Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference

Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

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ISSN 1091-5281

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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Voltage multiplication is often needed to perform accurate measurement of both DC and AC voltages or in the energy accumulation section of transducers used for energy harvesting. Traditional voltage multipliers, are usually composed of capacitors, inductors, diodes and switches. This approach implies the adoption of active elements (i.e. transistors, MOS, etc.) and a supply voltage is required in order to guarantee the desired effects. However disadvantages in terms of power consumption are expected that can affect the total power budget in low power systems and energy harvesting devices. We consider here transduction systems embedded into an environment where vibrations are present that can be used as energy source. A novel transduction strategy is proposed here to realize vibration driven DC-DC voltage multipliers transducers; our strategy uses mechanical switches, driven by environmental vibrations, and capacitors but not diodes. Implementation of the working principle into a real device will be discussed with analytical models and numerical simulations. Furthermore, an experimental prototype is presented together with some preliminary experimental results that validate the ideas discussed in this papers.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:1779-1782. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151550
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss calibration issues in wideband (2-20 GHz) surface impedance measurements in a cryogenic and high-magnetic-field environment. We show that, in the case of measurements taken on superconducting thin films, the substantial impossibility of a full, three-standard calibration can be partially overcome by exploiting appropriate approximations and the basic properties of superconductors. We discuss a modification of the so-called 'short-only' calibration, in order to increase the accuracy of the measurements. We check experimentally the applicability of the approximations at the ground of the method, and we report sample measurements of the surface impedance of a MgB2 superconducting film.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:358-363. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151294
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    ABSTRACT: In chemical engineering the monitoring of chemical reactions as well as the qualitative and quantitative determination of reactants and resulting products is generally performed by online analysis systems. The realization of a suitable sampling procedure and a subsequent supply of the sample into the analyzer are the most important tasks. A real-time reaction monitoring with a high selectivity is charaterized by an existing time difference and sample disruption between the sampling and the analysis process. Therefore, the development of effective coupling systems to sensitive analyzers is an important task. Furthermore, a suitable software for controlling the reaction system and the sample introduction for subsequent measurements is necessary. In this study, a mobile online reaction monitoring system was developed using tempered continuous flow microreactors which are directly coupled to a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS), which enables the determination of the amount of chemical precursors, the resulting reaction products and internal standard substances at any stage of the reaction. This facilitates a detailed insight into the reaction kinetic, for example the transformation of a pre-catalyst into its active species, the product/educt ratio or the appearance of transient intermediates. The monitoring system presented enables sampling without discontinuing the process, fast analysis and online optimization of chemical processes.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:1561-1566. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151511
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    ABSTRACT: Low power quality may cause serious problems in industrial, corporative and residential electrical networks. Among the most common problems one can mention the reduction of equipment lifetime, false activation of protection devices and electrical and thermal losses increase. Considering this, it is very important to monitor the power quality of a given facility. This paper describes the architecture of custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for power quality measurement. The digital signal processing measurements are based on IEC standards (61000-4-30, 61000-4-7, and 61000-4-15 class-A). The proposed Integrated Circuit (IC) supports poly-phase measuring for 7 channels with high precision estimation of parameters such as RMS value, crest factor, harmonics, interharmonics, total harmonics distortion, angle, unbalance, active power, apparent power, and instantaneous frequency. There is also a Real Time Clock (RTC) that enables system synchronization, predicted in the standards to perform phasor measurement. The main focus of this paper is describing the digital signal processing blocks of the proposed IC. The designed ASIC was produced using TowerJazz 180nm CMOS technology. Multiple clocks are used to reduce area (by optimizing single port memories), enable faster external communication, and reduce power consumption.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:393-398. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151300
  • S. Sun · Z. Cao · L. Xu ·
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    ABSTRACT: In the paper, a noncontact conductivity detection method based on the eddy current sensors is designed and analyzed. The sensors consist of an excitation coil and a sensing coil. A finite element (FM) model of the two coaxial coils is established for numerical simulation. Numerical analysis and finite element simulations are employed to analyze the relationship between the conductivity of the measured object and the amplitude and phase of the voltage on the sensing coil. Then the excitation frequency and the spacing between the two coils are optimized. The phase of the voltage on the sensing coil is found to be proportional to the conductivity of the measured object. Experiments are carried out and the results show that the proposed method is feasible for conductivity detection.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:1372-1376. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151474
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    ABSTRACT: In machine vision applications, Time-of-Flight (TOF) sensors like the Photonic Mixer Devices (PMD) became considerable alternatives to common 3D sensing devices. Because of the enormous progress in TOF-vision systems, nowadays 3D matrix cameras can be used for many applications such as robotic, automotive, industrial, medical and multimedia applications. This paper focuses on the use of ToF cameras for agricultural applications in organic farming. In this paper a plant root exit point search algorithm for weed control applications is proposed. The plant root exit point of weeds must be known to allow a proper elimination. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated by simulation and experimental results.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:18-22. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151233
