Frontiers in Bioscience (Front Biosci )


The journal "Frontiers in Bioscience" is a modern forum for scientific communication. Data and information that are useful to investigators in any discipline in biology and medicine including biochemistry, microbiology, parasitology, virology, immunology, biotechnology, and bioinformatics will be published after they have been peer reviewed. This will include reviews and research articles in basic science and clinical science, as well as technical notes and protocols. Other materials that have not been traditionally published as peer reviewed articles will also be considered for publication. This will include, rare images,videos and sounds, and assimilated data in the form of a database on any subject in medicine. The journal will include useful search strategies of internet and databases related to biology and medicine, links to medically relevant journals and the guidelines to authors of scientific journals and as well as information regarding manufacturers' products and links to manufacturers' homepages. Other items that will be posted are book reviews, as well as a list of conferences.

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    Frontiers in Bioscience website
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  • Material type
    Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2015; 7(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor, a regulatory cytokine, is extremely important signaling protein in the immune system. Among TNF family, TNF-alpha, TNF-beta are most the significant family members. Receptor of TNF namely TNFR1 and TNFR2 stimulates two different signaling pathways. TNFR1 signaling induces apoptosis pathway. Conversely, TNFR2 signaling triggers cell survival pathways. In this paper, we discuss about the TNF family with special reference to TNF-alpha / TNF-beta, different hypothesis related to autoimmunity and role of TNF, structure of TNF-alpha / TNF-beta, distribution and normal activity in human body of TNF, receptors and signaling pathway for drug targeting. Finally, we also discuss about the therapy for autoimmune diseases and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) using small molecules or therapeutic proteins.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Since William Morton successfully demonstrated the use of inhaled ether for surgical anesthesia in 1846, the development of new anesthetics and safe general anesthesia techniques have contributed greatly to the advancement of surgery and other invasive procedures. However, the underlying neurocellular mechanisms by which the state of general anesthesia is achieved are only just beginning to be understood. The general anesthetic state comprises multiple components (amnesia, unconsciousness, analgesia, and immobility), each of which is mediated by effects on different neurotransmitter receptors and neuronal pathways. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of action of inhaled and intravenous, and we describe the neuronal systems thought to be involved in mediating the clinically relevant actions of general anesthetics. We then describe the neurotransmitter receptors that are the principal targets of many general anesthetics, in particular ã-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subtypes.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:747-57.
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    ABSTRACT: The quality of life of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been improved because of advances in surgical and radiotherapeutic techniques as well as organ-preservation methods. Despite such progresses, survival rates are dismal because of frequent recurrences, distant metastases and the development of secondary primary tumors. Nanoparticles have distinct characteristics such as a high surface/volume ratio and surface charge and size that can be easily modified. Because of such inherent features, nanoparticles are used in imaging, adjuvant radiotherapy, and drug- or gene-delivery. Thus, nanomedicine holds great promise in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In the present review, we summarize recent advances in nanomedicine in the diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer. We first review the application of inorganic nanoparticles to photo-thermal and magneto-thermal radiotherapy. We also discuss the use of organic nanoparticles in drug- or gene-delivery during chemotherapy. We then review the application of inorganic nanoparticles as radiotherapy enhancers. Finally, we address the factors that influence the biodistribution of nanoparticles in vivo.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:783-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an integral, non-shed membrane glycoprotein that is a well-characterized and clinically validated marker of prostate cancer. The expression profile and other biological properties of PSMA make it an attractive target for antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) therapy of prostate cancer, as well as a broad range of other tumors in which PSMA is abundantly expressed within the tumor neovasculature. PSMA-targeted ADCs have been developed using auristatin and maytansinoid drugs, and each ADC has undergone extensive preclinical testing and has completed phase 1 testing in men with advanced prostate cancer. The preclinical and clinical findings have largely substantiated the promise of PSMA as an ADC target. This report summarizes the completed studies, current status, and potential future directions for ADCs that target PSMA.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:12-33.
