Journal of Surgical Research (J Surg Res)

Publisher: Association for Academic Surgery (U.S.); Association of Veterans Administration Surgeons (U.S.), Elsevier

Journal description

The Journal of Surgical Research: Clinical and Laboratory Investigation publishes original articles concerned with clinical and laboratory investigations relevant to surgical practice and teaching. The journal emphasizes reports of clinical investigations or fundamental research bearing directly on surgical management that will be of general interest to a broad range of surgeons and surgical researchers. The articles presented need not have been the products of surgeons or of surgical laboratories.

Current impact factor: 1.94

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.936
2013 Impact Factor 2.121
2012 Impact Factor 2.018
2011 Impact Factor 2.247
2010 Impact Factor 2.239
2009 Impact Factor 2.176
2008 Impact Factor 1.875
2007 Impact Factor 1.836
2006 Impact Factor 2.038
2005 Impact Factor 1.956
2004 Impact Factor 1.727
2003 Impact Factor 1.735
2002 Impact Factor 1.726
2001 Impact Factor 1.663
2000 Impact Factor 1.674
1999 Impact Factor 1.429
1998 Impact Factor 1.362
1997 Impact Factor 1.119
1996 Impact Factor 1.45
1995 Impact Factor 1.156
1994 Impact Factor 1.205
1993 Impact Factor 1.227
1992 Impact Factor 1.362

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.08
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.41
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.61
Website Journal of Surgical Research website
Other titles Journal of surgical research (Online), Journal of surgical research, Surgical research
ISSN 1095-8673
OCLC 36946638
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Results: Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The majority of the tumors (13 of 17) arose in patients with pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis.
    Journal of Surgical Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.09.004
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Platelet count is known to be an indirect indicator of portal hypertension but is not a part of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score or the Child-Pugh score for risk stratification in hepatobiliary surgery. Methods: Data from 2097 hepatic resections for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were evaluated from 2005-2012 using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patient demographics, morbidity, and mortality were evaluated. Results: Median age and body mass index were 64 y and 26.5 kg/m(2), respectively. Majority of the patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists ≥3 (78.1%) and median MELD score was 7. On multivariate analysis, thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150/nL) and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100/nL) were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; P = 0.024 and OR, 4.19; P < 0.001), cardiopulmonary complications (OR, 1.61; P = 0.009 and OR, 1.96; P = 0.018), need for blood transfusion (OR, 1.35; P = 0.05 and OR, 1.60; P = 0.05), septic complications (OR, 1.53; P = 0.025 and OR, 1.96; P = 0.016), reintubation (OR, 1.91; P = 0.004 and OR, 2.64; P = 0.003), and renal insufficiency and/or failure (OR, 2.48; P = 0.001 and OR, 4.96; P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia, which is an indirect indicator for portal hypertension, is significantly associated with adverse outcomes after hepatectomy, independent of the MELD score. Platelet count should be integrated into the selection criteria for hepatic resections for HCC.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.038
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sepsis is a major clinical challenge in modern medicine, representing one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. The syndrome is a consequence of a dysregulated immune response, including early uncontrolled systemic inflammation and prolonged immunosuppression in the late phase. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects of astragaloside IV (ASI-IV) on the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Materials and methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham control + vehicle, CLP + vehicle, and CLP + ASI-IV groups. ASI-IV (3 mg/kg) was intravenously injected 1 h after CLP surgery. Survival rate, bacterial clearance, inflammatory mediators, phagocytes emigration, histopathology, and lymphocyte apoptosis were examined. The effects of ASI-IV on peritoneal macrophage activation and its underlying mechanisms were also evaluated. Results: We reported that treatment with ASI-IV significantly improved survival in septic mice. In agreement with this protective effect, the pathologic damage that was typically seen in lung and spleen was ameliorated; the level of bacterial burden was lessened; inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in circulation were profoundly reduced; lymphocyte apoptosis was inhibited. ASI-IV suppressed LPS-induced macrophage activation through inhibiting NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Conclusions: ASI-IV protected mice against polymicrobial sepsis by inhibiting inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis. Therefore, ASI-IV might provide a novel therapeutic approach for septic patients.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.024
