Experimental Parasitology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Experimental Parasitology emphasizes modern approaches to parasitology, including molecular biology and immunology. The journal features original research papers on the physiological, metabolic, immunologic, biochemical, nutritional, and chemotherapeutic aspects of parasites and hostñparasite relationships.

Current impact factor: 1.64

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.638
2013 Impact Factor 1.859
2012 Impact Factor 2.154
2011 Impact Factor 2.122
2010 Impact Factor 1.869
2009 Impact Factor 1.773
2008 Impact Factor 1.751
2007 Impact Factor 1.597
2006 Impact Factor 1.108
2005 Impact Factor 1.306
2004 Impact Factor 1.347
2003 Impact Factor 1.119
2002 Impact Factor 1.232
2001 Impact Factor 1.434
2000 Impact Factor 1.657
1999 Impact Factor 1.729
1998 Impact Factor 2.021
1997 Impact Factor 1.512

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.84
Cited half-life 7.10
Immediacy index 0.28
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.47
Website Experimental Parasitology website
Other titles Experimental parasitology (Online), Experimental parasitology, EP
ISSN 1090-2449
OCLC 36967750
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of phosphatases that has not been broadly studied in protozoan parasites. In humans, PRLs are involved in metastatic cancer, the promotion of cell migration and invasion. PTPs have been increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. We characterized the only putative protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (PTP EhPRL) in the eukaryotic human intestinal parasite E. histolytica. Here, we reported that the EhPRL protein possessed the classical HCX5R catalytic motif of PTPs and the CAAX box characteristic of the PRL family and exhibited 31-32% homology with the three human PRL isoforms. In amebae, the protein was expressed at low but detectable levels. The recombinant protein (rEhPRL) had enzymatic activity with the 3-o-methyl fluorescein phosphate (OMFP) substrate; this enzymatic activity was inhibited by the PTP inhibitor o-vanadate. Using immunofluorescence we showed that native EhPRL was localized to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. When the trophozoites interacted with collagen, EhPRL relocalized over time to vesicle-like structures. Interaction with fibronectin increased the presence of the enzyme in the cytoplasm. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that EhPRL mRNA expression was upregulated when the trophozoites interacted with collagen but not with fibronectin. Trophozoites recovered from amoebic liver abscesses showed higher EhPRL mRNA expression levels than normal trophozoites. These results strongly suggest that EhPRL may play an important role in the biology and adaptive response of the parasite to the host environment during amoebic liver abscess development, thereby participating in the pathogenic mechanism.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.09.014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Motility is required for feeding, reproduction and maintenance of the fluke in the host's liver. According to that, the neuromuscular system can be an attractive drugable target for chemotherapy. Musculature of the Fascioloides magna is organized into three layers, an outer circular layer, beneath this layer the longitudinal layer, and third, the oblique, or diagonal layer underlies the longitudinal layer. In our study, the administration of atropine or caffeine did not cause classic muscle contractions of F. magna muscle strips. However, the Electrical Field Stimulation (EFS) induced stable and repeatable contractions, which enabled us to examine their sensitivity to the various substances. Acetylcholine (ACh) (300 μM and 1 mM), caused only a slight relaxation, without affecting the amplitude of spontaneous contractions or the amplitude of contractions induced by EFS. Contrary to that, atropine (100 μM) caused a significant increase in the basal tone and an increase of EFS-induced contractions. If acetylcholine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in trematodes, the described effects of atropine are achieved by the blockade of inhibitory neurotransmission. On the other hand, with respect to the process of excitation-contraction coupling, the plant alkaloid ryanodine (30 μM) significantly reduced the basal tone, as well as EFS-induced contractions of F. magna muscle strips. Ryanodine inhibited the potentiating effect of atropine on the basal tone and contractions caused by EFS, which indicates that the contractile effect of atropine is dependent on Ca(++) release from intracellular stores. Caffeine (500 μM) caused relaxation of fluke muscle strips and at the same time significantly enhanced the EFS-induced contractions. Both effects of caffeine can be explained by entry of extracellular Ca(++) into muscle cells. The muscle contractility of F. magna depends both on the entry of extracellular calcium, and calcium release from intracellular stores, which are under the control of RyRs. Our results also suggest that antitrematodal drugs could potentially be developed from substances with selective anti-cholinergic activity.