CNS spectrums (CNS SPECTRUMS)

Publisher: International Neuropsychiatric Assoc, Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Journal description

CNS Spectrums is a monthly Index Medicus/MEDLINE journal designed to bridge the clinical information needs of 48,000 psychiatrists and neurologists. Introduced in 1996, CNS Spectrums reaches more physicians than any other peer-reviewed neuropsychiatric journal in the world. CNS Spectrums' editorial mission is to address relevant neuropsychiatric topics, including the prevalence of comorbid diseases among patients, and original research and reports that emphasize the profound diagnostic and physiologic connections made within the neurologic and psychiatric fields. The journal's goal is to serve as a resource to psychiatrists and neurologists seeking to understand and treat disturbances of cognition, emotion, and behavior as a direct consequence of central nervous system disease, illness, or trauma.

Current impact factor: 1.30

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.304
2012 Impact Factor 1.727
2011 Impact Factor 2.197
2010 Impact Factor 2.667
2009 Impact Factor 2.197
2008 Impact Factor 1.974
2007 Impact Factor 2.222
2006 Impact Factor 2.051
2005 Impact Factor 2.037

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.39
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.13
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.71
Website CNS Spectrums website
Other titles CNS spectrums, International journal of neuropsychiatric medicine
ISSN 1092-8529
OCLC 36426249
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press (CUP)

