nm and thesimultaneous regeneration of light brown color (λmax 410 nm) of silver nanoparticles confirmed the catalytic activity of silver nanomaterials.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, dimer acid (DA) obtained from waste soybean oil was used together with propylene oxide (PO) to obtain novel polyether polyols [prepolymers for polyurethanes (PUs)] through ring-opening polymerization reaction. The average molecular weight of polyols was estimated by gel permeation chromatography and titration method. The substantial reaction between DA and PO was evident from FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, the polyols were reacted with chain extender [ethylene glycol, (EG)] and 4, 4 - Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) to prepare green PUs. The effect of molar ratio variation of EG and MDI with a fixed amount of polyols was estimated by measuring hydrophobicity and mechanical strength of PUs. The molar ratio such as 1 : 4 : 5.7 of polyol : EG : MDI was found to exhibit maximum hydrophobicity and improved mechanical strength that were comparable with typical PU sample prepared from commercially available polyol, such as polypropylene glycol. FTIR spectroscopic analysis confirmed the chemical changes and possible crosslinking in PUs. Thermalgravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry analysis also showed substantial thermal stability of the green PUs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41410.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the polymerization reactions of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with the maleate half-esters of oil-soluble resoles and the properties of the final products were demonstrated. The maleate half-esters of the dimeric oil-soluble resoles were obtained by the esterification reaction of maleic anhydride with a p-tertiary butyl phenol (p-TBP) resole and p-nonyl phenol resole resins in the first step. The monomers were characterized by IR and 1H-NMR techniques. Then, the oil-soluble resole maleates were polymerized with ESO to obtain tough and load-bearing thermoset materials. The thermal and mechanical properties of the materials were determined by dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and tensile strength testing. The tensile strengths and storage moduli of the crosslinked polymers varied between 0.17 and 13 MPa and 10 and 1088 MPa, respectively. The elongation percentages of the materials were between 1 and 128%. The thermal resistance of the thermosets was measured as the 5% weight loss temperature. The reaction product of the ESO and maleate ester of p-TBP showed the highest 5% weight loss at 247°C. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41457.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of using interleaved nylon veils to increase the interlaminar toughness of glass fiber reinforced, low-styrene emission unsaturated polyester resin composites has been investigated. Samples were manufactured by a hand lay-up technique followed by compression moulding. Nylon 66 veils were used, with the veil content varying from 0% to 4% by weight. Double cantilever beam, short beam shear, and three point bend tests were performed. The increasing levels of nylon veil content improved the interlaminar toughness of the composites, which was characterized by critical strain energy release rate (GIC). The maximum GIC for crack propagation of a nylon interleaved composite increased by almost 170% over the baseline glass fiber reinforced composite. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis revealed an increase in the damping parameter of up to 117%. Image analysis via Digital Image Correlation and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed increased fiber bridging between adjacent plies as a key reason for these improvements. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41462.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: One strategy to create chemical and physical cross-links simultaneously is to introduce into the chemical network hydrogen bonding with clay nanofillers. Understanding the relaxation mechanisms of these systems is crucially important and has drawn the extensive interest of many scientists. In this work, the influence of different amounts of montmorillonite on the structural and rheological properties of guar gum hydrogels was investigated. Depending on the clay content, different nanostructures were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their effect on the rheological properties of the dual hydrogels was studied. From stress and frequency sweep tests it emerged that all the samples exhibit a weak gel behavior and showed a maximum for G'' that can be ascribed to the breaking and reforming of transient physical crosslinks. This relaxation mode is more pronounced for the hydrogel for which a minimum in the swelling degree was observed. On the basis of these results, a model structure was proposed according to which the clay sheets act as effective multifunctional cross-linkers. The more homogeneously dispersed are the clay platelets, the higher is the density of physical crosslinks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41373.