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.09.012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is a complex disease caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania and the treatment remains a serious problem since the available drugs exhibited high toxicity and side effects. Plant-derived natural products are promising leads for the development of novel chemotherapeutics. In this work the phytol-rich hexane fraction (PRF) from the leaves of Lacistema pubescens was obtained and identified by GC-MS analysis. When assayed for antileishmanial effects, PRF was active against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 values of 44.0 and 25.8 μg/mL respectively). Furthermore, PRF did not show significant cytotoxicity on peritoneal macrophages being more destructive to the intracellular parasite than to mammalian cells. In addition, possible targets of PRF were investigated against L. amazonensis promastigotes. The results showed that PRF exerted its antipromastigote activity by marked depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential followed by the increase of ROS levels in L. amazonensis promastigotes. During these events, no rupture of the cell membrane integrity was observed. Our results indicated that PRF was effective and selective against L. amazonensis, and that this effect was mainly mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction associated to ROS production.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.09.009
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in innate and adaptive immunity and in pathogenesis during the blood stage of malaria infection. The mechanisms underlying DC homeostasis during malaria infection are not well understood. In this study, the numbers of conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in the spleens after lethal rodent malaria infection were examined, and were found to be significantly reduced. Concomitant with up-regulation of maturation-associated molecules, activation of caspase-3 was significantly increased, suggesting induction of cell death. Studies using neutralizing antibody and gene-deficient mice showed that type I and II interferons were critically involved in activation induced cell death of cDCs during malaria infection. These results demonstrate that DCs rapidly disappeared following IFN-mediated DC activation, and that homeostasis of DCs was significantly impaired during malaria infection.
    Experimental Parasitology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.09.010
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, a family of innate cells has been identified that respond to IL-25 and IL-33 in murine intestinal helminths. Termed Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) they facilitate the development of Th2 responses responsible for helminth clearance. We evaluated these cells in a tissue-invasive helminth model. Using Litomosides sigmodontis (a strong Th2 polarizing filarial infection) we observed a robust Th2 response in the pleural cavity, where adult worms reside, marked by increased levels of IL-5 and IL-13 in infected mice. In parallel, ILC2s were expanded in the pleural cavity early in the infection, peaking during the pre-patent period. L. sigmodontis also elicits a strong systemic Th2 response, which includes significantly increased levels of IgG1, IgE and IL-5 in the plasma of infected mice. Although ILC2s were expanded locally, they were not expanded in the spleen, blood, or mediastinal lymph nodes in response to L. sigmodontis infection, suggesting that ILC2s function primarily at the site of infection. The increase in ILC2s in the pleural cavity and the expansion in Th2 responses indicates a probable role for these cells in initiating and maintaining the Th2 response and highlights the importance of these cells in helminth infections and their role in Th2 immunity.
    Experimental Parasitology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.09.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The roundworms of genus Strongylus are the common parasitic nematodes in the large intestine of equine, causing significant economic losses to the livestock industries. In spite of its importance, the genetic data and epidemiology of this parasite are not entirely understood. In the present study, the complete S. equinus mitochondrial (mt) genome was determined. The length of S. equinus mt genome DNA sequence is 14,545 bp, containing 36 genes, of which 12 code for protein, 22 for transfer RNA, and two for ribosomal RNA, but lacks atp8 gene. All 36 genes are encoded in the same direction which is consistent with all other Chromadorea nematode mtDNAs published to date. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated amino acid sequence data of all 12 protein-coding genes showed that there were two large branches in the Strongyloidea nematodes, and S. equinus is genetically closer to S. vulgaris than to Cylicocyclus insignis in Strongylidae. This new mt genome provides a source of genetic markers for the molecular phylogeny and population genetics of equine strongyles.
