Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis (Ther Apher )

Publisher: International Society for Apheresis; Nihon Afereshisu Gakkai, Blackwell Publishing


Official Journal of the International Society for Apheresis and the Japanese Society for Apheresis. The value of apheresis treatment has been recognized in many fields of medicine. For this treatment to continue developing, it is imperative that doctors expand their knowledge of medicine, biology, biophysics, and engineering to refine their tools and techniques. Published quarterly, Therapeutic Apheresis is the primary source for the most up-to-date apheresis technologies and their clinical applications.

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    Therapeutic apheresis (Online), Therapeutic apheresis, Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis, Ther Apher Dial
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Publications in this journal

  • Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to examine the time-course of iodine elimination by hemodialysis to determine a desirable duration for dialysis after angiography to prevent contrast media nephropathy (CMN) in patients with renal failure. Reduction rates of iodine by hemodialysis (DRR) of 1 to 3 h and the renal elimination of iodine (RER) for 20 h after hemodialysis were prospectively examined in 8 chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. The mean DRR was 46.6% at 1 h, 65.2% at 2 h, and 75.1% at 3 h, and the mean RER was 49.4% in the CRF patients. Renal function significantly deteriorated in 2 CRF patients after angiography. Plasma iodine was eliminated by more than 80% after 2 h of hemodialysis following angiography, and the subsequent renal elimination in patients with mild-to-moderate renal failure was also examined. There is no need of prophylactic hemodialysis to prevent CMN for these patients when they have no additional risk factors such as a high dose of contrast medium, diabetes mellitus, or severe heart failure. However, 2 h of hemodialysis is desirable immediately after angiography for patients with moderate renal failure and one additional risk factor, and three hours or more of hemodialysis is also desirable for patients with severe renal failure, and for those with moderate renal failure having two or more additional risk factors.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):437-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD; arteriosclerosis obliterans) shows ischemic symptoms along the peripheral arteries due to reduced blood flow, and the number of patients with PAD is increasing. Several papers have reported on the clinical effect of low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-A) on PAD, but there has been no report so far on the improvement of total peripheral artery stenosis by LDL-A. We report on the clinical course of a female PAD patient with intractable decubitus in her heel due to the complete occlusion of anterior tibial artery who was treated by a series of LDL-A sessions. The complete occlusion of the anterior tibial artery improved as seen on angiography, and the decubitus in her heel also markedly improved after LDL-A therapy. This report supports the clinical benefit of LDL-A for the treatment of PAD.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):467-70.
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of plasma exchange (PE) with continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) in the treatment of critically ill patients was evaluated based on changes in cytokine levels. Twenty-six patients with acute hepatic failure were treated with PE (PE group) or PE and CHDF (PE+CHDF group), and the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 were determined before and after treatment. Bilirubin levels were significantly lower after treatment in both the PE and PE+CHDF groups. There were no significant differences in TNF-alpha levels before and after treatment in the PE group, but the TNF-alpha level was significantly lower after treatment in the PE+CHDF group. There were no significant differences in the IL-6 levels before and after treatment in both the PE and PE+CHDF groups. There were no significant differences in IL-8 levels before and after treatment in the PE group, but the IL-8 level was significantly lower after treatment in the PE+CHDF group. PE with CHDF therapy was given to 5 patients with acutely aggravated autoimmune diseases, 2 patients with hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome, and 3 patients with thrombotic microangiopathy. The results suggested that PE with CHDF therapy are useful in critically ill patients with suspected hypercytokinemia.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):419-24.
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    ABSTRACT: Apheresis has been effective as rescue therapy in patients with severe, therapy-resistant, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Its benefit in patients with less severe but therapy-resistant SLE is not known. Dextran sulfate apheresis was applied as a rescue therapy for therapy-resistant vasculitic skin lesions in a 30 year old female patient with a 9 year history of SLE in combination with antiphospholipid syndrome and Raynaud's phenomenon. Partial remission was achieved after 9 immunoadsorption sessions, as documented by marked improvement of skin lesions and an increase of capillary density in the nailfold area. Further improvement was noted with maintenance therapy using mycophenolate mofetil. Dextran sulfate apheresis can be applied safely in patients with moderate therapy-resistant SLE disease activity when severe immunodeficiency and cytotoxic adverse effects should be avoided.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):471-7.