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's Pre-print on author's personal website, departmental website, social media websites, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published abstract may be deposited
    • Pre-print to record acceptance for publication
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement, for deposit of Authors Post-print or Publisher's version/PDF
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Cambridge University Press (CUP)'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Currently, little neuropsychological data exist on this condition, though emerging evidence does suggest that disorders marked by compulsivity, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), are associated with impairment in cognitive flexibility and executive planning on neurocognitive tasks. Aim The current study investigated the neurocognitive profile in a nonclinical community-based sample of people fulfilling diagnostic criteria for OCPD in the absence of major psychiatric comorbidity. Twenty-one nonclinical subjects who fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for OCPD were compared with 15 healthy controls on selected clinical and neurocognitive tasks. OCPD was measured using the Compulsive Personality Assessment Scale (CPAS). Participants completed tests from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery including tests of set shifting (Intra-Extra Dimensional [IED] Set Shifting) executive planning (Stockings of Cambridge [SOC]), and decision making (Cambridge Gamble Task [CGT]). The OCPD group made significantly more IED-ED shift errors and total shift errors, and also showed longer mean initial thinking time on the SOC at moderate levels of difficulty. No differences emerged on the CGT. Nonclinical cases of OCPD showed significant cognitive inflexibility coupled with executive planning deficits, whereas decision-making remained intact. This profile of impairment overlaps with that of OCD and implies that common neuropsychological changes affect individuals with these disorders.
    CNS spectrums 03/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000662
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    ABSTRACT: Physical violence is a frequent occurrence in acute community psychiatry units worldwide. Violent acts by patients cause many direct injuries and significantly degrade quality of care. The most accurate tools for predicting near-term violence on acute units rely on current clinical features rather than demographic risk factors. The efficacy of risk assessment strategies to lower incidence of violence on acute units is unknown. A range of behavioral and psychopharmacologic treatments have been shown to reduce violence among psychiatric inpatients.
    CNS spectrums 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000820
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.
    CNS spectrums 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000625
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    ABSTRACT: Responding to the California Supreme Court's decision and its related legal obligations in Tarasoff v. Regents of Univ. of California over 30 years ago has become a standard part of mental health practice. This case influenced legal requirements governing therapists' duty to protect third parties in nearly every state in the country. The final ruling in Tarasoff emphasized that therapists have a duty to protect individuals who are being threatened with bodily harm by their patients. This article will provide a brief overview and update on duty to protect legal requirements. Clinical guidelines for addressing threats and the duty to protect will be discussed, along with risk management approaches. The article will conclude with a sample vignette illustrating these principles.
    CNS spectrums 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000728
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    ABSTRACT: Objective/Introduction High levels of comorbidity between separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) and panic disorder (PD) have been found in clinical settings. In addition, there is some evidence for a relationship involving bipolar disorder (BD) and combined PD and SEPAD. We aim to investigate the prevalence and correlates of SEPAD among patients with PD and whether the presence of SEPAD is associated with frank diagnoses of mood disorders or with mood spectrum symptoms. Adult outpatients (235) with PD were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS), and the Mood Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (MOODS-SR, lifetime version). Of ther 235 subjects, 125 (53.2%) were categorized as having SEPAD and 110 (46.8%) as not. Groups did not differ regarding onset of PD, lifetime prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, simple phobia, BD I and II, or major depressive disorder (MDD). SEPAD subjects were more likely to be female and younger; they showed higher rates of childhood SEPAD, higher PDSS scores, and higher MOODS-SR total and manic component scores than subjects without SEPAD. Discussion SEPAD is highly prevalent among PD subjects. Patients with both PD and SEPAD show higher lifetime mood spectrum symptoms than patients with PD alone. Specifically, SEPAD is correlated with the manic/hypomanic spectrum component. Our data confirm the high prevalence of SEPAD in clinical settings. Moreover, our findings corroborate a relationship between mood disorders and SEPAD, highlighting a relationship between lifetime mood spectrum symptoms and SEPAD.
    CNS spectrums 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000807
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    ABSTRACT: Psychopathic individuals account for substantial predatory and impulsive violence. To the present, the principal intervention used to decrease the harm inflicted by psychopaths has been confinement. Nevertheless, most confined psychopathic persons return to the community. Recent advances in the understanding of the neurobiology of psychopathy hold promise for new research directions and more effective treatments. In this article, we will explore recent advances in genetics, electrophysiology, brain imaging, and psychopharmacology, as well as, in brief, their implications for new directions in research and treatment.
    CNS spectrums 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000741
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    ABSTRACT: Mood disorders are increasing in childhood, and often require multimodal and comprehensive treatment plans to address a complex array of symptoms and associated morbidities. Pharmacotherapy, in combination with psychotherapeutic interventions, is essential for treatment and stabilization. Current evidence supports the use of a number of interventions in children and adolescents diagnosed with DSM-5 mood spectrum disorders, which are associated with impairments in prefrontal-striatal-limbic networks, which are key for emotional functioning and regulation. Yet, little is known about the neurobiological effects of interventions on the developing brain. This chapter provides a synopsis of the literature demonstrating the neural effects of psychotropic medications and psychotherapy in youth with depressive or bipolar spectrum disorders. Additional longitudinal and biological studies are warranted to characterize the effects of these interventions on all phases and stages of mood illness development in children and adolescents.
