Experimental Parasitology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Experimental Parasitology emphasizes modern approaches to parasitology, including molecular biology and immunology. The journal features original research papers on the physiological, metabolic, immunologic, biochemical, nutritional, and chemotherapeutic aspects of parasites and hostñparasite relationships.

Current impact factor: 1.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.859
2012 Impact Factor 2.154
2011 Impact Factor 2.122
2010 Impact Factor 1.869
2009 Impact Factor 1.773
2008 Impact Factor 1.751
2007 Impact Factor 1.597
2006 Impact Factor 1.108
2005 Impact Factor 1.306
2004 Impact Factor 1.347
2003 Impact Factor 1.119
2002 Impact Factor 1.232
2001 Impact Factor 1.434
2000 Impact Factor 1.657
1999 Impact Factor 1.729
1998 Impact Factor 2.021
1997 Impact Factor 1.512

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.09
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.29
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.52
Website Experimental Parasitology website
Other titles Experimental parasitology (Online), Experimental parasitology, EP
ISSN 1090-2449
OCLC 36967750
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Experimental Parasitology 09/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Gnathostoma spinigerum is the causative agent of human gnathostomiasis. The advanced third stage larva (AL3) of this nematode can migrate into the subcutaneous tissues, including vital organs, often producing severe pathological effects. This study performed immuno-proteomic analysis of antigenic spots, derived from G. spinigerum advanced third stage larva (GSAL3) and recognized by human gnathostomiasis sera, using two-dimensional (2-DE) gel electrophoresis based-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS), and followed by the aid of a database search. The crude GSAL3 extract was fractionated using IPG strips (pH 3-11NL) and followed by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. Each gel was stained with colloidal Coomassie blue or was electro-transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and probed with gnathostomiasis human sera by immunoblotting. Individual Coomassie-stained protein spots corresponding to the antigenic spots recognized by immunoblotting were excised and processed using LC/MS-MS. Of the 93 antigenic spots excised, 87 were identified by LC/MS-MS. Twenty-seven protein types were found, the most abundant being Ascaris suum37. Six spots showed good quality spectra, but could not be identified. This appears to be the first attempt to characterize antigenic proteins from GSAL3 using a proteomic approach. Immuno-proteomics shows promise to assist the search for candidate proteins for diagnosis and vaccine/drug design and may provide better understand of the host-parasite relationship in human gnathostomiasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.010
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant status and oxidative profile in serum and liver of rats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica and its relationship with pathological findings. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups: group A consisted of 12 healthy rats and group B of 12 rats infected orally with 20 metacercaria of F. hepatica. At days 20 and 150 post-infection (PI), blood and liver samples of six animals from each group were collected. The protein oxidation (AOPP technique: advanced oxidation protein products) and antioxidants (FRAP technique: ferric reducing antioxidant power) levels were measured in serum and liver. Furthermore, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and lipid peroxidation (TBARS technique: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were measured in liver. AOPP and FRAP levels were increased (P<0.05) in serum and liver of infected animals in acute and chronic infection when compared with healthy animals. The same occurred with TBARS and NOx levels in the liver (P<0.05). Histopathology revealed periportal fibrous hepatitis, composed of an abundant inflammatory infiltrate in portal spaces on infected animals, as well as bile duct hyperplasia. The results found seem to be related to the host free radical production demonstrated in serum samples and liver due to the parasite infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.008
  • Arturo González-Robles · Fernando Lares-Villa · Luis Fernando Lares-Jiménez · Maritza Omaña-Molina · Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro · Adolfo Martínez-Palomo
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    ABSTRACT: Additional morphological features of Balamuthia mandrillaris observed by light and electron microscopy are reported. Trophozoites were extremely pleomorphic: their cell shapes ranged from rounded to elongated and sometimes they appeared exceptionally stretched out and branched. By transmission electron microscopy it was possible to observe two different cytoplasmic areas, the ectoplasm and the endoplasm and often sections of rough endoplasmic reticulum were found in the transition zone. The cytoplasm was very fibrogranular and most of the organelles typically found in eukaryotic cells were observed. A particular finding was the presence of numerous mitochondria with a different structure from those of other free-living amoebae. The observations reported here may reinforce the morphological knowledge of this amoeba and provide a background for further analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; 157:150-155. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.011
