Plasmid (Plasmid)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Plasmid, A Journal of Molecular Genetics with Emphasis on Plasmid Biology, is a premier journal in the field of molecular microbiology and biotechnology. The journal focuses on the biology of extrachromosomal genetic elements in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including their biological behavior, molecular structure, genetic function, gene products, and use as genetic tools. The journal features original research reports on movable genetic elements in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes, and publishes minireviews on various aspects of extrachromosomal gene systems and molecular microbiology.

Current impact factor: 1.76

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.76
2012 Impact Factor 1.276
2011 Impact Factor 1.516
2010 Impact Factor 1.798
2009 Impact Factor 1.816
2008 Impact Factor 1.255
2007 Impact Factor 2.041
2006 Impact Factor 1.956
2005 Impact Factor 1.446
2004 Impact Factor 1.542
2003 Impact Factor 1.406
2002 Impact Factor 1.495
2001 Impact Factor 1.573
2000 Impact Factor 1.302
1999 Impact Factor 1.463
1998 Impact Factor 1.319
1997 Impact Factor 1.38
1996 Impact Factor 1.611
1995 Impact Factor 1.421
1994 Impact Factor 1.744
1993 Impact Factor 1.657
1992 Impact Factor 1.423

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.55
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.33
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.52
Website Plasmid website
Other titles Plasmid (Online), Plasmid
ISSN 1095-9890
OCLC 36951394
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although several plasmids have been used in Listeria monocytogenes for generating mutants by allelic exchange, construction of L. monocytogenes mutants has been inefficient due to lack of effective selection markers for first and second recombination events. To address this problem, we have developed a new suicide plasmid, pHoss1, by using the pMAD plasmid backbone and anhydrotetracycline selection marker (secY antisense RNA) driven by an inducible Pxyl/tetO promoter. Expression of the secY antisense RNA eliminates merodiploids and selects for the loss of plasmid via a second allelic exchange, which enriches the number of mutants with deleted genes. To assess the effectiveness of pHoss1 for the generation of stable in-frame deletion mutations, the ispG and ispH genes of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strain F2365 were deleted. Results showed that identification of the second allelic exchange mutants was very efficient with 80-100% of the colonies yielding desired deletion mutants. L. monocytogenes' intestinal cell attachment was not altered when ispG and ispH genes were deleted. We expect that this new plasmid will be very useful for construction of marker-free deletion mutants in L. monocytogenes, and in other Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Plasmid 05/2015; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2015.05.003
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmids belonging to incompatibility groups A and C (now A/C) were among the earliest to be associated with antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. A/C plasmids are large, conjugative plasmids with a broad host range. The prevalence of A/C plasmids in collections of clinical isolates has revealed their importance in the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases. They also mobilize SGI1-type resistance islands. Revived interest in the family has yielded many complete A/C plasmid sequences, revealing that RA1, designated A/C1, is different from the remainder, designated A/C2. There are two distinct A/C2 lineages. Backbones of 128-130 kb include over 120 genes or ORFs encoding proteins of at least 100 amino acids, but very few have been characterized. Genes potentially required for replication, stability and transfer have been identified, but only the replication system of RA1 and the regulation of transfer have been studied. There is enormous variety in the antibiotic resistance genes carried by A/C2 plasmids but they are usually clustered in larger regions at various locations in the backbone. The ARI-A and ARI-B resistance islands are always at a specific location but have variable content. ARI-A is only found in type 1 A/C2 plasmids, which disseminate blaCMY-2 and blaNDM-1 genes, whereas ARI-B, carrying the sul2 gene, is found in both type 1 and type 2. This review summarizes current knowledge of A/C plasmids, and highlights areas of research to be considered in the future. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Plasmid 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2015.04.003