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    ABSTRACT: Eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) is one of the most potential techniques in the area of non-destructive testing. In this paper, an independent components (ICs) adjustment approach based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is proposed to apply for ECPT analysis in non-destructive testing. How to recognize the significant ICs in the mixing model is analyzed and discussed. This method can help to select the important and significant ICs, in order to ensure construct the low-dimensional sub-feature space. The experimental result can be utilized to validate the adjustment approach for choosing important ICs and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in ECPT.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:853-857. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151380
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    ABSTRACT: The concept of plenoptic cameras has existed since the early 1900s, with recent advances in computational power making them a viable tool for industrial applications. Plenoptic cameras can give 3D information about the scene with one camera, one lens, and a single image. This is possible by placing a microlens array directly in front of the image sensor. The depth estimation is based on disparities observed in individual microlens images, similar to stereo camera approaches. To relate these so-called virtual depth units to metric distances, a camera calibration must be performed. This paper presents a robust, automated camera calibration technique, which introduces new ways to model a multi-focus plenoptic camera.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:2038-2043. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151596
  • Y. Fu · O. Xu · W. Chen · H. Ji ·
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    ABSTRACT: In soft sensor modeling, a single model can not accurately describe the complex nonlinear object, and multi-models use static model in many cases, thus the dynamic changes in actual operation of the system are almost not being considered. To overcome this problem, an adaptive soft sensor modeling method based on multi-model dynamic fusion is proposed. In this method, the training samples are first clustered by the affinity propagation algorithm, and then by training each clustering with the Gaussian process regression algorithm, a sub-model is built for each clustering. At last, the predicted values of the sub-models are dynamically fused by adaptive Gauss-Markov estimation. The proposed method is applied to predict the p-xylene (PX) purity in the adsorption separation process. Results indicate that the proposed method actually increases the model's adaptive abilities to various operation conditions and improves its generalization capability.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:1308-1313. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151462
  • K. Zhou · J. Qu · X. Dong ·
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    ABSTRACT: Minimizing the crest factor of a multitone waveform helps to increase the signal to noise ratio in the measurement and decrease the nonlinear distortions. This paper uses the ac Josephson voltage standard to synthesize multitone waveforms and the L∞ algorithm to optimize the harmonic phases and thus to minimize the crest factor. In the optimization, both random and Schroeder harmonic phases are adopted as initial phases for the algorithm. With the crest factor minimized, the operating margin is increased significantly and the maximum output tone amplitude is doubled from 400 μVrms to 800 μVrms for the multitone waveform composed of 200 continuous harmonics.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:556-559. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151328
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    ABSTRACT: Train detection is a very important research issue affecting vehicles and line safety. Currently, the European Train Control System ETCS (a signalling, control and train protection system) Level 1 and 2 provide the train localization functionalities by using track circuits and/or axle counter systems: the problem of these solutions is represented by the high cost of track circuit and axle counter installation and of the related equipment management. This paper presents an innovative train detection algorithm, able to perform the train localization, by estimating its speed, crossing time instants and axle number. The aim of the proposed solution is to use the same processing approach to evaluate all these quantities, starting from the knowledge of the vertical loads on the sleepers directly measured on the track. The inputs are processed through cross-correlation operations to extract the required information in terms of speed, crossing time instants and axle counter. A suitable model of railway vehicle and track has been also developed to test the algorithm when experimental data are not available. The railway vehicle chosen as benchmark is the Manchester Wagon, implemented in the Adams VI-Rail environment. The physical model of the flexible track has been implemented in the Matlab and Comsol Multiphysics environments. A simulation campaign has been performed in order to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, under different operative conditions. The research has been carried out in cooperation with Ansaldo STS and ECM.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:1057-1062. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151417
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    ABSTRACT: Subcutaneous veins localization is basic and important step for any intravenous medication administration. Due to different physiological characteristics, mainly darker skin tone, scars or dehydrated condition of patients, medical staff face difficulty in veins localization. Through near infrared imaging technology the veins can be visualized due to high contrast between veins and skin tissue in this modality. Information on the depth of veins is equally important for proper catheterization or venipuncture procedures. Patients have different veins depth due to the different amount of fat present in the subcutaneous layer. The depth of veins from the skin surface cannot be estimated by simple imaging technique. In this paper a mathematical model to estimate the depth of veins based on measured diffused reflectance is presented. A layered model of Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in turbid medium was used to validate the results.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:376-380. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151297
  • Q. He ·
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    ABSTRACT: Time-frequency manifold (TFM) is learned from the time-frequency distribution (TFD) of an analyzed signal by addressing manifold learning on multiple TFDs in a reconstructed phase space. This paper explores the probability distribution property of the TFM by using the image histogram concept, and proposes a TFM histogram matching method to build a relationship between the original TFD and the learned TFM. The proposed method provides a novel idea to modify the time-frequency representation by employing the histogram matching concept in image processing. It is to build a gray transform function to modify the TFD so that its histogram matches that of the TFM. With the TFM matching function built from a short signal, the TFM result can be then approximately achieved for a long transient signal. Consequently, a TFM analysis and synthesis scheme is constructed for detection of transient signal corrupted by noise. The proposed scheme is a data-driven approach and the detected result could keep the intrinsic time-frequency structure of the transient signal and remove the in-band noise. A case study verifies the excellent performance of the proposed method.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:584-587. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151333