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    ABSTRACT: A patient with acute hepatic insufficiency induced by a drug presented to our institution, and we performed a novel plasmapheresis that we call plasma dia-filtration (PDF). The patient was a 36 year old woman. She underwent 11 sessions of PDF for a duration of about 9 h for each procedure using the Evacure EC-2A filter together with 20 units of fresh frozen plasma and dialysate simultaneously. Serum levels of total bilirubin and prothrombin time were significantly improved after she underwent each procedure. However, after the third procedure the levels returned to the same level as on the previous day. Encephalopathy improved after the first procedure, and this improvement was maintained until the ninth procedure. The patient prepared to undergo liver transplantation after the tenth procedure because of the development of hepatic coma, but she died of respiratory insufficiency before undergoing the procedure. Accordingly in this case, PDF worked to maintain liver function in acute liver failure and may act as bridge therapy until the patient can undergo liver transplantation.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):463-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation is a fundamental treatment for patients with end-stage hepatic failure. In order to perform living-donor liver transplantations under safer conditions, apheresis plays a major role in Japan due to the prevalence of living-donor liver transplantation wherein later retransplantation is difficult. In our department, the roles of apheresis in liver transplantation are as follows: as bridge therapy to liver transplantation (n = 45); as a supplement to the graft liver until the recovery of hepatic function (n = 77); as treatment for multiple organ failure including posttransplantation renal failure (n = 15); and as a means with which to reduce antibody titers for antibodies such as anti-A or anti-B in persons with ABO blood type = incompatible liver transplantation (n = 23). In our department, we have performed 822 liver transplantations at present. Of those cases, 183 were selected wherein apheresis was performed around the time of the operation. In all cases, transplantation with sufficient apheresis was performed before the surgical operation, however, 22 patients (48.9%) died after undergoing surgery. Among the patients who underwent the postoperative apheresis, those in the nonsurvivor group had lower grafted liver weights compared to those of the survivor group. The kidney was the organ that most frequently failed due to postoperative complications. In cases of ABO blood type-incompatible liver transplantations, patients with high preoperative anti-A/B IgM antibody titers sustained bile duct complications, patients with high preoperative anti-IgG antibody titers sustained hepatic necrosis, and patients with high postoperative anti-A/B IgM and anti-IgG antibody titers sustained hepatic necrosis most frequently.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):478-83.
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocytapheresis (LCP) for the treatment of patients with diseases that involve an abnormal autoimmune reaction aims to improve the condition of the patient's pathology and to correct imbalances in immunological regulation mechanisms by removing the responsible leukocytes from the peripheral blood. To clarify the mechanism of therapeutic effect, LCP was conducted in healthy volunteers to investigate changes in peripheral blood leukocyte and platelet counts over time during the treatment. The subjects were 10 healthy male volunteers. LCP was performed once in each volunteer for 3,000 ml of blood volume. The peripheral blood counts decreased significantly, reaching a minimum of 20.0% of the baseline number of leukocytes, 10.1% of the baseline number of neutrophils, and 40.3% of the baseline number of lymphocytes. The number of removed leukocytes was about 6.6 x 10(9) cells, including about 3.5 x 10(9) neutrophils, as well as about 5.0 x 10(11) platelets. After the completion of LCP, the peripheral leukocyte levels increased transiently (overshoot), and at 2 h after the completion of the treatment, they reached 193.4% of the baseline value. Since LCP is capable of reducing the peripheral blood leukocyte count over a short period of time, its impact on peripheral blood is great. In addition, in view of the overshoot phenomenon and the appearance of immature granulocytes, the LCP may affect not only the peripheral blood, but also the bone marrow pool, the marginal pool, and the leukocytes present in the tissues.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):402-12.
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    ABSTRACT: To minimize the adverse effects of high-dose administration of steroids and cyclophosphamide in patients with myeloperoxidase (MPO) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), granulocytapheresis (GCAP) or leukocytapheresis (LCAP) was performed to reduce inflammation. Four patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and one patient with pulmonary hemorrhage due to MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis were treated by cytapheresis. The prednisolone (PSL) dose was 0.28 +/- 0.15 mg/kg/day (mean +/- SD) (range 0.18-0.50 g/kg/day). In the 4 RPGN patients, the peak serum creatinine level was 3.7 +/- 1.9 mg/dl (range 1.7 to 5.6 mg/dl). GCAP was performed in 3 RPGN patients and in 1 pulmonary hemorrhage patient. LCAP was performed in 1 RPGN patient. In the 4 RPGN patients, renal function improved after combined therapy with cytapheresis and corticosteroids. In the pulmonary hemorrhage patient, evidence of pulmonary hemorrhage on chest computed tomography scanning diminished after combined therapy with cytapheresis and corticosteroids. Cytapheresis, when combined with a low-dose or intermediate-dose PSL regimen, is effective in the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):443-9.
