Journal of Applied Polymer Science (J Appl Polymer Sci )

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Description

The Journal of Applied Polymer Science reports progress and significant results in the systematic practical application of polymer science. Areas of focus include plastics and their composites blends elastomers films and membranes fibers coatings and adhesives studies of emulsions and latices aging of polymers structural property-processing relationships extrusion and molding diffusion and permeability.

  • Impact factor
    1.40
  • 5-year impact
    1.53
  • Cited half-life
    8.30
  • Immediacy index
    0.28
  • Eigenfactor
    0.05
  • Article influence
    0.32
  • Website
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science website
  • Other titles
    Journal of applied polymer science (Online), Journal of applied polymer science
  • ISSN
    1097-4628
  • OCLC
    38145842
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley & Sons

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • On personal web site or secure external website at authors institution
    • Not allowed on institutional repository
    • JASIST authors may deposit in an institutional repository
    • Non-commercial
    • Pre-print must be accompanied with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) were produced with latexes synthesized via starved semibatch emulsion polymerization processes with butyl acrylate, three different kinds of hard monomers [styrene (St), methyl methacrylate, and 2-phenoxy ethyl methacrylate (SR340)], acrylic acid, and 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate. The management of both the copolymer composition and the polymerization process allowed us to control the behavior of the PSAs. For the acrylate latexes, the types of hard monomers and their contents, the concentration of buffer [bicarbonate (NaHCO3)], and three kinds of semibatch processes were manipulated to modify the polymer properties. The performance of the PSA films cast from these latexes was evaluated by the peel strength. The results show that the PSA prepared with St exhibited the highest peel strength among the three hard monomers, and the latex synthesized by SR340 showed the largest gel content compared with the other two hard monomers. With increasing buffer, the latex particle size increased, and the peel strength initially increased to a maximum and then decreased. Nevertheless, the stability of the latexes decreased with increasing buffer concentration. In addition, the effects of the three kinds of semibatch processes on the peel strength of the PSA were also evaluated. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40095.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 10/2014; 131(19).
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    ABSTRACT: Polyimide (PI) membrane has been proven to be an efficient approach for solvent recovery. However, the inherent fragility of the PI membrane limits the range of separation conditions and process economics. In this study, copolyimides were synthesized from 3,3′,4,4′-benzophenone–tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4′-biamino-3,3′-dimethyldiphenyl–methane (DMMDA) by chemical imidization in a two-step procedure. Then, a PI nanofiltration (NF) membrane was prepared through a phase-inversion process for solvent recovery from lube oil filtrates. The results indicated that the immersion of the PI (BTDA–DMMDA) NF membrane in a 1,6-diaminohexane/ethanol crosslinking agent solution carried on the chemical crosslinking modification, which could effectively improve the solvent resistance of the NF membrane. Moreover, the addition of inorganic salt in the polymer solution further enhanced the solvent resistance and pressure resistance of the membrane, which was favorable for the solvent recovery. The lubricant rejection was above 93%, and the solvent flux was about 30 L m−2 h−1 with the NF membrane prepared in optimum conditions, and this membrane showed great potential for future development in the application of solvent recovery from lube oil filtrates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40338.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014; 131(15).
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    ABSTRACT: A novel method to prepare semi-interpenetrating polymer network rigid cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (c-PVC) foams with improved shear toughness in the absence of anhydride components is reported. The cross-linked network structure in the c-PVC foams was composed of polyurea network modified by epoxy structure. The cellular morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Tensile, compressive, and shear properties of the foams were studied. The obtained c-PVC foams showed high shear properties compared with the comparative samples with the same density and cellular morphology. Possible reactions during the preparation of c-PVC foams were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements through the model experiments. The results showed that allophanate structure resulting from the reaction between isocyanate compounds and epoxy compounds formed in the molding step, which was included into the final cross-linked network in the cross-linking step. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40567.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014; 131(15).