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Thrombocytopenia may represent a significant challenge to the clinical application of solid-organ xenotransplantation. When studied in a pig-to-primate model, consumptive coagulopathy has challenged renal xenografts. New strategies of genetic manipulation have altered porcine carbohydrate profiles to significantly reduce human antibody binding to pig cells. As this process continues to eliminate immunologic barriers to clinical xenotransplantation, the relationship between human platelets and pig organs must be considered. Methods: Genetically modified pigs that were created by the CRISPR/Cas9 system with α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1)(-/-) or GGTA1(-/-) cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase(-/-) phenotype, as well as domestic pigs, were used in this study. Autologous porcine platelets were isolated from donor animal blood collection, and human platelets were obtained from a blood bank. Platelets were fluorescently labeled and in a single-pass model, human, or autologous platelets were perfused through porcine organs at a constant concentration and controlled temperature. Platelet uptake was measured by sampling venous output and measuring sample florescence against input florescence. In vitro study of the interaction between human platelets and porcine endothelial cells was accomplished by immunohistochemical stain and confocal microscopy. Results: Differences between human and autologous platelet loss through the porcine kidney were not significant in any genetic background tested (WT P = 0.15, GGTA1(-/-)P = 0.12, GGTA1(-/-) cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase(-/-)P = 0.25). The unmodified porcine liver consumed human platelets in a single-pass model of platelet perfusion in fewer than 10 min. WT suprahepatic inferior vena cava fluoresce reached a maximum of 76% of input fluoresce within the human platelet cohort and was significantly lower than the autologous platelet control cohort (P = 0.001). Confocal microscopic analysis did not demonstrate a significant association between human platelets and porcine renal endothelial cells compared with porcine liver endothelial positive controls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in the absence of immunologic injury, human platelets respond in a variable fashion to organ-specific porcine endothelial surfaces. Human platelets are not removed from circulation by exposure to porcine renal endothelium but are removed by unmodified porcine hepatic endothelium. Kidneys possessing genetic modifications currently relevant to clinical xenotransplantation failed to consume human platelets in an isolated single-pass model. Human platelets did not exhibit significant binding to renal endothelial cells by in vitro assay.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.034
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sterile sternal dehiscence (SSD) and sternal wound infections (SWIs) are two complications of median sternotomy with high rates of morbidity. Sternal wound complications also carry significant economic burden, almost tripling patients' hospital costs and are considered a nonreimbursable "never event" for Medicare. Historically, SDD and SWI have been recognized as discrete entities, but nonetheless continue to be categorized as a singular complication in literature. The purpose of this study was to determine specific patient demographic and perioperative predictors of SSD and SWI. Materials and methods: An institutional review board-approved, retrospective study of 8098 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at Columbia University Medical Center between January 2008 and December 2013 was conducted. Patients were categorized into three groups: no sternal wound complication, SSD, or SWI. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Of 8098 patients, there were 73 patients (0.9%) with SSD and 40 (0.5%) with SWI who required plastic surgical consultation, debridement, and flap closure. In univariate analysis of SSD, positive predictors (i.e., "risk" factors) were age >42 years, prior surgery this admission, ≥2 arterial conduits, internal mammary artery (IMA) grafting with or without previous IMA grafting, body mass index (BMI) >30 (obese), CHF, diabetes requiring medication, respiratory failure, and unplanned cardiac reoperation; negative predictors (i.e., "protective" factors) were no arterial conduits and extubation within 24 h. In univariate analysis of SWI, positive predictors were IMA grafting with or without previous IMA grafting, postoperative hematocrit urgent/emergent surgical priority, BMI >30 (obese), cardiac ejection fraction <40%, and respiratory failure; negative predictors were no arterial conduits and elective surgical priority. In multivariate regression, BMI >30, diabetes requiring medication, and respiratory failure were determined to be significant positive predictors of SSD, and IMA grafting with or without prior IMA grafting and respiratory failure were significant positive predictors for SWI; no significant negative predictors were identified. Conclusions: This study found that SSD and SWI have many common significant predictors consistent with findings that increased BMI, use of IMA grafts, poor cardiac reserve, and postoperative respiratory failure confer increased risk of sternal wound complications. Additionally, this study also found that there were predictors unique to each entity supporting that SSD and SWI may be related but are not a singular entity. Recognition and prevention of significant positive and negative predictors of SSD and SWI may be valuable in preoperative counseling, operative planning, and postoperative management. Although sternal wound complications can be successfully managed by plastic surgical intervention, preventing the development of median sternotomy complications may curb costs incurred by both patients and health care systems.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.07.045