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the Schistosoma japonicum 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (SjPGK) with an open reading frame of 1251 bp was isolated from 42-day-old (42-d) schistosome cDNAs. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed that SjPGK was expressed in all investigated developmental stages and at a higher transcript levels in 21- and 42-d worms. Moreover, the SjPGK mRNA level was significantly downregulated in 10-d schistosomula from Wistar rats (non-susceptible host). SjPGK was subcloned into pET28a(+) and expressed as both supernatant and inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli BL21 cells. The enzymatic activity of recombinant SjPGK protein (rSjPGK) was 125 U/mg. Kinetic analyses with respect to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) as substrate gave a Km of 2.69 mmol/L and a Vmax of 748 μmol/min/mg protein. rSjPGK was highly stable over a range of pH 8.0-9.0 and temperature of 30°C-40°C under physiological conditions. Immunolocalization analysis showed that SjPGK was mainly distributed in the tegument and parenchyma of schistosomes. Western blotting showed that rSjPGK had good immunogenicity. We vaccinated BALB/c mice with rSjPGK combined with Seppic 206 adjuvant. However, there were no significant reductions in the numbers of worms of eggs in the liver, as compared to adjuvant or blank control groups in two independent vaccination tests. This study provides the basis for further investigations into the biological function of SjPGK, although it might not be suitable as a potential vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.016
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    ABSTRACT: Human cerebral angiostrongyliasis becomes an emerging disease in many parts of the world. By postmortem examination, Angiostrongylus cantonensis have been reported to cause severe pathological changes in the central nervous system. The present study was designed to determine the temporal-spatial pathological changes through experimental infections and histopathological examination of permissive (SD rats) and non-permissive (ICR mice) hosts. After infecting SD rats with 25, 50, or 100 third-stage larvae (L3) and ICR mice with 25 L3, one animal from each group was sacrificed daily from day 1 to day 30 post-infection. Each rat brain was cut into six sections and mouse brain into five sections. These sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. Eosinophilic meningitis was found to be the most commonly pathological change and occurred on day 17 post-infection in rats with 25 L3, day 9 in the 50- or 100-L3 groups, and day 12 in infected mice. Thickness of the meninges increased 9-24 folds in infected rats and 89 folds in an infected mouse on day 28. Encephalitis, congestion, perivascular cuffing, and hemorrhage were revealed in infected mice and rats with 100 L3. Fifth-stage larvae were frequently observed in the meninges but occasionally in the parenchyma. Significant correlations between meningitis and presence of larvae in the meninges were found in the three infected rat groups but not in the infected mice. The results indicate that the clinical course of A. cantonensis infection is not self-limited but becomes more severe with the intensity of infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.006
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    ABSTRACT: Felines, the only definitive hosts that shed the environmentally-durable oocysts, are the key in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to all warm-blooded animals. They seroconvert as late as the third week and begin to shed oocysts as early as 3-8 days after being fed tissue cysts. Early detection of Toxoplasma-infected cats is crucial to evaluate Toxoplasma-contaminated environment and potential risks to public health. Moreover, it is fundamental for Toxoplasma infection control. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is a blood-based test assessing the presence of IFN-γ released by the T-lymphocytes directed against specific antigens, which is an ideal assay for early detection of Toxoplasma-infected cats. Here, cats were orally infected with the tissue cysts and blood was collected for toxoplasmic antigen stimulation, and the released IFN-γ was measured by ELISA. Results showed that Toxoplasma-infection was detected by IGRA as early as 4 days post-infection (dpi); while serum Toxoplasma IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA at 10 dpi and 14 dpi, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative samples revealed an early Toxoplasma infection in cats, indicating a new strategy for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection by combining IGRA and ELISA. Therefore, IGRA could emerge as a reliable diagnostic tool for the exploration of cat toxoplasmosis prevalence and its potential risks to public health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.015
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    ABSTRACT: Babesia gibsoni is a haemoprotozoan parasite of emerging global importance. The clinical presentation of babesial infections is diverse and the systemic inflammatory response induced by infection is considered to be a major feature of the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. An experimental case-controlled longitudinal study was conducted to assess the clinical, haematological, cytokine and acute phase protein changes that occur during experimental B. gibsoni infection of beagle puppies. Infected dogs became transiently pyrexic and anaemic, intermittently neutropenic and transiently, but profoundly, thrombocytopenic, although this had no apparent adverse clinical effect. Experimental B. gibsoni infection also induced an acute phase response, characterised by a marked increase in the concentration of C-reactive protein, which was delayed in onset following infection but preceded the detection of peripheral parasitaemia. Experimental B. gibsoni infection was also associated with marked increases in the concentration of multiple cytokines which were also delayed in onset following infection and occurred subsequent to the detection of peripheral parasitaemia and the acute phase response. This study furthers our understanding of the immune response that occurs during babesial infections and the role that systemic inflammation plays in the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.002