    CNS spectrums 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000819
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of depression and antidepressant medication use during pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia. We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study that linked automated clinical and pharmacy databases including comprehensive electronic medical records of 21,589 pregnant Kaiser Permanente Northern California members between 2010 and 2012. The overall risk of preeclampsia was 4.5%. The timing of antidepressant medication exposure was an important factor. A significant increase in the risk of preeclampsia emerged for women with a depression diagnosis who took antidepressant medications during the second trimester compared to women with untreated depression (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.39) and to women without depression (aRR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.23). Similar associations existed for women who took antidepressant medications, but without depression. In contrast, depressed women with psychotherapy showed no increased risk of preeclampsia compared to women with untreated depression or no depression. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the duration of antidepressant medication use and preeclampsia. The observed association appeared stronger for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use, although a nonsignificant trend was also noted for use of norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Study findings suggest that antidepressant use during pregnancy may increase the risk of preeclampsia, especially use during the second trimester.
    CNS spectrums 02/2015; 20(1):39-47. DOI:10.1017/S1092852915000024
  • CNS spectrums 02/2015; 20(1):9-10. DOI:10.1017/S1092852915000085
  • CNS spectrums 01/2015;
  • CNS spectrums 01/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000753
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to provide information on the effect of prenatal depression and anxiety as assessed in the context of obstetrical care on key infant outcomes (gestational age at birth, birth weight, and APGAR scores), while simultaneously considering interactions with maternal medical conditions among primarily Medicaid enrollees. Obstetrical medical records of 419 women presenting consecutively for prenatal care at a health system serving primarily Medicaid patients were examined. Information on maternal characteristics (age, race, education) and maternal medical health (BMI, high blood pressure, diabetes, and kidney problems), as well as mental health information, was extracted. Depression was assessed as part of routine care using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and any documentation of depression or anxiety by the obstetrics clinician was also used in the analyses. Approximately one-third of the sample showed some evidence of prenatal depression, either based on PHQ-9 score (≥10) or clinician documentation of depression, and close to 10% showed evidence of anxiety. Multivariate analyses showed significant interactions between depression and anxiety on gestational age and birth weight, between depression and high blood pressure on gestational age, and also between anxiety and kidney problems on gestational age. Among this sample, the effect of maternal depression and anxiety on birth outcomes was more evident when considered along with maternal chronic medical conditions. This information may be used to assist prenatal care clinicians to develop risk assessment based on knowledge of multiple risk factors that may exert and additive influence on poor birth outcomes.
    CNS spectrums 12/2014; 20(01):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000716
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment resistance, along with its sibling partial response, remains a common phenomenon in schizophrenia, complicating the disability burden inherent in the disease. Antipsychotic medications are the mainstay of treatment, and treatment resistance has mainly been defined in terms of poor response to antipsychotic medication. At the same time, clozapine, the most effective antipsychotic, remains underutilized at the expense of exposing patients to polypharmacy. We review known causes of disability in schizophrenia, how they impact various areas of everyday functioning, and discuss potential treatment options including but not limited to pharmacological approaches aimed at maximizing treatment response and reducing treatment resistance.
    CNS spectrums 11/2014; 19:1-12. DOI:10.1017/S1092852914000571
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    ABSTRACT: A major challenge in the treatment of major depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder is differentiating this illness from major depressive episodes associated with major depressive disorder. Mistaking the former for the latter will lead to incorrect treatment and poor outcomes. None of the classic antidepressants, serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors, or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have ever received regulatory approval as monotherapies for the treatment of bipolar depression. At present, there are only 3 approved medication treatments for bipolar depression: olanzapine/fluoxetine combination, quetiapine (immediate or extended release), and lurasidone (monotherapy or adjunctive to lithium or valproate). All 3 have similar efficacy profiles, but they differ in terms of tolerability. Number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) can be used to quantify these similarities and differences. The NNTs for response and remission for each of these interventions vs placebo range from 4 to 7, and 5 to 7, respectively, with overlap in terms of their 95% confidence intervals. NNH values less than 10 (vs placebo) were observed for the spontaneously reported adverse events of weight gain and diarrhea for olanzapine/fluoxetine combination (7 and 9, respectively) and somnolence and dry mouth for quetiapine (3 and 4, respectively). There were no NNH values less than 10 (vs placebo) observed with lurasidone treatment. NNH values vs placebo for weight gain of at least 7% from baseline were 6, 16, 58, and 36, for olanzapine/fluoxetine combination, quetiapine, lurasidone monotherapy, and lurasidone combined with lithium or valproate, respectively. Individualizing treatment decisions will require consideration of the different potential adverse events that are more likely to occur with each medication. The metric of the likelihood to be helped or harmed (LHH) is the ratio of NNH to NNT and can illustrate the tradeoffs inherent in selecting medications. A more favorable LHH was noted for treatment with lurasidone. However, OFC and quetiapine monotherapy may still have utility in high urgency situations, particularly in persons who have demonstrated good outcomes with these interventions in the past, and where a pressing clinical need for efficacy mitigates their potential tolerability shortcomings. In terms of maintenance therapy, adjunctive quetiapine is the only agent where the NNT vs lithium or valproate alone is less than 10 for both the prevention of mania and the prevention of depression.
    CNS spectrums 11/2014; 19:1-12. DOI:10.1017/S109285291400056X