Experimental Parasitology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Experimental Parasitology emphasizes modern approaches to parasitology, including molecular biology and immunology. The journal features original research papers on the physiological, metabolic, immunologic, biochemical, nutritional, and chemotherapeutic aspects of parasites and hostñparasite relationships.

Current impact factor: 1.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.859
2012 Impact Factor 2.154
2011 Impact Factor 2.122
2010 Impact Factor 1.869
2009 Impact Factor 1.773
2008 Impact Factor 1.751
2007 Impact Factor 1.597
2006 Impact Factor 1.108
2005 Impact Factor 1.306
2004 Impact Factor 1.347
2003 Impact Factor 1.119
2002 Impact Factor 1.232
2001 Impact Factor 1.434
2000 Impact Factor 1.657
1999 Impact Factor 1.729
1998 Impact Factor 2.021
1997 Impact Factor 1.512

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.09
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.29
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.52
Website Experimental Parasitology website
Other titles Experimental parasitology (Online), Experimental parasitology, EP
ISSN 1090-2449
OCLC 36967750
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tetradenia riparia plant is used as a traditional medicine in Africa for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases as like parasitic. Therapy for leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis specie often fails, and the conventional drugs are toxic, expensive, require a long period of treatment, and adverse effects are common. The alternative therapies using natural products are inexpensive and have few or any adverse reaction. These reasons are sufficient to investigate the new natural therapeutic for leishmaniasis. We evaluated the potential of the essential oil (TrEO) and 6,7-dehydroroyleanone (TrROY) isolated from T. riparia on L. (L.) amazonensis promastigote and amastigote forms, cytotoxicity on human erythrocytes and murine macrophages, nitric production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. TrEO was the most effective to promote the Leishmania promastigote death. After 72 h incubation, the lethal dose of TrEO and TrROY that promoted 50% Leishmania death (LD50) were 0.8 μg/mL and 3 μg/mL, respectively. TrEO and TrROY were not cytotoxic to human erythrocytes, but TrROY was toxic to murine macrophages resulting in a low selectivity index. The transmission electronic microscopy showed that TrEO (0.03 μg/mL) was able to modify the promastigote ultrastructures suggesting autophagy as chromatin condensation, blebbing, membranous profiles and nuclear fragmentation. Infected-macrophages treated with TrEO (0.03 μg/mL) or TrROY (10 μg/mL) had an infection index decreased in 65 and 48%. TrEO did not induce iNOS mRNA expression or nitrite production in macrophages infected with Leishmania. TrROY and mainly TrEO promoted the Leishmania death, and TrROY showed loss toxicity to erythrocytes cells. Other compounds derived from T. riparia and the essential oil could be explored to develop a new alternative treatment for leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.014
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    ABSTRACT: Helminth parasites are a significant health burden for humans in the developing world and also cause substantial economic losses in livestock production across the world. The combined lack of vaccines for the major human and veterinary helminth parasites in addition to the development of drug resistance to anthelminthics in sheep and cattle mean that controlling helminth infection and pathology remains a challenge. However, recent high throughput technological advances mean that screening for potential drug and vaccine candidates is now easier than in previous decades. A better understanding of the host-parasite interactions occurring during infection and pathology and identifying pathways that can be therapeutically targeted for more effective and 'evolution proof' interventions is now required. This review highlights some of the advances that have been made in understanding the host-parasite interface in helminth infections using studies of the temporal expression of parasite proteins, i.e. the parasite proteome, and discuss areas for potential future research and translation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.007
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    ABSTRACT: During its parasitic life stages, the marine ectoparasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis ingests large amounts of host blood, which contains high amounts of iron. Iron is an essential micronutrient, but also toxic in high dosages, and blood-feeding parasites like the salmon louse must thus possess an efficient system to handle the excess iron. Iron regulatory protein 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) are known to play crucial roles in this process, by regulating several proteins involved in iron transport and storage, depending on the cellular iron concentration. To gain knowledge about the regulation of the iron metabolism in salmon lice, two IRP homologues (LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B) were identified by sequence and predicted structure similarity to known IRPs in other species. In situ hybridisation revealed that LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B mRNAs were expressed in the ovaries, oviducts and vitellogenic oocytes of adult females. Transcription levels of LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B mRNAs did not differ significantly between the different developmental stages of the salmon louse. Adults in the absence of blood as a feed source had decreased levels of LsIRP1A, but not LsIRP1B mRNA. RNA binding experiments indicated the presence of functioning IRP in salmon lice. In order to explore the biological functions of LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B, the mRNAs of both proteins were knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in preadult females. The knockdown was confirmed by qRT-PCR. LsIRP1B knockdown lice produced less offspring than control lice due to slightly shorter egg strings and had decreased levels of transcripts involved in egg development. Knockdown of both LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B caused increased expression of a salmon louse Ferritin (LsFer). These results confirm that salmon lice have two IRP1 homologues, LsIRP1A and LsIRP1B, and might suggest a function in cellular iron regulation in the reproductive organs and eggs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.010