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Multiple prior studies have suggested an association between survival and beta-blocker administration in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is unknown whether this benefit of beta-blockers is dependent on heart rate control. The aim of this study was to assess whether rate control affects survival in patients receiving metoprolol with severe TBI. Our hypothesis was that improved survival from beta-blockade would be associated with a reduction in heart rate. Methods: We performed a 7-y retrospective analysis of all blunt TBI patients at a level-1 trauma center. Patients aged >16 y with head abbreviated injury scale 4 or 5, admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from the operating room or emergency room (ER), were included. Patients were stratified into two groups: metoprolol and no beta-blockers. Using propensity score matching, we matched the patients in two groups in a 1:1 ratio controlling for age, gender, race, admission vital signs, Glasgow coma scale, injury severity score, mean heart rate monitored during ICU admission, and standard deviation of heart rate during the ICU admission. Our primary outcome measure was mortality. Results: A total of 914 patients met our inclusion criteria, of whom 189 received beta-blockers. A propensity-matched cohort of 356 patients (178: metoprolol and 178: no beta-blockers) was created. Patients receiving metoprolol had higher survival than those patients who did not receive beta-blockers (78% versus 68%; P = 0.04); however, there was no difference in the mean heart rate (89.9 ± 13.9 versus 89.9 ± 15; P = 0.99). Nor was there a difference in the mean of standard deviation of the heart rates (14.7 ± 6.3 versus 14.4 ± 6.5; P = 0.65) between the two groups. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, patients who received metoprolol had a survival advantage (P = 0.011) compared with patients who did not receive any beta-blockers. Conclusions: Our study shows an association with improved survival in patients with severe TBI receiving metoprolol, and this effect appears to be independent of any reduction in heart rate. We suggest that beta-blockers should be administered to all severe TBI patients irregardless of any perceived beta-blockade effect on heart rate.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.020
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A subxiphoid surgical approach to thoracic cavity operations has potential advantages such as preventing injuries to intercostal nerves and vessels due to the bypass of the intercostal space during thoracic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the feasibility and efficacy of the subxiphoid and standard transthoracic approaches for anatomic pulmonary lobectomy in a canine model. Methods: Nineteen dogs were assigned for pulmonary lobectomy using either the subxiphoid (n = 10) or standard transthoracic approaches (n = 9). Each group underwent thoracic exploration and anatomic pulmonary lobectomy. Subxiphoid thoracoscopy was performed with a flexible bronchoscope via a 3-cm incision over the xiphoid process. In the conventional thoracoscopy group, approach to the thoracic cavity was obtained through a 3-cm incision over the seventh intercostal space. Physiological parameters (respiratory rate and body temperature) and blood samples (white blood cell counts and arterial blood gases) were collected during the preoperative and postoperative periods. Surgical outcomes data (operating time, operative complications, and body weight gain) were also collected and compared between the groups. The animals were sacrificed 14 d after surgery for necropsy evaluations. Results: Anatomic pulmonary lobectomy was successfully performed without intraoperative and postoperative complications in all animals. There were no significant differences in the mean operating times or weight gain after surgery between the subxiphoid and the standard transthoracic approach groups. In terms of physiological and pulmonary parameters, there were no observed differences between the two surgical groups for respiratory rate, body temperature, white blood cell counts, and arterial blood gases at any time during the study. Necropsy confirmed the success of lobectomy without complication in all studied animals. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the subxiphoid approach was comparable with the standard transthoracic approach for anatomic pulmonary lobectomy, in terms of feasibility and effectiveness.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.012
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is a perception among surgeons that hospitals disproportionately transfer unfavorably insured patients for emergency surgical care. Emergency medical condition (EMC) designation mandates referral center acceptance of patients for whom transfer is requested. We sought to understand whether unfavorably insured patients are more likely to be designated as EMCs. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on patient transfers from a large network of acute care facilities to emergency surgery services at a tertiary referral center from 2009-2013. Insurance was categorized as favorable (commercial or Medicare) or unfavorable (Medicaid or uninsured). The primary outcome, transfer designation as EMC or non-EMC, was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. A secondary analysis evaluated uninsured patients only. Results: There were 1295 patient transfers in the study period. Twenty percent had unfavorable insurance. Favorably insured patients were older with fewer nonwhite, more comorbidities, greater illness severity, and more likely transferred for care continuity. More unfavorably insured patients were designated as EMCs (90% versus 84%, P < 0.01). In adjusted models, there was no association between unfavorable insurance and EMC transfer (odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-2.69). Uninsured patients were more likely to be designated as EMCs (OR, 2.27; CI, 1.08-4.77). Conclusions: The finding that uninsured patients were more likely to be designated as EMCs suggests nonclinical variation that may be mitigated by clearer definitions and increased interfacility coordination to identify patients requiring transfer for EMCs.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.021
  • Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.011