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of different types of polymers, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide (HMPAM), on dynamic interfacial tensions (IFTs) of surfactant/model oil systems have been investigated by the spinning drop method in this article. Two anionic surfactants, 1,2-dihexyl-4-propylbenzene sulfonate (366), 1,4-dibutyl-2-nonylbenzene sulfonate (494) and an anionic–nonionic surfactant octyl-[ω-alkyloxy-poly(oxyethylene)]yl-benzene sulfonates (828) with high purity were selected as model surfactants. The influences of polymer concentration on IFT were expounded. It was found that the addition of polymer mostly results in increasing IFT because the interfacial molecular arrangement is modified owing to the interaction between polymer and surfactants. For HPAM, the polymer chains will enter the surfactant adsorption layer to form mixed-adsorption layer. Therefore, HPAM shows strong effect on surfactant molecules with large size, such as 366. Conversely, surfactants can interact with the hydrophobic blocks of HMPAM and form mixed micelle-like associations at interface. As a result, HMPAM shows more impact on IFT of 494 due to small steric hindrance for the formation of interfacial associations. This mechanism has been ensured by 828 molecules with two long alkyl chains. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40562.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014; 131(15).
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    ABSTRACT: Waterborne acrylic resins with a solid content higher than 40 wt % were obtained by miniemulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and acrylic acid using a hydrocarbon coumarone–indene resin (HCR) as osmotic agent. HCR is a cheap polymer widely used for coatings and pressure-sensitive adhesives. The resin leads to a higher hydrophobicity for the acrylic latex film and acts as osmotic agent in miniemulsion polymerization preventing Ostwald ripening, leading to latexes with particle sizes, size distributions, and stability comparable to those obtained using n-hexadecane as osmotic agent. However, the monomer conversion and molecular weight were lower, indicating the occurrence of a chain-transfer reaction. Atomic force microscopy analysis demonstrated that a smooth film surface with phase-separated morphology was formed when using HCR. Faster film hardness development was achieved with HCR comparing with hexadecane. Compared with market standard in a paint formulation, a similar performance was achieved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40569.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014; 131(15).
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, novel antistatic isotactic polypropylene (iPP) fibers were prepared through adding ternary polymer water-absorbing nanospheres (TPWANs) into iPP melt in melt spinning process. The TPWANs were synthesized through emulsion copolymerization of styrene (St), butyl acrylate (BA), and sodium allylsulfonate (SAS). The characterization results of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) confirmed the ternary components in this copolymer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicated the nanospherical shape of TPWANs with the characteristics of 80–90 nm size range of diameter and good dispersion in iPP fibers. The volume resistance of iPP fibers decreased by three orders from 1012 to 109 Ω cm when the 6 wt % TPWANs was added into iPP fibers, indicating that the blend fibers have good antistatic property. Most importantly, the nanospherical structure of TPWANs imparts both the compatibility and antistatic property into the blend iPP fibers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40568.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014; 131(15).