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the detailed structure of the cryptic plasmid pIGWZ12, which was isolated from an Escherichia coli strain. pIGWZ12 is composed of two structural modules of distinct evolutionary origin. The REP module, which contains all the features necessary for replication and stable maintenance in the bacterial cell, was assigned by genotyping to the IncF family. The MOB module, which is responsible for plasmid mobilization, shows significant homology to MOBQ modules from broad-host-range plasmids belonging to the RSF1010/R1162 family. We showed that iterons located in the origin of replication are the target for specific binding by the replication initiator protein RepApIGWZ12. Furthermore, we proved that the promoter for the repA gene overlaps with the iterons, and that the latter are the sole determinant of incompatibility. We performed a mutagenesis analysis of the MOBpIGWZ12 module and characterized the roles played by all identified genes (mobA and mobC), as well as the role played by oriT in mobilization. Finally, we showed that it was possible to remove the MOB module from pIGWZ12 without any loss in plasmid replication and stability. Furthermore, the MOBpIGWZ12 module was fully functional after subcloning into another plasmid. Therefore, pIGWZ12 is yet another example of modular structure in small cryptic plasmids. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Plasmid 04/2015; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2015.04.001
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    ABSTRACT: A cryptic plasmid, pJY33, from Weissella cibaria 33 was characterized. pJY33 was 2,365 bp in size with a GC content of 41.27% and contained two putative open reading frames (ORFs). orf1 encoded a putative hypothetical protein of 134 amino acids. orf2 was 849 bp in size, and its putative translation product exhibited 87% identity with a replication initiation factor from a plasmid from W. cibaria KLC140. A Weissella-Escherichia coli shuttle vector, pJY33E (6.5 kb, Em(r)), was constructed by ligation of pJY33 with pBluescript II SK(-) and an erythromycin resistance gene (Em(r)). pJY33E replicated in Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Weissella confusa. A single-stranded DNA intermediate was detected from Lb. brevis 2.14 harbouring pJY33E, providing evidence for rolling-circle replication of pJY33. Most Lb. brevis 2.14 cells (85.9%) retained pJY33E after one week of daily culturing in MRS broth without Em. An aga gene encoding α-galactosidase (α-Gal) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides was successfully expressed in Lb. brevis 2.14 using pJY33E, and the highest level of α-Gal activity (36.13 U/mg protein) was observed when cells were grown on melibiose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Plasmid 04/2015; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2015.03.008
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    ABSTRACT: A collection of 111 commensal Escherichia coli isolated from 84 faecal samples from healthy Australian adults were screened using PCR-based replicon typing. Each isolate represented a distinct strain found in a particular faecal sample. 51 isolates were resistant to one or more of 12 antibiotics tested. FII and FIB replicons were most common and usually found together. The FII replicon was detected in 63 isolates (35 susceptible, 28 resistant), the FIB replicon was present in 65 (32 susceptible, 33 resistant) and 54 (30 susceptible, 24 resistant) included both. Other replicon types were found infrequently (A/C, I1, K, L/M, P, R, Y, FIA and FIC) or not at all (HI1, HI2, N, T, U, W, X). Only the B/O amplicon, found in 21 resistant but only 4 susceptible isolates, was associated with antibiotic resistance. Detailed analysis of this group revealed that the B/O PCR also detected Z plasmids of several distinguishable types. PCR assays were developed to detect the two repA genes (repABKI and repAZ) found in members of the I-complex (I, B/O, K and Z plasmids). These assays distinguished the B/O and Z plasmids detected by the original "B/O" PCR. One isolate carried repABKI and the remainder carried repAZ. These genes were also detected in further isolates in the collection. Conjugative transfer of resistance genes was detected for the B/O plasmid and two Z groups. Evidence for transfer of repAZ plasmids in the human colon in the absence of antibiotic selection was also obtained. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Plasmid 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2015.03.005
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    ABSTRACT: We sequenced the complete 7118 bp circular plasmid pColE3-CA38 (pColE3) from Escherichia coli, located the previously identified colicin components together with two new ORFs that have homology to mobilization and transfer proteins, and found that pColE3 is highly similar to a plasmid present in enterohemorrhagic E. coli O111. We also found that unusual aspects of the plasmid include the inability to be completely digested with restriction endonucleases and asymmetric Phred DNA sequencing quality scores, with significantly lower scores in the forward direction relative to the colicin and immunity proteins consistent with plus (+) strand DNA. Comparing the A260 with picogreen double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fluorescence and oligreen single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fluorescence as well as metachromatic staining by acridine orange, we found that the undigested pColE3 DNA stains preferentially as ssDNA and that it coexists with dsDNA. We also identified ssDNA in pColE5 and pColE9 but not in pColE1. Colicin plasmids producing ssDNA may represent a new subclass of rolling-circle replication plasmids and add to the known similarities between colicins and filamentous phage.