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a relatively common complication after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). The aim of this study was to determine whether DGE is affected by antecolic or retrocolic reconstruction for gastro/duodenojejunostomy after PD. Methods: A literature search was performed of the MEDLINE (PubMed), Ovid SP, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical observational studies related to this topic from January 1995 to November 2014. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for categorical outcomes, and mean differences (MD) using fixed-effect and random-effects models were calculated for the meta-analysis. Results: Fourteen studies including 1969 patients met the inclusion criteria. Six studies were RCTs, and eight studies were clinical observational studies. DGE was less common in the antecolic reconstruction group than in the retrocolic reconstruction group (OR = 0.24 [0.12-0.48], P < 0.0001). Postoperative days to start solid foods (MD = -3.67 d [-5.10 to -2.33], P < 0.00001) and length of hospital stay (MD = -2.90 d [-5.36 to -2.33], P < 0.00001) were also significantly in favor of the antecolic reconstruction group. There was no difference in the incidence of pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal fluid collection or abscess, biliary fistula, or mortality. However, in the subgroup analyses, using the data of six RCTs or seven studies according to the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery definition, there was no significant difference in the incidence of DGE. Conclusions: Antecolic reconstruction for gastro/duodenojejunostomy does not seem to offer an advantage over retrocolic reconstruction with respect to DGE after PD.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.004
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Little is known regarding the effects of caseload volume of other relevant members of the "surgical team." The present study sought to report variations in health care utilization and outcomes relative to surgeon and anesthesiologist volume among patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. Methods: A total of 969 patients undergoing pancreatic surgery from 2011-2013 were identified at a large, tertiary care center. Multivariable regression analyses explored the effects of provider volume on crystalloid administration, blood transfusions, mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges. Results: A total of 11 surgeons were identified while 100 anesthesiologists were involved in providing care to all patients. Annual case volume for surgeons ranged from 5-101 pancreatic resections per year; each anesthesiologist was involved in a fewer number of cases per year with a maximum of 15 patients treated by the same anesthesiologist. Higher volume surgeons had higher transfusions (odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.47; P < 0.001), greater crystalloid administration (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.24-2.12; P < 0.001), and longer length of stay (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.20-2.53; P = 0.003). In contrast, 30-d readmission was lower among higher volume surgeons (low volume versus high volume; 23.1% versus 11.6%; P < 0.001). Variations in patient-related outcomes were not associated with anesthesia provider volume (all P > 0.05). Similarly, total hospital charges and mortality were not associated with provider volumes (both P > 0.05). Conclusions: Although variability exists in health care practices among providers at the surgeon level, less is observed among anesthesiologists. Although a proportion of this variability can be explained by provider volumes, a significant proportion remains unexplained possibly due to nonmodifiable factors such as patient case mix.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.010
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Patients with colorectal cancer and peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRC/PC) may benefit from cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC). Nutritional support is frequently required for patients after CRS/HIPEC. It remains unclear if placement of feeding access is of benefit in regard to improving postoperative nutrition in this patient population. Materials and methods: Patients with CRC/PC who underwent complete cytoreduction were evaluated. Preoperative and postoperative nutritional data and discharge outcomes were retrospectively recorded. The presence of a feeding tube and PCI scores were recorded by review of operative notes. Readmission rates were calculated for patients at 30 d and 60 d after discharge from hospital. Results: Forty-one patients underwent CRS/HIPEC, 25 had feeding tube placement at the time of surgery. Weight loss was common after HIPEC as 38 of 41 patients demonstrated weight loss. The mean weight loss was 7.6%. total parenteral nutrition was required at discharge in four patients (7.9%); three of these patients had feeding access placed. There was no difference in the degree of weight loss between groups (7.1 ± 3.7% no tube versus 7.9 ± 5.8% patients with tube; P = 0.608). The mean decrease in albumin was 12.7% but was not significantly different in patients with feeding access and those without (10.0% versus 14.75%; P = 0.773). Sixty-day readmission rates were higher in patients with feeding tubes (36% compared with 0%, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Significant nutritional loss is common after CRS/HIPEC for patients with CRC/PC. Feeding tube placement does not prevent this and appears to be related to higher readmission rates and longer length of stay.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.003