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    ABSTRACT: A novel low-cost SiO2/Polyvinylchloride (PVC) membrane with different nano-SiO2 particles loading (0–4 wt %) was prepared by the phase-inversion process. The optimum nano-SiO2 dosage was determined as 1.5 wt % based on the casting solution compositions, the membranes' mechanical properties and hydrophilicities, the pure water fluxes, microstructures, and absorption of protein. Compared with the bare membrane, the membrane with 1.5 wt % nano-SiO2 addition presented better capabilities against the protein absorption and bacterial attachment, better antifouling performance, and higher flux recovery ratio in filtration of the supernatant liquor which collected from a secondary sedimentation tank in a municipal wastewater plant. The SiO2/PVC membranes have applicable potential in the municipal wastewater treatment for their low price, good antifouling performance and high removal efficiencies of SS (over 97.2%), COD (up to 82.9%) and total bacteria (more than 93.6%). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41267.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, propranolol loaded-calcium alginate beads were prepared from concentrated solutions of sodium alginate, using combined method of electrospray and ionotropic gelation. The objectives of the study were to increase the propranolol-HCl loading and to decrease its initial burst release. However, the effects of voltage, nozzle diameter, flow rate, and concentration of sodium alginate on size of the beads and drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) were also investigated. The matrix of alginate beads was reinforced with dextran sulfate and/or coated with chitosan. The mean particle size of the beads, their swelling behavior, and drug entrapment efficiency were characterized. Furthermore, the drug release profiles from the prepared beads in simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid were evaluated and compared. Among the parameters that affected the electrospray of alginate, voltage had a pronounced effect on the size of beads. The size of beads was reduced to a minimum value on increasing the voltage. Furthermore, increasing the flow rate, alginate concentration, and nozzle diameter and decreasing the voltage led to improvement in DEE. Enhancing the alginate concentration as well as coating with chitosan and reinforcing with dextran sulfate led to increase of the encapsulation efficiency and therefore decrease of the drug release rate in both pHs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41334.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized by m-xylylenediamine is used as thermal conductive fillers to improve their dispersibility in epoxy resin and the thermal conductivity of the MWNTs/bisphenol-A glycidol ether epoxy resin composites. Functionalization with amine groups of MWNTs is achieved after such steps as carboxylation, acylation and amidation. The thermal conductivity, impact strength, flexural strength, and fracture surfaces of MWNTs/epoxy composites are investigated with different MWNTs. The results show that m-xylylenediamine is successfully grafted onto the surface of the MWNTs and the mass fraction of the organic molecules grafted onto MWNTs is about 20 wt %. The thermal conductivity of MWNTs/epoxy composites is further enhanced to 1.236 W/mK with 2 wt % m-MWNTs. When the content of m-MWNTs is 1.5 wt %, the impact strength and flexural strength of the composites are 25.85 KJ/m2, 128.1 MPa, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show that the fracture pattern of composites is changed from brittle fracture to ductile fracture. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41255.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of expanded graphite (EG) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) modified EG on the structure, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) was investigated in this study. The EVA filled with EG platelets, with and without anionic SDS modification, was prepared by melt mixing using a Brabender Plastograph mixer. The extent of dispersion and morphology of the composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical microscopy results show better distribution of the modified EG platelets in the EVA matrix, while the SEM results show an improved interfacial adhesion between the polymer and the SDS-EG particles. Both the EVA18 copolymer and the EG platelets have monoclinic phases, and both EG and SDS do not seem to have any influence on the melting and crystallization behavior of the EVA18. The addition of EG enhanced the thermal stability of EVA18, and this stabilizing influence was further improved when the EG was treated with SDS. All the tensile properties of EVA/EG improved after surface modification. The storage modulus of EVA generally increased with increasing both the unmodified EG and the SDS modified EG content. There was a shift in the Tg to higher temperatures with an increase in both the EG and modified EG content. The α-relaxation peak in the SDS modified EG curves was less intense than the β-relaxation peak, even for the untreated EG composites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41352.