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    ABSTRACT: At present, chemical-based tick control strategies are still the most efficient and widely used methods in control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this study, the efficacies of lambda-cyhalothrin, beta-cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate, spirotetramat and hexaflumuron in vitro were evaluated against Hyalomma asiaticum, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus that are widespread and able to transmit a variety of human and animal diseases in China. The results showed that the LC (lethal concentration) 50 of lambda-cyhalothrin, beta-cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate, spirotetramat and hexaflumuron were 22.045, 107.354, 287.62, 432.248 and over 6250 mg/L to Hy. asiaticum engorged nymphs, respectively. The LC50 of lambda-cyhalothrin and beta-cypermethrin were each to 100.69 mg/L and 340.05 mg/L against Hy. asiaticum unfed adults. In addition, 50mg/L of lambda-cyhalothrin could completely inhibit engorged females of the 3 tick species to lay eggs. These results indicate that lambda-cyhalothrin has the highest efficacy and broadest spectrum for against the 3 tick species. The present study provides some information for selecting chemical acaricides in control ticks and tick-borne-diseases, as well for preparing acaricide mixtures to improve killing efficacy, and retard the advent of tick-resistance of acaricides in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.011
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    ABSTRACT: While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, reinfection occurs frequently after drug treatment. Thus, a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Antigens from worm, metacercaria and redia of Echinostoma liei (E. liei) were purified using CNBr-activated Sepharose column, then used for immunization of mice prior to infection with S. mansoni. Worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was significantly reduced and that was reflected in normalization of liver architecture. This referred to a significant increase in the tested immunoglobulin level (IgM, IgG1 and IgG2). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.008
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a intracellular parasite with the potential of causing severe encephalitis among immunocompromised human and animals. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and immunopathological role of nitric oxide (NO) in central nervous systems and to identify any correlation between toxoplasmosis neuropathology and investigate the consequences of the cellular responses protect against Toxoplasma gondii. Mice were infected with ME49 strain Toxoplasma gondii and levels of endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament (NF) were examined in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry, during the development and establishment of a chronic infection at 10 30 and 60 days post infection. Results of the study revealed that the levels of eNOS (p<0,05), nNOS (p<0,05), iNOS (p<0,005), GFAP (p<0,005) and NF (p<0,005) were remarkably higher in Toxoplasma gondii-infected mice than in uninfected control. The most prominent finding from our study was 10 and 30 days after inoculation data indicating that increased levels of NO not only a potential neuroprotective role for immunoregulatory and immunopathological but also might be a molecular trigger of bradyzoite development. Furthermore, this findings were shown that high expressed NO origin was not only inducible nitric oxide synthase but also endothelial and neuronal. We demonstrated that activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages is a significant event in toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). The results also clearly indicated that increased levels of NO might contribute to neuropathology related with TE. Furthermore, expression of NF might gives an idea of the progress and critical for diagnostic significance of this disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.009
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic protozoal disease affecting more than a billion people worldwide. The shortfalls of the current treatment options necessitate the development of non-toxic and well-tolerated, efficient alternatives especially against the cyst form. The current study was undertaken to investigate, for the first time, the potential potency of miltefosine against Toxoplasma gondii infection in acute and chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. Results showed that there is no evidence of anti-parasitic activity of miltefosine against T. gondii tachyzoites in acute experimental toxoplasmosis. However, anti-parasitic activity of miltefosine against T. gondii cyst stage in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis could not be excluded as demonstrated by significant reduction in brain cyst burden. Moreover, considerable morphological changes in the cysts were revealed by light and electron microscopy study and also by amelioration of pathological changes in the brain. Future studies should focus on enhancement of anti-toxoplasma activity of miltefosine against chronic toxoplasmosis using formulation based nanotechnology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study highlighting efficacy of miltefosine against chronic toxoplasmosis, thus, increasing the list of diseases that can be targeted by this drug. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.005