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Perioperative red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) remains common after liver resection and carries risk of increased morbidity and worse oncologic outcomes. We sought to assess the factors associated with perioperative RBCT after hepatectomy with a focus on intraoperative hemodynamics. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of our prospective hepatectomy database, supplemented by a review of anesthetic records of all patients undergoing hepatectomy with hemodynamic monitoring (arterial and central venous pressures [CVP]) from 2003-2012. Primary outcome was perioperative RBCT (during and within 30 d after surgery). After descriptive and univariate comparisons, multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with RBCT. Results: Of 851 hepatectomies, 530 had complete hemodynamic data and 30.2% (161 of 530) received RBCT. Among transfused patients, female gender (P = 0.01), preoperative anemia (P < 0.001), and major liver resection (P = 0.02) were more common. Mean estimated blood loss was 1.1 L higher (2.0 versus 0.9 L; P < 0.001) and operating time was 1.1 h longer (5.8 versus 4.7 h; P < 0.001) in transfused patients. Trends in intraoperative CVP differed significantly based on transfusion status (P = 0.007). Independent factors associated with RBCT included female gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.27; P = 0.01), preoperative anemia (OR, 2.38; P = 0.03), longer operative time (OR, 1.19 per hour; P = 0.03), and higher intraoperative CVP at 1 h during surgery (OR, 1.10 per mm Hg; P = 0.005). Conclusions: Likelihood of RBCT is independently associated with female gender, preoperative anemia, longer operative time, and higher intraoperative CVP. Focus on management of preoperative anemia, operative efficiency, and low intraoperative CVP is needed to minimize the need for RBCTs.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.005
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    ABSTRACT: Although polymyxin B cartridge hemoperfusion (PMX) has an important place in the treatment of patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock (SS), there are few rigid indications for performing PMX a second time.The objective of the study was to investigate the clinicolaboratory characteristics (CCs) showing the most significant change from the first to the second PMX and associated with 28-d mortality in patients with SS. Between April 2006 and March 2008, 78 patients with SS who had received two sessions of PMX in a prospectively collected multicenter collaboration study were enrolled. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the differences in the values of individual CCs (Δ-CCs) were performed to assess the CCs showing the most significant change in value associated with 28-d mortality. The Δ-CC was defined as: Δ2nd-1st-CC = value of the CC just before the second PMX - value of the CC just before the first PMX. Among 28 Δ2nd-1st-CCs, 10 Δ2nd-1st-CCs were selected by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The results of multivariate analysis using adequate 8 Δ2nd-1st-CCs that had been selected by univariate analyses revealed that only Δ2nd-1st-prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) (≤0.16/>0.16; hazard ratio = 6.562; 95% CI = 1.525-28.23; P = 0.012) was associated with 28-d mortality. Survival curve analysis demonstrated a significant difference in 28-d mortality between patients with a lower (≤0.16) and a higher (>0.16) Δ2nd-1st-PT-INR (P < 0.001). Patients with exacerbation of PT-INR (>0.16) after initial PMX are unlikely to benefit clinically from a second PMX for treatment of SS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Surgical Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.07.041
  • Journal of Surgical Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.031
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Placenta and amnion have been suggested as sources of juvenile cells and tissues for use in surgical regenerative medicine. We previously determined the impact of amniotic epithelial cells induced to undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) on myocardial remodeling processes and now evaluated the effects of naïve and processed amniotic membrane (AM) on postischemic left ventricular (LV) geometry and function. Methods: Human AM was used in unmodified form (AM), after EMT induction by transforming growth factor β (EMT-AM), and after decellularization (Decell-AM). After characterization by histology, electron microscopy, splenocyte proliferation assay, and cytokine release, myocardial infarction was induced in 6-8-week old male BALB/c mice by permanent left anterior descending coronary occlusion, and AM patches were sutured to the anterior LV surface (n = 10 per group). Infarcted hearts without AM or sham-operated mice were used as controls (n = 10 each). After 4 weeks, LV pressure-volume curves were recorded using a conductance catheter before the animals were sacrificed and the hearts analyzed by histology. Results: TGF-ß treatment induced EMT-like changes in amniotic epithelial cells but increased AM xenoreactivity in vitro (splenocyte proliferation) and in vivo (CD4+ cell invasion). Moreover, in vitro interleukin-6 release from AM and from cardiac fibroblasts co-incubated with AM was 300- or 100-fold higher than that of interleukin-10, whereas Decell-AM did not release any cytokines. AM- and Decell-AM-treated hearts had smaller infarct size and greater infarct scar thickness than infarct control hearts, but there was no difference in myocardial capillary density or the number of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells. LV contractile function was better in the AM and EMT-AM groups than in infarcted control hearts, but dP/dt max, dP/dt min, stroke work, and cardiac output were best preserved in mice treated with Decell-AM. Volume-based parameters (LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volume as well as LV ejection fraction) did not differ between AM and Decell-AM. Conclusions: Decellularized AM supports postinfarct ventricular dynamics independent of the actual regeneration processes. As a cell-free approach to support the infarcted heart, this concept warrants further investigation.