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lead, chromium, and chlorobenzene (CB) were removed simultaneously by micellar enhanced ultrafiltration with a mixture of anionic and nonionic surfactants. The process parameters, including the molar ratio of the nonionic surfactant to the ionic surfactant (α), surfactant to metal ion (S/M) molar ratio, applied pressure, and inlet flow rate, were investigated. As α was varied from 0 to 1.5, the rejection of the metal ions increased. The optimum α value was 0.5. The permeate flux decreased by 28% with increasing α from 0 to 1.5. The S/M ratio was optimized at 10 in the presence of CB. The addition of CB increased the rejection of surfactants and decreased the metal-ion rejection. The effect of the applied pressure and inlet flow were studied and found to be optimum at 1 bar and 150 mL/min, respectively. The optimized parameters were applied to the steady-state process. The multiple-solute model was applied to the steady-state data. The relative error for solute rejection was varied from 5 to 9%, and the relative error for flux was 5%. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41435.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In a paper mill's water circuit, normal runnability of the paper machine is often disturbed due to the buildup of dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS). Contaminant adsorption on a solid adsorbent in a fluidized bed reactor has been applied for white water treatment. In the present study, polystyrene (PS) spheres were firstly acylated by acryloyl chloride, then poly(methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) (PMAC) was grafted onto the acylated PS spheres, induced by surface-initiated free-radical polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the changes of PS spheres in chemical structures and surface morphology. The results showed that acylated PS spheres could be easily grafted with PMAC in 53.83% weight increase. Polyelectrolyte loading of PS spheres reached up to 1.72 mmol/g. The resulted cationic modified PS spheres could effectively decrease the cationic demand in white water and it still maintained high performance after operating repeatedly for 10 batches. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 10.1002/app.41379.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Transparent silicone hydrogels with interpenetrating hydrophilic/hydrophobic networks were simultaneously synthesized on the basis of the radical polymerization of the methacrylic monomer of 3-methacryloxypropyl tris(trimethylsiloxy) silane (TRIS)/N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) and the addition polymerization of hydroxyl-grafted polysiloxane (HPSO)/isophorone diisocyanate. The curing temperature was set at 80°C by a differential scanning calorimetry study. The polymerization process was studied by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that the curing time was about 4.5 min, and the addition polymerization had a faster rate than radical polymerization. Then, the radical polymerization rate increased rapidly, and this led to instant curing. The interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) silicone hydrogels were characterized by swelling kinetics and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The results show that all of the hydrogels reached swelling equilibrium at about 4 h in water, and the IPN silicone hydrogels with a hydrophobic network of HPSO indicated a slower water transport than that of the copolymerization hydrogel of DMA and TRIS. The hydrophobic network was finely dispersed in the hydrophilic network, and the increasing hydrophobic network of HPSO decreased the glass-transition temperature of the IPN silicone hydrogels. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41399.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Poly-lactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite film was prepared with untreated and silane treated sepiolite through solution casting method. Sepiolite is found to be promising nano inorganic filler used to prepare biodegradable PLA nanocomposite films. The effect of sepiolite loading on the thermal, mechanical, gas permeability, and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties of the films was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the crystallinity index and well dispersed sepiolite in PLA/sepiolite thin films. By modifying sepiolite, depending on the nanoclay content, the mechanical properties of films were enhanced. PLA/sepiolite films exhibited improved gas barrier and WVP properties compared to neat PLA. The scanning electron microscope results demonstrated that there is a good interface interaction between sepiolite and PLA. The surface treatment of sepiolite increased the adhesion of the PLA matrix to the sepiolite nanoclay which yielded better mechanical properties of the films as compared to pure PLA. It was observed after 1.5% wt sepiolite, nano-filler tended to agglomerate, therefore mechanical and barrier properties of films decreased. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41428.