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    ABSTRACT: It is not currently clear whether different parasites have distinct effects on the airway inflammatory response in asthma and whether exposure in early life to helminths have a stronger impact in a potential inhibitory effect on asthma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exposure to different helminth extracts on the development of allergic pulmonary response in mice, including early-life exposure. Different helminth extracts (Angiostrongylus costaricensis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Ascaris lumbricoides) were studied in female adult BALB/c and C57BL/6 IL-10-deficient mice in a protocol of murine asthma, injected intraperitoneally in different periods of exposure (early, pre-sensitization and post-sensitization). Cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) from lung tissue, cytokine levels from BAL/spleen cell cultures, and lung histology were analyzed. Airway cellular influx induced by OVA was significantly inhibited by extracts of A. cantonensis and A. lumbricoides. Extracts of A. lumbricoides and A. costaricensis led to a significant reduction of IL-5 in BAL (p<0.001). Only the exposure to A. lumbricoides led to an increased production of IL-10 in the lungs (p<0.001). In IL-10-deficient mice exposed to A. costaricensis pre-sensitization, eosinophil counts and IL-5 levels in BAL and EPO in lung tissue were significantly reduced. In the early exposure to A. cantonensis, lung inflammation was clearly inhibited. In conclusion, different helminth extracts inhibit allergic lung inflammation in mice. IL-10 may not play a central role in some helminth-host interactions. Early exposure to helminth extracts could be a potential strategy to explore primary prevention in asthma. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.004
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    ABSTRACT: There is a lack of studies using Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from human patients. Here, we present a pathological study of three strains obtained from human cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil using inbred mice after oral infection with 10 tissue cysts. Multiplex-nested PCR-RFLP of eleven loci revealed atypical genotypes commonly found in Brazil: toxodb #8 for TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains and toxodb #11 for the TgCTBr9 strain. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were evaluated for survival and histological changes during the acute phase of the disease. All mice inoculated with the non-virulent TgCTBR5 strain survived after 30 days, although irreversible tissue damage was found. In contrast, no mice were resistant to infection with the highly virulent TgCTBR9 strain. The TgCTBr16 strain resulted in 80% survival in mice. However, this strain presented low infectivity, especially by the oral route of infection. Despite being identified with the same genotype, TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains showed biological differences. Histopathologic analysis revealed liver and lungs to be the most affected organs, and the pattern of tissue injury was similar to that found in mice inoculated perorally with strains belonging to clonal genotypes. However, there was a variation in the intensity of ileum lesions according to T. gondii strain and mouse lineage. C57BL/6 mice showed higher susceptibility than BALB/c for histological lesions. Taken together, these results revealed that the pathogenesis of T. gondii strains belonging to atypical genotypes can induce similar tissue damage to those from clonal genotypes, although intrinsic aspects of the strains seem critical to the induction of ileitis in the infected host. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.002
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    ABSTRACT: Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with Giardia muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after two weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; 156. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.003
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    ABSTRACT: Tapeworms are pervasive and globally distributed parasites that infect millions of humans and livestock every year, and are the causative agents of two of the 17 neglected tropical diseases prioritized by the World Health Organization. Studies of tapeworm biology and pathology are often encumbered by the complex life cycles of disease-relevant tapeworm species, that infect hosts such as foxes, dogs, cattle, pigs, and humans. Thus, studies of laboratory models can help overcome the practical, ethical, and cost-related difficulties faced by tapeworm parasitologists. The rat intestinal tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is easily reared in the laboratory and has the potential to enable modern molecular-based experiments that will greatly contribute to our understanding of multiple aspects of tapeworm biology such as growth and reproduction. As part of our efforts to develop molecular tools for experiments on H. diminuta, we have characterized a battery of lectins, antibodies, and common stains that label different tapeworm tissues and organ structures. Using confocal microscopy, we have assembled an "atlas" of H. diminuta organ architecture that will be a useful resource for helminthologists. The methodologies we describe will facilitate characterization of loss-of-function perturbations using H. diminuta, in order to understand fundamental aspects of tapeworm biology that may aid efforts to discover new therapeutic targets to eradicate these parasites. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.015
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    ABSTRACT: Lactones are organic cyclic esters that have been described as larvicides against Aedes aegypti and as components of oviposition pheromone of Culex quinquefasciatus. This work describes the effect of six α,β-unsaturated lactones (5a-5f) on survival of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4). It is also reported the effects of the lactones on L4 gut trypsin activity and oviposition behavior of A. aegypti females. Five lactones were able to kill L4 being the lactones 5a (LC50 of 39.05 ppm), 5e (LC50 of 36.30 ppm) and 5f (LC50 of 40.46 ppm) the most promising larvicides. Only the lactone 5a inhibited L4 gut trypsin activity, with an IC50 of 115.15 µg/mL. Lactones 5a, 5c, 5d and 5e did not exert deterrent or stimulatory effects on oviposition, whereas lactone 5b exhibited a strong deterrent oviposition activity. In conclusion, this work introduces new α,β-unsaturated lactones as promising alternatives to control A. aegypti dissemination. The larvicidal mechanism of the lactone 5a can involve the disruption of proteolysis at larval gut. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2015; 156. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.017