    Journal of Surgical Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.022
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Allograft arteriopathy is still a leading cause of late organ failure. The aortic allograft model in mice has been used to study chronic rejection and has given useful information in the development of graft arteriosclerosis. However, the technical difficulties of small vessel anastomoses still continue to limit its widespread use. We introduce a new simple method for aortic transplantation in mice. Methods: The descending aorta or infrarenal aorta from the donor mouse was anastomosed to the infrarenal aorta using a cuff technique. Aortic transplantation was performed in 30 mice, 10 isografts and 20 allografts. No immunosuppression was administered, and the recipients were sacrificed at day 28. The grafts were histologically analyzed. Results: Implantation of grafts could be completed in an average of 23 min. There was no technical failure in all 60 anastomoses. The overall survival rate was 93.3%. Histology of aortas revealed typical aspects of chronic rejection in the allografts at day 28. No significant lesion was observed in isografts. Conclusions: We have developed an innovative, stable, and simple aortic transplantation model in mice, which is useful for vascular research in transplantation and beyond.
    Journal of Surgical Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.039
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    ABSTRACT: Autologous venous grafts generally give best results for arterial bypass grafting in cases of arterial stenosis. When no suitable venous graft can be found, synthetic prosthetic graft may be an alternative. Prostheses are easily accessible but susceptible to infection. In these cases, the replacement of infected prosthesis by the human arterial allograft is the best treatment option. The question arises whether we could prepare a graft meeting mechanical conditions of an artery immunologically inert and resistant to bacterial infection. LEW and BN rat aortic segments were placed in dehydrated sodium chloride and stored for 1 to 12 mo. Then, they were transplanted orthotopically as aortic grafts for 3 to 15 mo in syngenic and allogenic combination. No immunosuppression was used. Patency, pulsation, and frequency of development of aneurysms were studied. The tensile strength and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured. Morphology of grafts was evaluated on histology and electron microscopy. The endothelial and infiltrating cells were identified. Transplanted allogeneic aortic grafts preserved in anhydrous sodium chloride up to 12 mo remained patent for 15 mo. Hypertrophy of intima with endothelial cells lining the inner surface and single muscle cells between elastic fibers were seen. Normal structure of collagen and elastic fibers was maintained. Only minor-host mononuclear infiltrates were seen around the preserved allografts. Rat aortas preserved in anhydrous sodium chloride retain patency and function even 15 mo after transplantation. Such grafts retain their wall structure and evoke only minor recipient reaction. Our results confirm that anhydrous sodium chloride may be used for arterial grafts preservation. Low immunogenicity is additional advantage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Surgical Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.07.046
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The clinical significance of cholesterolosis has not been well established but there are some provocative, if not robust, studies of the role it may play in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis and biliary dyskinesia, as well as hypercholesterolemia. Our aim was to take advantage of a very large cholecystectomy (CCY) database to support or refute these potentially important reported associations. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of 6868 patients who underwent CCY from 2001-2013 was performed. Comparisons were made using the student t-test for continuous and chi-square analysis for categorical, variables. Results: Among patients for whom the CCY was the primary operation, 1053 (18%) had cholesterolosis and 4596 did not. Compared to those without cholesterolosis, those with cholesterolosis were no more likely to have elevated cholesterol levels (P = 0.64) nor low gallbladder ejection fraction (P = 0.2). To evaluate cholesterolosis as a cause of pancreatitis, all patients with gallstones were eliminated, leaving 639 patients. Among these, not only was cholesterolosis not associated with more pancreatitis, but rather there was not a single patient with or without cholesterolosis who had pancreatitis. Conclusions: Despite prior reports of associations between cholesterolosis and elevated serum cholesterol, depressed ejection fraction, and increased risk of pancreatitis, careful analysis of this current, larger data set does not support these associations. Any patient with stones or sludge, or with biliary dyskinesia, and appropriate symptoms, should be considered for CCY, with or without suspected cholesterolosis.
    Journal of Surgical Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.037