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    ABSTRACT: H. pylori causes gastritis and increases the risk of gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. However, it was recently shown that H. pylori provides protection against inflammatory bowel diseases. To assess the molecular mechanism of such functions, we studied the role of DC-SIGN in H. pylori-infected gastrointestinal epithelial cells. DC-SIGN was found to be over-expressed in the gastric epithelial cells infected with H. pylori and mediated Th1 differentiation, which may be involved in H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal injury. In addition, DC-SIGN was also up-regulated in the intestinal epithelial cells derived from colitis mouse model, but the expression levels were blocked upon H. pylori infection, indicating that H. pylori infection may reduce both local and systemic inflammatory responses. In conclusion, we propose that gastrointestinal epithelial cells infected with H. pylori may lead to acquiring of immune properties via a trans-differentiation process, and regulate tissue-associated immune compartments under the control of DC-SIGN.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:825-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant gliomas, the most common type of primary brain tumor, account for 80% of malignant tumors in the central nervous system (CNS). There are three principal types of glioma: astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) have been found in all types; however, many fundamental questions about GSCs remain unanswered. This review will examine the current state of knowledge regarding GSC origin and the signaling pathways implicated in GSC tumorigenesis. The outstanding challenges for the study of GSCs in the context of glioma progression will also be discussed.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:818-24.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a modified miRsearch program was developed in C++ for the detection of miRNAs. All the mature miRNA sequences of Caenorhabditis elegans, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis remanei, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens and Rattus norvegicus available in miRbase was searched by this program for homologous sequences with a maximum of 3-mismatches in the chromosomes of C. elegans excluding the miRNAs of C. elegans. The same strategy was repeated for C. briggsae excluding C. briggsae miRNAs. The probable pre-miRNA sequences with stem loop secondary structures were assessed by implementation of longest-common-subsequence (LCS) algorithm with appropriate scoring system. As miRNA genes could be on either strand, each sequence was searched in both forward and reverse strands. The putative miRNAs were viewed through Mapviewer to identify their intronic or intergenic location in C. elegans and C. briggsae genomes. Further, the quality of stem-loop formation of the remaining pre-miRNA sequences was assessed through RNAFOLD. This algorithm will be helpful in detection of potential miRNAs in future sequencing data, making this an invaluable tool for miRNA prediction.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:504-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a potentially fatal illness caused by infection with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1) contains a T-cell epitope with specificity for human V-beta-2. Binding of TSST-1 to the human major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptors activates T cells and triggers the secretion of high amounts of inflammatory cytokines, leading to TSS and potentially death. During this process, CD4⁺ T cells are inhibited by TSST-1, while regulatory T cells are increased. This suggests a protective immune response by the body in TSS. Thus, TSST-1 can trigger both, an inflammatory response that attacks the body and a protective response. In this review, we discuss the interaction between TSST-1 and T lymphocytes in TSS.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:571-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are the dynamic regulators of genomic integrity. Inherited mutations in these genes are associated with the development of cancer in multiple organs including the breast and ovary. Mutations of BRCA1/2 genes greatly increase lifetime risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer and these mutations are frequently observed in hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. In addition, misregulation and altered expressions of BRCA1/2 proteins potentiate sporadic forms of breast cancer. In particular, both genes contribute to DNA repair and transcriptional regulation in response to DNA damage. Thus, deficiencies of BRCA1/2 functions lead to the accumulation of genetic alterations and ultimately influence the development of cancer. Studies since identification of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 have provided strong evidences for their tumor suppressor activities specifically for breast and ovarian cancer and this article aims to review the current state of knowledge regarding the BRCAs and associated cancer risk.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:605-18.
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    ABSTRACT: Insufficient drug safety is one of the major reasons for failure of drug candidates in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials. Determining toxicity early during the drug discovery process can help lower the attrition rate in clinical trials and lead to significant cost savings. In silico approaches can help to prioritize large numbers of compounds quickly and cost effectively in the early phase of drug discovery. One form of toxicity is genotoxicity due to mutagenicity. In this paper different in silico approaches for predicting mutagenicity, in particular in primary aromatic amines, are reviewed.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:649-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common tumor in aging men, and is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Treatment options include watchful waiting, life-style modification, pharmacologic treatment, and surgery. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers (α-blockers) decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH. 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) decrease the production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate, which results in decreased prostate volume. For patients with moderate to severe symptoms and a large prostate, combination therapy with α-blockers and 5-ARIs can further improve clinical efficacy of treatment. Numerous plant-based products (phytomedicines) are increasingly used as an alternative or complement the conventional medication. For some patients, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) or antimuscarinic agents may be added. Here, we discuss the current pharmacotherapy of BPH.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:789-97.
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    ABSTRACT: Progranulin (PGRN) is a growth factor that has been implicated in wound healing, inflammation, infection, tumorigenesis, and is most known for its neuroprotective and proliferative properties in neurodegenerative disease. This pleiotropic growth factor has been found to be a key player and regulator of a diverse spectrum of multi-systemic functions. Its critical anti-inflammatory role in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disease models has allowed for the propulsion of research to establish its significance in musculoskeletal diseases, including inflammatory conditions involving bone and cartilage pathology. In this review, we aim to elaborate on the emerging role of PGRN in the musculoskeletal system, reviewing its particular mechanisms described in various musculoskeletal diseases, with special focus on osteoarthritis and inflammatory joint disease patho-mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications of PGRN and its derivatives in these and other musculoskeletal diseases.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2014; 19:662-71.