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    ABSTRACT: A test setup and measurement methodology is presented for characterization of direct THz detectors to be used in imaging application. An active imaging setup is employed whereby the detector is illuminated by a dedicated continuous wave THz source and detector response is measured using a lock-in amplifier. The THz detector is accompanied by an on-chip antenna for the reception of THz waves and its antenna directivity is measured in both the E and H planes in order to calculate the effective pixel area of the detector. The setup employs a reference detector to measure the received input power instead of using transmitting antenna specifications. Several issues, such as the background noise arising in the setup and standing waves interference have also been taken into consideration. Based on the measured input power of the detector, performance parameters of FET based THz detector are calculated and presented.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:320-324. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151287
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    ABSTRACT: A new modulation and demodulation scheme for improving the performance of ring resonator gyroscopes is proposed. The method is compatible with out-of-resonance excitation of the ring, so relaxing requirements on control loop performance, and provides large immunity from changes in gains of optical and electrical paths. The separation of the carrier frequencies provides also intrinsic immunity from backscattering induced noise. In this paper, after the presentation of the method, numerical experiments are reported to demonstrate the correctness of the approach.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:1221-1225. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151447
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    ABSTRACT: Insurance telematics is a disruptive technology that is expected to reform the vehicle insurance industry. Based on sensor data, the traditional measures for calculating the insurance premium are complemented to determine a fee that more accurately predicts the risk profile of the policyholder. From an instrumentation and measurement point of view, there are several insurance telematics challenges that have to be tackled. It is about consistently extracting relevant figures of merit (FoMs) like number of harsh braking, speeding, heavy cornering, trip smoothness, etc, and then to transform these FoMs into a valid measure, or score, that determines the risk profile of the insurance customer. The paper presents a characterization of FoMs in terms of actuarial relevance, the driver's influence, stationarity and observability, which are important for the given task. Dedicated hardware to be fitted into the on-board diagnostics outlet as well as contemporary smartphones are two different insurance telematics platforms for data collection. The paper discusses the properties of the smartphone in the perspective of insurance telematics as a low-cost alternative to the hardwired platforms like the one connected to the vehicle's on-board diagnostics outlet.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:1613-1616. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151520
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    ABSTRACT: In order to detect the health status of high-speed railway, this paper proposes a detection method based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and relevance vector machine (RVM) by acoustic emission (AE) signals. AE signals are obtained by tensile testing machine and AE data acquisition system. According to the stress-time curve, AE signals with safe state and unsafe state are obtained. Based on the frequency spectrum analysis of AE signals, the ratio of each frequency component relative to maximum frequency component is used as a feature vector to distinguish safe and unsafe states. Vectors with compressed and optimized features are obtained based on NMF, and these vectors are used to train and test the classifier by RVM. The classification accuracy of 10-folds cross validation on the whole dataset is up to 96%. The results illustrate that the proposed method can detect the safe status of rail effectively.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:699-704. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151353
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    ABSTRACT: Novel safety systems are needed to meet the growing demand of railway operation. In this paper we introduce general techniques for the detection of tracks and their components in 3D laser scanning data. These techniques make use of feature based methods, such as support vector machines, as well as model based methods, such as template matching. The focus of this work are robust and precise detectors for infrastructure elements, such as rails, tracks, closure rails, and frogs. These parts can be used for both, track maintenance and train-borne localization. The approach is evaluated experimentally on 3D laser scanning data and compared with a reference system. Furthermore, the approach is generic such that it can be used for data of any suitable laser scanning system.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:693-698. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151352
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    ABSTRACT: In order to detect the health status of high-speed railway, various studies have been examined by Acoustic Emission (AE) method. However, little work has been done on studying the relationship between rail status and features of AE signals, and this relationship can be used to establish a detection criterion for rail health monitoring. This paper presents a methodology on rail health monitoring by AE signals and establishing a detection criterion. AE signals in different safe status are obtained by tensile testing machine and AE data acquisition system. The safe and unsafe region of rail steel is analyzed by stress-strain curve. Based on the Chebyshev's inequality and the variation rate of AE hits, a detection criteria is established to detect the safe status of rail, and the corresponding detection procedure are provided. The results clearly illustrate that the proposed method can detect the safe status of rail effectively.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:1046-1051. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151415
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper the accuracy of the sine-wave frequency estimator returned by an iterative Interpolated Discrete Fourier Transform (IpDFT) algorithm based on a Maximum Sidelobe Decay (MSD) window is analyzed. The expressions for the contribution to the frequency estimation error of either the spectral interference from the sine-wave image component and wideband noise are derived. It is shown that two algorithm iterations ensure the minimum noise sensitivity achievable with the adopted window. The accuracy of the derived expressions is verified by means of computer simulations and validated by experimental results.
    Conference Record - IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 07/2015; 2015:1795-1800. DOI:10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151553