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    ABSTRACT: As a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation, the use of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) has become routine and comparable to that of the use of bone marrow. Recently, elderly patients with hematological malignancies also have been allowed to receive minitransplantations with nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens under sufficient PBSC infusion. As a result of these minitransplantations, elderly donors have been chosen increasingly from the siblings of elderly patients. We analyzed factors influencing the condition of CD34+ cells in the first days of collection in 49 healthy donors from July 1995 to January 2001. The median dose of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was 8 microg/kg/day (range 8 - 10) over 3 days. The target number of CD34+ cells used in this study was > or = 3 x 10(6) cells/kg of recipient body weight. The median apheresis volume was 12 L. Except for one 60 year old man, we obtained an adequate number of stem cells. In the regression analysis, a negative correlation was seen between donor age and the number of CD34+ cells/kg of recipient body weight per 12 L volume (Y = aX + b; a = -0.07507; b = 6.629996; r = -0.50985; p = 0.000252). Significantly higher apheresis results were obtained in donors younger than 45 years compared with donors 45 years old and older (p < 0.0227). There were no correlations among the number of CD34+ cells, donor body weight, and the number of leukocytes in peripheral blood on the first day of apheresis.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):413-8.
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    ABSTRACT: We report two cases of hypertriglyceridemic necrotizing pancreatitis treated by plasma exchange (PE). The outcome of each case was quite different according to the timing of PE. A 36 year old man presented with abdominal pain, and a diagnosis of severe acute pancreatitis was made. His serum triglyceride (TG) level was 6,460 mg/dl. He did not undergo PE at first, however, his condition never improved and PE was performed 20 days after the onset of his illness. Finally, he died of multiple organ failure and sepsis. In contrast, a 52 year old man with acute necrotizing pancreatitis was referred to our department. He received PE quickly after hospital admission. His serum TG level, which was 3,540 mg/dl at hospital admission, dramatically returned to normal limits, and he was discharged from the hospital 62 days after admission. The prognosis of severe necrotizing pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia is extremely poor. PE should be applied for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemic necrotizing pancreatitis immediately after its onset.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):454-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment for Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is controversial, and even the natural history and prognosis are not fully understood. We retrospectively reviewed our cases of MFS for the last 3 years. The analysis of 4 MFS cases revealed that we had performed plasmapheresis or additional immunotherapy to each of 4 patients, and their symptoms resolved for up to 50 days after the onset (ataxia improved 20-35 days and ophthalmoplegia for 25-50 days) except for 1 patient, and that Guillain-Barré syndrome had been diagnosed in 1 patient who had developed profound muscle weakness. We also discovered that MFS patients had a deviated T-helper Type-1 (Th1)/T-helper Type-2 (Th2) polarization and that plasmapheresis can shift Th2-dominant status to Th1-dominant status in patients with MFS. Although plasmapheresis may remove humoral factors, including anti-GQ1b, and may induce a shift of the Th1/Th2 cytokine-producing cell balance in peripheral blood, the therapeutic rationale has not yet been established. Therefore, controlled clinical trials are required to show whether plasmapheresis leads to earlier recovery with fewer neurologic deficits in patients with MFS.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):450-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Our report discusses a 29 year old female patient with nephrotic syndrome due to lupus nephritis, biopsy-proven World Health Organization classification Types IVb and V that was controlled with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis. She was initially treated with steroid therapy, including methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and the serological activity of her systemic lupus erythematosus was suppressed. However, her nephrotic state, accompanied by severe hyperlipidemia, persisted despite the steroid therapy. Since we could not obtain her consent to administer immunosuppressants such as cyclophosphamide, we tried to treat her using LDL apheresis (LDL-A). We found that her urine protein excretion, hyperlipidemia, hypoalbuminemia, and renal function improved following the initiation of LDL-A. This suggests that LDL-A may be an effective therapy for nephrotic syndrome due to lupus nephritis through short-term amelioration of hyperlipidemia.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):459-62.
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    ABSTRACT: To obtain a better (optimal) schedule of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection by steady-state granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administrations for autologous or allogeneic transplantations, we compared the effect of doses of filgrastim (8 microg/kg/day versus 16 microg/kg/day) for the steady-state mobilization of PBSCs. The effects of a filgrastim dose of 8 microg/kg/day were not significantly different from those of a dose of 16 microg/kg/day. In the group of patients receiving 8 microg/kg/day, the CD34+ cells over 3 x 10(6)/kg donor body weight were harvested in 3 patients who did not have a long history of receiving combination chemotherapy. The administration of 8 microg/kg filgrastim was adopted also for allogeneic PBSC mobilization for 24 healthy donors. All healthy donors donated an adequate number of PBSCs (CD34+ cells over 4 x 10(6)/kg of recipient body weight) and tolerated this mobilization well with no serious complications. In PBSC mobilization with healthy donors, the maximal yields of CD34+ cells from Day 4 to Day 6 were seen on the fifth day in most cases.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):431-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the accumulation of nonenzymatically derived glycosylation products on proteins. Such glycosylation products, especially glycosylated low-density lipoprotein (glc-LDL), have been increasingly recognized as factors in the pathogeneses of diabetic complications. A new adsorbent was developed for the selective removal of glc-LDL from plasma. The adsorbent has dual ligands in order to improve the specific binding affinity for glc-LDL that consisted of boronic acid moiety for the glycosylated site and acrylic acid (AA) moiety for the apolipoprotein B of LDL. The adsorbent was synthesized by copolymerization of 4-vinyl phenyl boronic acid and AA. Five kinds of copolymers having different compositions were prepared and evaluated in terms of glc-LDL in vitro adsorption in human plasma. The adsorption behaviors were different depending on the polymer composition. The adsorbent having the AA composition from 50% to 90% showed very high selectivity for glc-LDL adsorption. The capability of selective adsorption was not impaired in human plasma. These results suggested that the adsorbent would be a promising material for glc-LDL apheresis.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):425-30.