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    ABSTRACT: The main pathogenic event caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection is characterized by a granulomatous inflammatory reaction around parasite eggs and fibrosis in the liver. We have previously shown that transplantation of bone marrow cells (BMC) promotes a reduction in liver fibrosis in chronically S. mansoni-infected mice. Here we investigated the presence and phenotype of bone marrow-derived cells in livers of S. mansoni-infected mice. During the chronic phase of infection, C57BL/6 mice had an increased number of circulating mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells in the peripheral blood when compared to uninfected controls. In order to investigate the fate of BMC in the liver, we generated bone marrow chimeric mice by transplanting BMC from transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice into lethally irradiated wild-type C57BL/6 mice. S. mansoni-infected chimeric mice did not demonstrate increased mortality and developed similar liver histopathological features, when compared to wild-type S. mansoni-infected mice. GFP(+) bone marrow-derived cells were found in the liver parenchyma, particularly in periportal regions. CD45(+)GFP(+) cells were found in the granulomas. Flow cytometry analysis of digested liver tissue characterized GFP(+) cells as lymphocytes, myeloid cells and stem cells. GFP(+) cells were also found in areas of collagen deposition, although rare GFP(+) cells expressed the myofibroblast cell marker α-SMA. Additionally GFP(+) endothelial cells (co-stained with von Willebrand factor) were frequently observed, while BMC-derived hepatocytes (GFP(+) albumin(+) cells) were sparsely found in the liver of chimeric mice chronically infected with S. mansoni. In conclusion, BMC are recruited to the liver during chronic experimental infection with S. mansoni and contribute to the generation of different cell types involved, not only in disease pathogenesis, but possibly in liver regeneration and repair. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.005
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    ABSTRACT: Among the few organisms that cannot make the iron cofactor heme, some nonetheless possess heme proteins. This includes the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, which encodes five known heme proteins: a flavohemoglobin and four members of the cytochrome b5 family. Giardia flavohemoglobin closely resembles those of the Enterobacteriaceae in structure and function, acting as a nitric oxide dioxygenase that is induced when trophozoites are exposed to reactive nitrogen species. The Giardia cytochromes b5 are soluble proteins having relatively low reduction potentials and lack several features that are expected to promote rapid electron transfer with redox partners. Only one potential electron donor, and no electron acceptors, have yet been identified in the Giardia genome, and the roles of these cytochromes are presently unknown. The answer may lie in the sequences that flank the heme-binding core of these proteins which could serve to localize them within the cell through reversible post-translational modifications and to promote specific protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.001
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    ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis represents an important public health issue in different parts of the world, requiring that measures be put in place to control the spread of the disease worldwide. The canine leishmaniasis diagnosis is not easy based on clinical signs, since dogs may not develop the infection with recognizable signs. Thus, the laboratorial diagnosis is essential to ascertain the incidence and prevalence of canine leishmaniasis especially in areas with major control efforts. Although, the diagnosis can be performed by the use of different approaches, the molecular methods such as PCR have become an indispensable tool for leishmaniases diagnosis. A TaqMan assay for real-time PCR (Linj31-qPCR) was developed to determine the parasite occurrence in clinical cases of leishmaniasis. The assay targets a L. (L.) infantum hypothetical protein region. The specificity of the assay was verified by using Leishmania World Health Organization reference strains including parasites belonging to subgenus L. (Leishmania), subgenus L. (Viannia), other Leishmania species and Trypanosoma cruzi. The sensitivity was verified by using isolates of L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) infantum. The usefulness of the assay for diagnosis was ascertained by testing 277 samples from dogs in regions endemic for visceral and/or cutaneous leishmaniasis and from regions in which leishmaniasis was not endemic in São Paulo State, Brazil. Diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was determined on these animals by conventional PCR and three serological tests. The dog samples were divided into four groups. I, dogs with CVL (n=101); II, dogs with other diseases and without CVL (n=97); III, dogs with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (n=7), and, IV, dogs without CVL (n=72) from areas where leishmaniasis was not endemic as control group. Results indicated that Linj31-qPCR was able to identify parasites belonging to subgenus L. (Leishmania) with no cross-amplification with other parasite subgenera. The Linj31-qPCR detected Leishmania parasites DNA in 98% of samples from Group I. In conclusion this methodology can be used as routine diagnostic tools to detect parasites from subgenus Leishmania. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.014