    Experimental Parasitology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rabbit coccidiosis caused by members of the genus Eimeria can cause enormous economic impact worldwide, but the genetics, epidemiology and biology of these parasites remain poorly understood. In the present study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of five Eimeria species that commonly infect the domestic rabbits. The complete mt genomes of E. intestinalis, E. flavescens, E. media, E. vejdovskyi and E. irresidua were 6261 bp, 6258 bp, 6168 bp, 6254 bp, 6259 bp in length, respectively. All of the mt genomes consist of 3 genes for proteins (cytb, cox1, and cox3), 14 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 11 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, but no transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The gene order of the mt genomes is similar to that of Plasmodium, but distinct from Haemosporida and Theileria. Phylogenetic analyses based on full nucleotide sequences using Bayesian analysis revealed that the monophyly of the Eimeria of rabbits was strongly statistically supported with a Bayesian posterior probabilities. These data provide novel mtDNA markers for studying the population genetics and molecular epidemiology of the Eimeria species, and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention and control of coccidiosis in rabbits.
    Experimental Parasitology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.09.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a major chemical constituent of Juglans mandshruica Maxim. Recent studies have demonstrated that juglone exhibits anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-parasitic properties. However, its effect against Acanthamoeba has not been defined yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of juglone on Acanthamoeba. We demonstrate that juglone significantly inhibits the growth of Acanthamoeba castellanii at 3-5 μM concentrations. Juglone increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caused cell death of A. castellanii. Inhibition of ROS by antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) restored the cell viability. Furthermore, our results show that juglone increased the uptake of mitochondrial specific dye. Collectively, these results indicate that ROS played a significant role in the juglone-induced cell death of Acanthamoeba.
    Experimental Parasitology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.09.005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has gained great prominence because of its therapeutic potential, which is ascribed to its ability to regulate innate immunity, inhibit antigen-specific Th1 cell responses, and generate T regulatory cells. Additionally, VIP may act as a natural antimicrobial peptide, killing bacteria, fungi, and infective forms of Trypanosoma brucei. Despite the possible relevance of VIP during the course of Chagas disease, studies regarding this in human and experimental T. cruzi infections remain poorly characterized. In this work, we evaluated the effects of VIP on systemic and cardiac immune responses during experimental acute infection. C57BL/6 mice were infected with 5000 trypomastigotes of the VL-10 strain of T. cruzi and treated with intraperitoneal VIP injection every other day for one month. After 30 days, we observed no reduction in parasitemia levels. However, we observed a reduction in serum levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 and an increase in that of IL-4. These data suggest that VIP treatment modified immune responses to favor the Th2 response, which had no impact on parasitemia levels although the serum level of IFN-gamma was reduced. However, this change in immune balance reduced heart damage, as noted by the smaller cardiac volume and the moderate inflammatory infiltrate observed in VIP-treated mice. Our results indicate that VIP treatment reduced the inflammatory response at the cardiac site of mice that were experimentally infected with T. cruzi. These data suggest a protective role for VIP in the heart of infected mice.
    Experimental Parasitology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.09.004
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a major parasite of salmonid fish in the marine environment. The interaction between the parasite and the host upon infection is not completely understood. However, it is clear that the parasite influences the host and its immune system. Prostaglandins produced by parasites such as flatworms, roundworms and ticks are documented or assumed to play a role in immunomodulation of the host. In the salmon louse, the effect of prostaglandins on the host is assumed, but remains to be documented. In this study, a salmon louse prostaglandin E2 synthase (LsPGES2) is characterized. Ontogenetic analysis showed that LsPGES2 is relatively stable expressed during development. The highest level of expression was seen in the free living stages, although elevated levels of LsPGES2 were also found in adult females. In copepodids, the LsPGES2 is found around muscle cells, while it is observed in the reproductive organs of adult female lice. LsPGES2 expression was knocked-down by RNA interference in nauplii, but emerging copepodids did not display any changes in morphology nor ability to infect and develop to adult stages on fish. Additional knock-down of LsPGES2 in adult female lice did not produce any characteristic changes in phenotype nor reproductive output. It is concluded that under these experimental conditions, knock-down of LsPGES2 did not affect any essential functions of the salmon louse, neither in the free-living nor the parasitic stages.