    Plasmid 11/2014; 77. DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.11.001
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    ABSTRACT: The 89,977 bp nucleotide sequence of pACM1, isolated from a 1993 outbreak strain of cephalosporin-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca, has been completed and assigned GenBank accession number KJ541681. The plasmid has a single 31,842 bp mosaic multi-drug resistance-encoding (MDR) region comprising the mer resistance module of Tn1696, 2 integrons with a total of 7 cassettes, one complete copy each of IS1R and IS26, and the bla(SHV-5)-carrying Tn2003 (with defective IS26 termini), all within a Tn1721-like element inserted into the mucB gene of the IncL/M plasmid backbone. The Tn1721-Tn1696 combination resembles sequence found in the chromosomal MDR islands of some Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. Among the completely sequenced IncL/M resistance plasmids, the Tn1721-based MDR region is unique, but data from older studies suggest that this type of plasmid was widespread in the 1990s. Since resistance gene dosage is affected by plasmid copy number (PCN), we used a relatively simple new "efficiency-corrected" qPCR assay to measure the PCN of pACM1. There are approximately 3 copies per chromosome in an E. coli DH5α host, and 2 in the original K. oxytoca isolate. We could not find similar PCN data for other medically important plasmids for comparison. The study of this plasmid property and its effect on resistance levels should be facilitated in the future by the availability of qPCR instruments and complete genome sequences.
    Plasmid 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.08.005
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    ABSTRACT: A mammary gland-specific expression vector p205C3 was constructed with the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of β-lactoglobulin gene and the first intron of β-casein gene of Chinese dairy goat as regulatory sequences. Human lysozyme (hLYZ) cDNA from mammary gland was cloned into p205C3 and the recombinant vector was used to generate transgenic mice by microinjection. Based on the lysoplate assay, four female offspring of one male founder were detected expressing recombinant hLYZ in their milk at the levels of 5-200 mg/L, and the expressed protein had the same molecular weight as that of normal hLYZ. Besides mammary glands, ectopic expressions were also found in the spleens and the small intestines of the transgenic mice. Among the offspring, the female transgenic mice maintained and expressed the transgene stably with a highest expression level of 750 mg/L. Therefore, p205C3 could be used to develop animal mammary gland bioreactors expressing hLYZ.
    Plasmid 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.09.004
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade regulatory RNAs have emerged as powerful tools to regulate the expression of genes both in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. RNases, by degrading these RNA molecules, control the right amount of the regulatory RNAs, which is fundamental for an accurate regulation of gene expression in the cell. Remarkably the first antisense RNAs identified were plasmid-encoded and their detailed study was crucial for the understanding of prokaryotic antisense RNAs. In this review we highlight the role of RNases in the precise modulation of antisense RNAs that control plasmid replication, maintenance and transfer.
    Plasmid 09/2014; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.09.003
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes a rapid, highly efficient and versatile method for seamlessly assembling multiple DNA fragments into a vector at any desired position. The inserted fragments and vector backbone were amplified by high-fidelity PCR containing 20 bp to 50 bp overlapping regions at 3' and/or 5' termini. These linearised fragments were equimolarly mixed, and then cyclised in a prolonged overlap extension PCR without adding primers. The resulting PCR products were DNA multimers that could be directly transformed into host strains, yielding the desired chimeric plasmid. The proposed method was illustrated by constructing an Escherichia coli co-expression vector. The feasibility of the method in Lactobacillus was further validated by assembling an E. coli-Lactobacillus shuttle vector. Results showed that three to four fragments could be simultaneously and precisely inserted in a vector in only two to three days using the proposed method. The acceptable transformation efficiency was determined through the tested host strains; more than 95% of the colonies were positive transformants. Therefore, the proposed method is sufficiently competent for high-efficiency insertion of multiple DNA fragments into a plasmid and has theoretically good application potential for gene cloning and protein expression because it is simple, easy to implement, flexible and yields highly positive clones.
    Plasmid 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.09.002
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    ABSTRACT: Horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in the evolution of bacterial species, conferring new genetic traits on the recipient bacterium that extend its range of phenotypes and plasmids make important contributions to this process. However, the inappropriate expression of newly acquired genes may lead to a loss of competitive fitness, resulting in the elimination of the new gene-bacterium combination. It is thought that transcriptional silencing of horizontally acquired genes offers a route out of this dilemma and that nucleoid-associated proteins, especially those related to the H-NS protein, play a particularly important role in the silencing process. The discovery that many plasmids express orthologues of nucleoid-associated proteins adds an interesting dimension to current models of regulatory integration following lateral transfer of DNA. Other horizontally acquired genetic elements, such as genomic islands, also express nucleoid-associated proteins of their own. Here the interactions of H-NS-like nucleoid-associated proteins encoded by the core genome, genomic islands and plasmids are described.