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Polycarbonate (PC) ultrafine fiber membranes with benzyl triethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) were prepared by electrospinning of PC/chloroform solution with different BTEAC contents. In the presence of BTEAC additive, the PC solution showed a better electrospinnability and led to thinner fibers with uniformity than the neat PC solution. The charge retention of the electrospun PC fibrous membranes with BTEAC was investigated in terms of additive content, membrane thickness and storage condition. The residual charge on the PC fibrous membrane was increased to 1 wt% BTEAC content, but thereafter gradually decreased up to 10 wt% BTEAC. In addition, the residual charge on the membrane was increased with increasing the membrane thickness, but was rapidly decreased at a high humidity condition in comparison with a low humidity. The filtration efficiency was examined for the fibrous membranes with or without BTEAC. The PC membrane with BTEAC had higher filtration efficiency than one without BTEAC, not affecting the pressure drop. The filtration efficiency between the PC membranes with or without residual charge was also compared. When the residual charge existed on the membrane, the membrane showed higher filter efficiency because of the enhanced filtration effect by an electrostatic attraction. Therefore, the PC fibrous membranes with BTEAC have a great potential as an electrets filter for air filtration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41340.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The PLA/OMMT nanocomposites were produced using a melt compounding technique with isopropylated triaryl phosphate ester flame retardant (FR; 10–30 parts per 100 resin). The flammability of the PLA/OMMT composites was evaluated with an Underwriter Laboratory (UL-94) vertical burning test, and their char morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal properties of the PLA/OMMT were characterized with a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The thermal analyses showed that adding FR reduced the decomposition onset temperature (To) of PLA/OMMT. Both PLA/OMMT/FR20 and PLA/OMMT/FR30 showed excellent flame retardant abilities, earning a V-0 rating during the UL-94 vertical burning test. A compact, coherent and continuous protective char layer was formed in the PLA/OMMT/FR nanocomposites. Additionally, the DSC results indicated that the flexibility of the PLA/OMMT composites increased after adding FR due to the FR-induced plasticization. The impact strength of PLA/OMMT was greatly increased by the addition of FR. Flexible PLA nanocomposites with high flame resistance were successfully produced. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41253.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanical properties of stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), which is formed by stretching a film prepared from a freeze/thaw cycled gel, were investigated as a function of the stretching ratio. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of 800% stretched PVA annealed at 130°C were 3.4 and 119 GPa, respectively. These values were much higher than those for a PVA film prepared without freeze/thaw cycling. For a film stretched more than 600% before annealing, two melting peaks, assignable to folded and extended chain crystals, were observed around 220°C and 230°C, respectively. This indicates that a shish-kebab structure is formed as the stretching ratio increases. After annealing at 130°C, the folded-chain crystal transformed to an extended-chain crystal if an extended-chain crystal was present in the stretched film before annealing. High tensile strength and Young's modulus after annealing were due to the formation of extended-chain crystal. Therefore, the presence of extended-chain crystal for annealing is important to provide good mechanical properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41318.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical crosslinking is possibly the most significant factor affecting the mechanical behavior of rubbers. In this study, we investigated the evolution of network structures (the crosslinking degree and crosslinking density) during the thermooxidative aging of a nitrile–butadiene rubber (NBR) using characterization methods such as low-dimensional NMR, solvent extraction, solvent swelling, IR spectroscopy, and mechanical property measurements. The NMR and solvent extraction results show the change of the crosslinking degree. The solvent swelling results show the change of the crosslinking density. The IR results show the chemical changes relating to crosslinking and chain scissions. Therefore, a comprehensive picture of the thermal oxidative aging of the NBR compound was drawn by the integration of various results from these methods. Crosslinking occurred throughout the aging process, whereas chain scissions took place and competed with crosslinking in the later stage. The crosslinking density increased at a nearly constant rate, whereas the increase in the crosslinking degree slowed down in the later stage. The crosslinking density was closely correlated with the hardness and Young's modulus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41319.