    Experimental Parasitology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.09.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gnathostoma spinigerum is the causative agent of human gnathostomiasis. The advanced third stage larva (AL3) of this nematode can migrate into the subcutaneous tissues, including vital organs, often producing severe pathological effects. This study performed immuno-proteomic analysis of antigenic spots, derived from G. spinigerum advanced third stage larva (GSAL3) and recognized by human gnathostomiasis sera, using two-dimensional (2-DE) gel electrophoresis based-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS), and followed by the aid of a database search. The crude GSAL3 extract was fractionated using IPG strips (pH 3-11NL) and followed by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. Each gel was stained with colloidal Coomassie blue or was electro-transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and probed with gnathostomiasis human sera by immunoblotting. Individual Coomassie-stained protein spots corresponding to the antigenic spots recognized by immunoblotting were excised and processed using LC/MS-MS. Of the 93 antigenic spots excised, 87 were identified by LC/MS-MS. Twenty-seven protein types were found, the most abundant being Ascaris suum37. Six spots showed good quality spectra, but could not be identified. This appears to be the first attempt to characterize antigenic proteins from GSAL3 using a proteomic approach. Immuno-proteomics shows promise to assist the search for candidate proteins for diagnosis and vaccine/drug design and may provide better understand of the host-parasite relationship in human gnathostomiasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.010
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cysteine proteinases (cathepsins) from Leishmania spp. are promising molecular targets against leishmaniasis. Leishmania mexicana cathepsin L is essential in the parasite life cycle and a pivotal in virulence factor in mammals. Natural products that have been shown to display antileishmanial activity were screened as part of our ongoing efforts to design inhibitors against the L. mexicana cathepsin L-like rCPB2.8. Among them, agathisflavone (1), tetrahydrorobustaflavone (2), 3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (3), and quercetin (4) showed significant inhibitory activity on rCPB2.8 with IC50 values ranging from 0.43 to 18.03 µM. The mechanisms of inhibition for compounds 1-3, which showed Ki values in the low micromolar range (Ki = 0.14-1.26 µM), were determined. The biflavone 1 and the triterpene 3 are partially noncompetitive inhibitors, whereas biflavanone 2 is an uncompetitive inhibitor. The mechanism of action established for these leishmanicidal natural products provides a new outlook in the search for drugs against Leishmania.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; 156:42-8. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant status and oxidative profile in serum and liver of rats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica and its relationship with pathological findings. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups: group A consisted of 12 healthy rats and group B of 12 rats infected orally with 20 metacercaria of F. hepatica. At days 20 and 150 post-infection (PI), blood and liver samples of six animals from each group were collected. The protein oxidation (AOPP technique: advanced oxidation protein products) and antioxidants (FRAP technique: ferric reducing antioxidant power) levels were measured in serum and liver. Furthermore, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and lipid peroxidation (TBARS technique: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were measured in liver. AOPP and FRAP levels were increased (P<0.05) in serum and liver of infected animals in acute and chronic infection when compared with healthy animals. The same occurred with TBARS and NOx levels in the liver (P<0.05). Histopathology revealed periportal fibrous hepatitis, composed of an abundant inflammatory infiltrate in portal spaces on infected animals, as well as bile duct hyperplasia. The results found seem to be related to the host free radical production demonstrated in serum samples and liver due to the parasite infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Additional morphological features of Balamuthia mandrillaris observed by light and electron microscopy are reported. Trophozoites were extremely pleomorphic: their cell shapes ranged from rounded to elongated and sometimes they appeared exceptionally stretched out and branched. By transmission electron microscopy it was possible to observe two different cytoplasmic areas, the ectoplasm and the endoplasm and often sections of rough endoplasmic reticulum were found in the transition zone. The cytoplasm was very fibrogranular and most of the organelles typically found in eukaryotic cells were observed. A particular finding was the presence of numerous mitochondria with a different structure from those of other free-living amoebae. The observations reported here may reinforce the morphological knowledge of this amoeba and provide a background for further analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; 157:150-155. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.011