    Plasmid 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.06.004
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    ABSTRACT: Until recently, only two small regulatory RNAs encoded by lambdoid bacteriophages were know. These transcripts are derived from paQ and pO promoters. The former one is supposed to act as an antisense RNA for expression of the Q gene, encoding a transcription antitermination protein. The latter transcript, called oop RNA, was initially proposed to have a double role, in establishing expression of the cI gene and in providing a primer for DNA replication. Although the initially proposed mechanisms by which oop RNA could influence the choice between two alternative developmental pathways of the phage and the initiation of phage DNA replication were found not true, the pO promoter has been demonstrated to be important for both regulation of phage development and control of DNA replication. Namely, the pO-derived transcript is an antisense RNA for expression of the cII gene, and pO is a part of a dual promoter system responsible for regulation of initiation of DNA synthesis from the oriλ region. Very recent studies identified a battery of small RNAs encoded by lambdoid bacteriophages existing as prophages in chromosomes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains. Some of them have very interesting functions, like anti-small RNAs.
    Plasmid 08/2014; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.07.006
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmids are self-replicating pieces of DNA that can help their hosts adapt to the environment through expression and dissemination of non-essential genes. Given that plasmids represent a metabolic burden to the host, mechanisms ensuring plasmid transmission to daughter cells are critical for their stable maintenance in the population. Here we review these mechanisms, focusing on two active partition strategies common to low-copy plasmids: Par1 and Par2. Both involve three components: an adaptor protein, a motor protein, and a sequence in the plasmid (the centromere) that is recognized by the adaptor protein. The centromere-bound adaptor nucleates polymerization of the motor, leading to filament formation, which can pull plasmids apart (Par1) or push them towards opposite poles of the cell (Par2). No such active partition mechanisms are known to occur in high copy number plasmids. In this case, vertical transmission is generally considered stochastic, due to the random distribution of plasmids in the cytoplasm. We discuss conceptual and experimental lines of evidence questioning the random distribution model and posit the existence of a mechanism for segregation in high copy number plasmids that moves plasmids to cell poles to facilitate transmission to daughter cells. This mechanism would involve chromosomally-encoded proteins and the plasmid origin of replication. Modulation of this proposed mechanism of segregation could provide new ways to enhance plasmid stability in the context of recombinant gene expression, which is limiting for large-scale protein production and for bioremediation.
    Plasmid 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.07.002
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    ABSTRACT: Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a widespread process that enables the acquisition of genes and metabolic pathways in single evolutionary steps. Previous reports have described fitness costs of HGT, but have largely focused on the acquisition of relatively small plasmids. We have previously shown that a Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans strain recently acquired a cryptic megaplasmid, pMPPla107. This extrachromosomal element contributes hundreds of new genes to P. syringae and increases total genomic content by approximately 18%. However, this early work did not directly explore transmissibility, stability, or fitness costs associated with acquisition of pMPPla107. Results Here we show that pMPPla107 is self-transmissible across a variety of diverse Pseudomonad strains, on both solid agar and within shaking liquid medium cultures, with conjugation dependent on a type IV secretion system. To our knowledge, this is the largest self-transmissible megaplasmids known outside of Sinorhizobium. This megaplasmid can be lost from all novel hosts although the rate of loss depends on medium type and genomic background. However, in contrast, pMPPla107 is faithfully maintained within the original parent strain (Pla107) even under direct negative selection during laboratory assays. These results suggest that Pla107 specific stabilizing mutations have occurred either on this strain's chromosome or within the megaplasmid. Lastly, we demonstrate that acquisition of pMPPla107 by strains other than Pla107 imparts severe (20%) fitness costs under competitive conditions in vitro. Conclusions We show that pMPPla107 is capable of transmitting and maintaining itself across multiple Pseudomonas species, rendering it one of the largest conjugative elements discovered to date. The relative stability of pMPPla107, coupled with extensive fitness costs, makes it a tractable model system for investigating evolutionary and genetic mechanisms of megaplasmid maintenance and a unique testing ground to explore evolutionary dynamics after HGT of large secondary elements.
    Plasmid 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.04.002