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    ABSTRACT: Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protist pathogen that is responsible for serious human and animal infection. Being one of the most frequently isolated protists from the environment, it is likely that it readily encounters microaerophilic environments. For respiration under anaerobic or low oxygen conditions in several amitochondriate protists, decarboxylation of pyruvate is catalyzed by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase instead of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In support, Nitazoxanide, an inhibitor of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, is effective and non-mutagenic clinically against a range of amitochondriate protists, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The overall aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro efficacy of Nitazoxanide against Acanthamoeba castellanii. At micromolar concentrations, the findings revealed that Nitazoxanide neither affected A. castellanii growth or viability nor amoeba-mediated host cell monolayer damage in vitro or extracellular proteolytic activities. Similarly, microaerophilic conditions alone had no significant effects. In contrast, microaerophilic conditions together with Nitazoxanide showed amoebicidal effects and inhibited A. castellanii-mediated host cell monolayer damage as well as extracellular proteases. Using encystation assays, it was observed that Nitazoxanide inhibited trophozoite transformation into cysts both under aerophilic and microaerophilic conditions. Furthermore, pre-treatment of cysts with Nitazoxanide inhibited A. castellanii excystation. These findings are important in the identification of potential targets that could be useful in the development of parasite-specific respiration as well as to understand the basic biology of the life cycle of Acanthamoeba. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.007
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a well conserved, catabolic process in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we identified two novel ubiquitin like conjugation systems (Atg12 and Atg8) in the autophagy process of Acanthamoeba castellanii. To obtain more specific information on the Atg12 ubiquitin like conjugation system during encystation of Acanthamoeba, we characterized the function of Atg12. AcAtg12 knockdown in cells resulted in inhibition of cyst formation. Analysis of subcellular localization showed that AcAtg12 was evenly distributed in the trophozoites during early encystation, started to accumulate partially as dots or fragments, and then co-localized with the vesicle of the autophagic structure. However, the mRNA expression of AcAtg12 was maintained at a constant level during encystation as well as in trophozoites. Ultrastructural analysis with TEM showed that AcAtg12-knockdown cells showed vacuolization, lack of cyst wall formation, and numerical decline of autophagic structures, compared with the control cells. Interestingly, these knockdown cells began to round-up and swell, and then burst at 144 h post encystation. Taken together, our results might provide a better understanding of the Atg12 UBL conjugation system in Acanthamoeba and other cyst forming protozoan parasites. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.013
  • Experimental Parasitology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.020
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    ABSTRACT: Psoroptes ovis mites, which cause psoroptic mange (sheep scab), were investigated to identify potential bacterial targets for endosymbiont control of sheep scab. In addition, transmission of bacteria to the sheep skin was investigated through the characterisation of bacteria present in P. ovis faecal trails and on the fleece environment by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. A diverse range of bacteria was identified in addition to a potential endosymbiont candidate, Comamonas sp, which was detected in P. ovis by both ITS PCR and endosymbiont-specific PCR. Disruption of these bacteria within P. ovis, through the use of antibiotics, was explored; with significant reduction in mean mite survival when administered antibiotic diets compared with controls (LR4 = 23.12, P <0.001). The antibiotic treatments also significantly affected the bacterial density (CFU/mite) within P. ovis, indicating that mite survival may be linked to the bacterial communities that they harbour. Although antibiotics are not suitable for practical application, these results suggest disrupting bacteria associated with P. ovis should be further investigated for novel control. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.07.007
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    ABSTRACT: In C57BL/6 mice, Leishmania donovani infection in the liver provoked IFN-γ‒induced expression of the immunity-related GTPases (IRG), Irgm1 and Irgm3. To gauge the antileishmanial effects of these macrophage factors in the liver, intracellular infection was analyzed in IRG-deficient mice. In early- (but not late-) stage infection, Irgm3(-/-) mice failed to properly control parasite replication, generated little tissue inflammation and were hyporesponsive to pentavalent antimony (Sb) chemotherapy. Observations limited to early-stage infection in Irgm1(-/-) mice demonstrated increased susceptibility and virtually no inflammatory cell recruitment to heavily-parasitized parenchymal foci but an intact response to chemotherapy. In L. donovani infection in the liver, the absence of either Irgm1 or Irgm3 impairs early inflammation and initial resistance; the absence of Irgm3, but not Irgm1, also appears to impair the intracellular efficacy of Sb chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.07.005