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the Schistosoma japonicum 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (SjPGK) with an open reading frame of 1251 bp was isolated from 42-day-old (42-d) schistosome cDNAs. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed that SjPGK was expressed in all investigated developmental stages and at a higher transcript levels in 21- and 42-d worms. Moreover, the SjPGK mRNA level was significantly downregulated in 10-d schistosomula from Wistar rats (non-susceptible host). SjPGK was subcloned into pET28a(+) and expressed as both supernatant and inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli BL21 cells. The enzymatic activity of recombinant SjPGK protein (rSjPGK) was 125 U/mg. Kinetic analyses with respect to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) as substrate gave a Km of 2.69 mmol/L and a Vmax of 748 μmol/min/mg protein. rSjPGK was highly stable over a range of pH 8.0-9.0 and temperature of 30°C-40°C under physiological conditions. Immunolocalization analysis showed that SjPGK was mainly distributed in the tegument and parenchyma of schistosomes. Western blotting showed that rSjPGK had good immunogenicity. We vaccinated BALB/c mice with rSjPGK combined with Seppic 206 adjuvant. However, there were no significant reductions in the numbers of worms of eggs in the liver, as compared to adjuvant or blank control groups in two independent vaccination tests. This study provides the basis for further investigations into the biological function of SjPGK, although it might not be suitable as a potential vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human cerebral angiostrongyliasis becomes an emerging disease in many parts of the world. By postmortem examination, Angiostrongylus cantonensis have been reported to cause severe pathological changes in the central nervous system. The present study was designed to determine the temporal-spatial pathological changes through experimental infections and histopathological examination of permissive (SD rats) and non-permissive (ICR mice) hosts. After infecting SD rats with 25, 50, or 100 third-stage larvae (L3) and ICR mice with 25 L3, one animal from each group was sacrificed daily from day 1 to day 30 post-infection. Each rat brain was cut into six sections and mouse brain into five sections. These sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. Eosinophilic meningitis was found to be the most commonly pathological change and occurred on day 17 post-infection in rats with 25 L3, day 9 in the 50- or 100-L3 groups, and day 12 in infected mice. Thickness of the meninges increased 9-24 folds in infected rats and 89 folds in an infected mouse on day 28. Encephalitis, congestion, perivascular cuffing, and hemorrhage were revealed in infected mice and rats with 100 L3. Fifth-stage larvae were frequently observed in the meninges but occasionally in the parenchyma. Significant correlations between meningitis and presence of larvae in the meninges were found in the three infected rat groups but not in the infected mice. The results indicate that the clinical course of A. cantonensis infection is not self-limited but becomes more severe with the intensity of infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; 157. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Babesia gibsoni is a haemoprotozoan parasite of emerging global importance. The clinical presentation of babesial infections is diverse and the systemic inflammatory response induced by infection is considered to be a major feature of the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. An experimental case-controlled longitudinal study was conducted to assess the clinical, haematological, cytokine and acute phase protein changes that occur during experimental B. gibsoni infection of beagle puppies. Infected dogs became transiently pyrexic and anaemic, intermittently neutropenic and transiently, but profoundly, thrombocytopenic, although this had no apparent adverse clinical effect. Experimental B. gibsoni infection also induced an acute phase response, characterised by a marked increase in the concentration of C-reactive protein, which was delayed in onset following infection but preceded the detection of peripheral parasitaemia. Experimental B. gibsoni infection was also associated with marked increases in the concentration of multiple cytokines which were also delayed in onset following infection and occurred subsequent to the detection of peripheral parasitaemia and the acute phase response. This study furthers our understanding of the immune response that occurs during babesial infections and the role that systemic inflammation plays in the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; 157. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.002