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    ABSTRACT: New recommendations for the indication of treatment with selective extracorporeal plasma therapy low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-apheresis) in the prevention of coronary heart disease are urgently needed. The following points are the first results of the ongoing discussion process for indications for LDL-apheresis in Germany: all patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia with functional or genetically determined lack or dysfunction of LDL receptors and plasma LDL cholesterol levels >13.0 mmol/L (>500 mg/dL); patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) documented by clinical symptoms and imaging procedures in which over a period of at least 3 months the plasma LDL cholesterol levels cannot be lowered below 3.3 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) by a generally accepted, maximal drug-induced and documented therapy in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet; and patients with progression of their CHD documented by clinical symptoms and imaging procedures and repeated plasma Lp(a) levels >60 mg/dL, even if the plasma LDL cholesterol levels are lower than 3.3 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). Respective goals for LDL cholesterol concentrations for high-risk patients have been recently defined by various international societies. To safely put into practice the recommendations for LDL-apheresis previously mentioned, standardized treatment guidelines for LDL-apheresis need to be established in Germany that should be supervised by an appropriate registry.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 11/2002; 6(5):381-3.
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution of leukocytes is regulated by the autonomic nervous system in humans and animals. The number and function of granulocytes are stimulated by sympathetic nerves whereas those of lymphocytes are stimulated by parasympathetic nerves. This is because granulocytes bear adrenergic receptors, but lymphocytes bear cholinergic receptors on the surface. These regulations may be beneficial to protect the body of living beings. However, when the autonomic nervous system deviates too much to one direction, we fall victim to certain diseases. For example, severe physical or mental stress --> sympathetic nerve activation --> granulocytosis --> tissue damage, including collagen diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cancer. If we introduce the concept of immunomodulation by the autonomic nervous system, a new approach for collagen diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even cancer is raised. With this approach, we believe that these diseases are no longer incurable.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 11/2002; 6(5):348-57.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe results from a feasibility study of a newly developed low-density lipoprotein (LDL) adsorbent designed for use in whole-blood infusion LDL-hemoperfusion. The adsorbent has almost the same chemical structure as the Liposorber adsorbent (dextran sulfate cellulose beads) but has a larger particle size. In whole-blood perfusion tests, the adsorbent adsorbed atherogenic LDL cholesterol directly from whole blood but left concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol largely unchanged. In whole-blood perfusion tests using fresh human donor blood or bovine blood anticoagulated with acid citrate dextrose solution or sodium citrate, the adsorbent showed minimal side effects in terms of blood cell activation, complement activation, and blood cell loss, suggesting that it has excellent blood compatibility. In addition, the adsorbent showed mechanical stability and absence of hemolysis. In conclusion, the new adsorbent showed the appropriate characteristics for an LDL adsorbent column for use in whole-blood infusion LDL-hemoperfusion.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 11/2002; 6(5):365-71.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first experiences with HELP apheresis as an emergency treatment for acute cardiovascular syndromes; two patients who were not eligible for lysis therapy and catheter intervention were treated with HELP apheresis instead. Both patients had a most severe, generalized atherosclerosis and reached the hospital too late for conventional measures. In both cases, the use of the apheresis dramatically improved the clinical situation to such an extent that the possibilities of this apheresis system urge further investigation.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 11/2002; 6(5):394-8.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been clearly shown that autoimmune diseases can be treated by apheresis by eliminating immune complexes, however, the effects of therapeutic apheresis are not limited to immune disorders. Almost all diseases are associated with immune systems. Immune systems can be regulated by advanced techniques of apheresis, including immunoadsorption and immunocytapheresis, removing immune effector molecules and various immune-associated cells selectively. Therefore, apheresis can be used as a nondrug treatment for many diseases. In addition, disease-associated proteins that cause disease or are produced in the course of diseases and accumulate in the body could be eliminated selectively by apheresis using the extremely powerful ability of the immune system to recognize polypeptide structures specifically and distinguish miniscale differences among molecules. In this article, we discuss the current status of treatment of immune diseases by apheresis and possible treatment approach of a variety of diseases by apheresis based on immune reactions.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 11/2002; 6(5):358-64.