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    ABSTRACT: Chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) surface antigen 5401 were constructed and their efficacies against E. tenella challenge were studied. The open reading frame (ORF) of 5401 was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T2 to express the recombinant protein and the expressed recombinant protein was identified by Western blot. The ORF of 5401 and chicken cytokine gene IFN-γ or IL-2 were cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 consecutively to construct DNA vaccines pVAX-5401-IFN-γ, pVAX-5401-IL-2 and pVAX-5401. The expression of aim genes in vivo was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Fourteen-day-old chickens were inoculated twice at an interval of 7 days with 100 µg of plasmids pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ and pVAX-5401-IL-2 or 200 µg of recombinant 5401 protein by leg intramuscular injection, respectively. Seven days after the second inoculation, all chickens except the unchallenged control group were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Seven days after challenge, all chickens were weighted and slaughtered to determine the effects of immunization. The results showed the recombinant protein was about 90 KDa and reacted with antiserum against soluble sporozoites. The animal experiment showed that all the DNA vaccines pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 and the recombinant 5401 protein could obviously alleviate body weight loss and cecal lesions as compared with non-vaccinated challenged control and empty vector pVAX1control. Furthermore, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 induced anti-coccidial index (ACI) of 180.01 or 177.24 which were significantly higher than that of pVAX-5401. The results suggested that 5401 was an effective candidate antigen for vaccine. This finding also suggested that chicken IFN-γ or IL-2 could effectively improve the efficacies of DNA vaccines against avian coccidiosis.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; 156. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.003
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    ABSTRACT: Phenylhydrazine (PHZ) treatment is generally used to enhance parasitemia in infected mice models. Transient reticulocytosis is commonly observed in iron-deficient anemic hosts after treatment with iron supplementation, and is also associated with short-term hemolysis caused by PHZ treatment. In this study, we investigated the relationship between reticulocytosis and cerebral malaria (CM) in a murine model induced by PHZ administration before Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection. Mortality and parasitemia were checked daily. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-10 were quantified by ELISA. The expression of CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL5, and CXCR3 mRNAs was determined by real-time PCR. Brain sequestration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and populations of splenic Th1 CD4(+) T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were assessed by FACS. PHZ administration dramatically increased parasitemia from day 3 to day 5 post infection (p.i.) compared with the untreated control infected mice group; also, CM developed at day 5 p.i., compared with day 7 p.i. in untreated control infected mice, as well as significantly decreased blood brain barrier function (P < 0.001). PHZ administration during PbA infection significantly increased the expression of CXCL9 (P < 0.05) and VCAM-1 (P < 0.001) in the brain, increased the expression of CXCL10, CCL5 and CXCR3, and significantly increased the recruitment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) as well as CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells to the brain. In addition, PHZ administration significantly increased the numbers of IL-12-secreting DCs at days 3 and 5 p.i. compared to those of untreated control infected mice (P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively). Consequently, the activation of CD4(+) T cells, especially the expansion of the Th1 subset (P < 0.05), was significantly and dramatically enhanced and was accompanied by marked increases in the production of protein and/or mRNA of the Th1-type pro-inflammatory mediators, IFN-γ and TNF-α (P < 0.01 for both for protein; P < 0.05 for TNF-α mRNA). Our results suggest that, compared to healthy individuals, people suffering from reticulocytosis may be more susceptible to severe malaria infection in malaria endemic areas. This has implications for the most appropriate selection of treatment, which may also cause reticulocytosis in patients living in such areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; 156. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.011
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    ABSTRACT: Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite, actively invade almost all types of nucleated cells. However, T. gondii tachyzoites preferentially infect particular types of animal tissue cells. The mechanism underlying the host cell preference of T. gondii is not yet known. In this study, we found that enzymatic removal of α2,3- but not α2,6-linked sialic acids on the surface of Vero cells decreased T. gondii tachyzoite adhesion or invasion to the treated cells. Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells express only α2,3-linked sialic acid, a genetically modified CHO cell line constructed by transfection with the α2,6-sialiltransferase gene contains subpopulations with a variety of expression patterns of α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids. When T. gondii tachyzoites were added to the modified CHO cells, the tachyzoites preferentially attached to cells belonging to a subpopulation of cells that highly expressed α2,3-linked sialic acids. Additionally, multiple regression analysis performed to analyse the relationship between the amount of α2,3-linked/α2,6-linked sialic acids and parasite-expressed fluorescence intensity suggested that more tachyzoites adhered to individual α2,3-linked sialic acid rich-cells than to α2,3-linked sialic acid-poor/null cells. The results of confocal laser microscopy confirmed this finding. These results indicate that the host cell preference of T. gondii was, at least partially, affected by the distribution pattern of α2,3-, but almost never α2,6-linked sialic acids on host cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; 155. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.005