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: New bio-based diblock copolymers were synthesized from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and natural rubber (NR). NR polymer chains were modified to obtain hydroxyl telechelic natural rubber oligomers (HTNR). Condensation polymerization between PLA and HTNR was performed at 110°C during 24 or 48 h. The molecular weight of PLA and HTNR and the molar ratio PLA : HTNR were varied. The new ester linkage in the diblock copolymers was determined by 1H-NMR. The molecular weight of the diblock copolymers determined from SEC agreed with that expected from calculation. The thermal behavior and degradation temperature were determined by DSC and TGA, respectively. The diblock copolymers were used as a toughening agent of PLA and as a compatibilizer of the PLA/NR blend. PLA blended with the diblock copolymer showed higher impact strength, which was comparable to the one of a PLA/NR blend. The former blend showed smaller dispersed particles as showed by SEM images, indicating the increase in miscibility in the blend due to the PLA block. The compatibilization was effective in the blends containing ∼10 wt % of rubber. At a higher rubber content (>10 wt %), coalescence of the NR and diblock copolymer was responsible of the larger rubber diameter in the blends, which causes a decrease of the impact strength. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41426.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To improve the crystallization ability of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a novel nucleating agent with a benzoyl hydrazine compound was used in this study. The crystallization behaviors of PLA/talc and PLA/bibenzoylhydrazinepropane (BBP) with or without poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy. The DSC curves showed that the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of PLA/BBP (PBBP) was higher than that of PLA/talc. With the addition of PEG, a synergistic effect was found. According to the results of nonisothermal crystallization kinetics, the values of F(T) of PBBP0.5PEG5 were usually smaller than those of PTa3PEG5, so the nucleation efficiency of BBP was much better than that of talc. From a polarized optical microscopy photo, it was easy to determine that the nucleation density of BBP was higher than that of PTa3PEG5, and the spherulitic diameter increased linearly with the crystallization time no matter the impingements. The spherulitic growth rate of PBBP0.5PEG5 was faster than that of PTa3PEG5, and the induction time of PBBP0.5PEG5 was the shortest among all of the samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41367.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Blends of a highly epoxidized natural rubber (ENR50) with unmodified natural rubber (NR) and ethylene propylene elastomers (EPDM) were produced to evaluate the mixing and curing characteristics. Dodecyl succinic anhydride was used to cross-link the ENR50 component and the reactivity was assessed by monitoring the evolution of the torque in an oscillatory co-axial cylinder rheometer, as well as by DSC thermal analysis. A physical model was used to obtain a single parameter for the reactivity of the system, which corresponds to the rate constant for first order curing reactions. Although the blends were thermodynamically immiscible, displaying no significant change in Tg, the components were well dispersed at microscopic level. Better mechanical properties were obtained for blends with EPDM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41448.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the preparation of polymer/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites, the commonly used compatibilizers (cations of long carbon-chain alkyl ammonium salts) present the drawback of a poor thermal stability. During bulk processing of nanocomposites elevated temperatures are usually required and, if processing temperature is close to decomposition temperature of the surfactant, decomposition will occur altering the interface between filler and polymer. To solve this problem, organically modified MMTs with thermally stable imidazolium surfactants have been prepared. A series of nanocomposites were obtained by dispersing o-MMT in poly(methyl methacryate) (PMMA) matrix via an in situ free radical polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and nanoindentation measurements. The results showed that nanocomposite thermal stability depended on both the kind of used surfactant and degree of exfoliation. Under the same values of molecular weight, the nanocomposites containing imidazolium cations showed a better thermal stability with respect to the nanocomposite obtained using a standard alkylammonium surfactant. Dynamic mechanical and Nanoindentation measurements showed an improvement of mechanical properties, such as modulus and hardness, with respect to pure PMMA. Solution blending treatments on these nanocomposites led to obtaining of further improvement of the thermal performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41393.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, sheet boehmite (AlOOH), which was synthesized via a facile and environmental friendly method, was used as reinforcing agent to toughen Bisphenol A epoxy resin. The result of X–Ray Diffraction (XRD) and IR spectrum indicated that the as–synthesized product was pure crystalline and high purity AlOOH. The effects of sheet AlOOH on the mechanical properties of AlOOH/epoxy nanocomposites were investigated. The results indicated that the introduction of AlOOH significantly improved the mechanical properties of epoxy resin. Compared with neat epoxy resin, the tensile strength and the fracture toughness (KIC) of the AlOOH/epoxy nanocomposites filled with 4 wt % AlOOH increased by 24.2% and 28.7%, respectively, while the flexural strength increased from 40.92 to 50.00 MPa. From Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), a phase-separated morphology and plenty of cervices and river branches were observed in the fractured surfaces of composites. With the increase of sheet AlOOH content, river-shaped cracks became more and more intensive. Overall, the addition of sheet AlOOH is shown as a promising method for mechanical properties enhancement of epoxy matrix. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41409.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to prepare injection-moulded wood-based plastics and to characterize their mechanical properties. Injection-moulded wood-based plastics with satisfactory flexural (65.7 MPa) and tensile strengths (30.1 MPa) were successfully obtained through a simple reaction of mulberry branch meal with phthalic anhydride (PA) in 1-methylimidazole under mild condition. The X-ray diffraction results indicated complete disruption of the crystallinity of cellulose because the pattern obtained for esterified fiber was almost a straight line without any peaks. The peaks in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (1738 and 748 cm−1) and NMR spectra (173.3 and 133.5 ppm) indicated the attachment of 0-carboxybenzoyl groups onto the wood fibers via ester bonds. The differential scanning calorimetry curves showed that the glass transition temperature decreased with increasing weight percentage gain (WPG). The derivative thermogravimetric analysis curves indicated that esterified wood fiber was less thermally stable than the untreated fiber and that the component tends to be homogeneous with increasing WPG. Scanning electron microscope revealed that the fractured surfaces of most samples were smooth and uniform but that high temperature and less PA dosage could lead to the appearance of holes and cracks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41376.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Blends were obtained from poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) and water-soluble biopolymers isolated from the alkaline hydrolysate of two materials sampled from an urban waste treatment plant: that is, an anaerobic fermentation digestate and a compost. The digestate biopolymers contained more lipophilic and aliphatic C and less acidic functional groups than the compost biopolymers. Evidence was obtained for a condensation reaction occurring between the biopolymers and the synthetic polymer. The thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties of the blends were studied. Films containing a low concentration (ca. 6–7%) of biopolymers exhibited up to three times higher yield strength than the neat synthetic polymer. The films' properties were found to be dependent on the concentration and nature of the biopolymers. The results offer a scope for investigating biopolymers sourced from other biowastes and for a better understanding of the reasons for the observed effects and exploiting their full potential for modifying or replacing synthetic polymers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41359.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrate glycerol ether cellulose (NGEC) alcogels are formed in the ternary NGEC/acetone/ethanol system. NGEC aerogels are prepared from NGEC alcogels after solvent exchange and drying under supercritical CO2 (scCO2). The aerogels are prepared with various densities and porosities, relating directly to the initial ethanol content. NGEC aerogels had surface areas of up to 183 m2 g−1 and large mesopore volumes with a combination of large macropore volumes and a wide range of mesopore sizes. The aerogels with larger pore size distribution range, average pore diameter, and mesopore and macropore volume were obtained from system with higher ethanol content. The aerogels were further characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the NGEC aerogels clearly retained the crystalline structure from NGEC. Compared with NGEC powders, the thermal decomposition of NGEC aerogel is accelerated and this process becomes more acute. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41405.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;
  • Shalu, Sujeet Kumar Chaurasia, Rajendra Kumar Singh, Suresh Chandra
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    ABSTRACT: Polymeric gel electrolyte membranes based on the polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF–HFP)] with different weight percentages of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate plus 0.3M lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) salt were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, complex impedance spectroscopy, pulse echo techniques, and Vickers hardness (H) testing. After the incorporation of the IL plus the salt solution in the P(VdF–HFP) polymer, the melting temperature, glass-transition temperature (Tg), degree of crystallinity, thermal stability, elastic modulus (E), and hardness (H) gradually decreased with increasing content of the IL–salt solution as a result of complexation between the P(VdF–HFP) and IL. This was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. A part of the IL and LiBF4 were found to remain uncomplexed as well. The ionic conductivity (σ) of the polymeric gel membranes was found to increase with increasing concentration of the IL–salt solution. The temperature-dependent σs of these polymeric gel membranes followed an Arrhenius-type thermally activated behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015, 132, 41456.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014;

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