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A novel phosphorus−nitrogen flame retardant, octahydro-2,7-di(N,N-dimethylamino)-1,6,3,8,2,7-dioxadiazadiphosphecine (ODDP), with bi-phosphonyl in a cyclic compound, was synthesized by the reaction of POCl3, NH(CH3)2·HCl with OHCH2CH2NH2 in CH2Cl2 solution, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrum. ODDP has been successfully reacted with polyurethane (PU) as a chain extender to prepare phosphorus–nitrogen synergistic halogen-free flame-retardant waterborne PU (DPWPU). Limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy suggest the excellent flame retardancy of the DPWPU polymer. When the content of ODDP was 15 wt %, the LOI of DPWPU was 30.6% and UL-94 achieved a V-0 classification. Compared with the unmodified WPU, the thermodecomposition temperature of the DPWPU was reduced and the amount of carbon residue was increased to 18.18%. The surface of carbon residue was shown to be compact and smooth without holes, which would be favorable for resisting oxygen and heat. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41288.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nano-SiO2/UHMWPE/HDPE blend microporous membranes (NBMs) with different content of nano-SiO2 particles were prepared via thermally induced phase separation process. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to investigation of the amount of nano-SiO2 particles reserved in NBMs. This approach showed that about 59% of total content of nano-SiO2 particles reserved in NBMs. The formation and development of the interface pores were studied by scanning electron microscopy. NBMs performance was characterized by a variety of metrics including thermal shrinkage, melting and crystallization behavior, porosity and pore diameter, and permeability. The results indicated that nano-SiO2 particles served as nucleating agent increasing the crystalline of NBMs. The comprehensive properties of NBMs were optimum when the content of nano-SiO2 particles was 1%. Compared with pure HDPE separators, NBMs exhibit higher porosity and lower thermal shrinkage due to its high crystalline and the enrichment of UHMWPE chains. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41321.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent decades, the production chain of beef and bovine leather has grown significantly because of an increase in the world's population and improved access to consumption. However, the generation of waste derived from this sector has grown simultaneously, and consequently, improved ways of adding value, reusing, and disposing these waste materials are being sought. In this article, we present a new and innovative composite material based on vulcanized natural rubber (NR), carbon black (CB), and leather waste (NR/CB/leather). The NR/CB/leather composites were prepared by thermal compression with 60 phr of CB and 60 or 80 phr of leather waste. In accordance with Brazilian sanitary laws, we exposed these composites for 24 h to bleach (B) and a disinfectant with the aim of simulating a true everyday cleaning use. The deconvolution of the impedance semicircles was carried out, and two relaxation phenomena around linear relaxation frequencies of about 105 and 106 Hz were found and associated mainly with charge carriers from CB and leather waste. With the addition of leather, the electrical conductivity of the composites increased two orders of magnitude from 5.70 × 10−6 for the NR/CB to 7.97 × 10−4 S/cm for NR/CB/leather-60 phr B. These results point to the possibility of using these composites as an antistatic flooring once they exhibit acceptable values of electrical conductivity and once they withstand, from the structural, morphological, and electrical point of view, exposure to sanitizing agents. Furthermore, the production of these composites will add value to and enable an environmentally acceptable disposal of leather waste. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41297.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;
  • Lingfei Jiang, Xiangming Kong, Zichen Lu, Shanshan Hou
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    ABSTRACT: A series of amphoteric polycarboxylate (PC) polymers were synthesized by radical copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), [3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] trimethylammonium chloride (MAPTAC) and ω-methoxypolyoxyethylene methacrylate ester (MPEGMA). Cationic groups were introduced in to PC molecules with expectation of less retardation effect on cement hydration compared to the traditional anionic PC superplasticizers. The content of cationic groups in polymer was varied by changing the monomer ratio of MAPTAC to AA in the synthesis recipes. The structure of the synthesized amphoteric PCs was verified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The performances of the amphoteric PCs were evaluated by measurement of flowability and zeta-potential of cement pastes and adsorption amount of PC in cement pastes. Impacts of the PCs on cement hydration were studied by isothermal calorimetry. It is concluded that both anionic and cationic PC polymers can be effectively adsorbed onto the surface of cement particles and thus change the zeta potential of cement pastes. The adsorption amounts of the amphoteric PCs decrease with increasing content of cationic units. A proper incorporation of cationic units into PC polymers may lead to a higher fluidizing performance in fresh cement pastes. The amphoteric PC polymers with higher content of cationic units show less retardation effect on cement hydration and hence higher early strength of cementitious materials may be achieved by using amphoteric PCs with appropriated content of cationic units without losing their plasticizing efficiency. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41348.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 08/2014;

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