Experimental Parasitology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Experimental Parasitology emphasizes modern approaches to parasitology, including molecular biology and immunology. The journal features original research papers on the physiological, metabolic, immunologic, biochemical, nutritional, and chemotherapeutic aspects of parasites and hostñparasite relationships.

Current impact factor: 1.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.859
2012 Impact Factor 2.154
2011 Impact Factor 2.122
2010 Impact Factor 1.869
2009 Impact Factor 1.773
2008 Impact Factor 1.751
2007 Impact Factor 1.597
2006 Impact Factor 1.108
2005 Impact Factor 1.306
2004 Impact Factor 1.347
2003 Impact Factor 1.119
2002 Impact Factor 1.232
2001 Impact Factor 1.434
2000 Impact Factor 1.657
1999 Impact Factor 1.729
1998 Impact Factor 2.021
1997 Impact Factor 1.512

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.09
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.29
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.52
Website Experimental Parasitology website
Other titles Experimental parasitology (Online), Experimental parasitology, EP
ISSN 1090-2449
OCLC 36967750
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Xiaotong Zhu, Jun Liu, Yonghui Feng, Wei Pang, Zanmei Qi, Yongjun Jiang, Hong Shang, Yaming Cao
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    ABSTRACT: Phenylhydrazine (PHZ) treatment is generally used to enhance parasitemia in infected mice models. Transient reticulocytosis is commonly observed in iron-deficient anemic hosts after treatment with iron supplementation, and is also associated with short-term hemolysis caused by PHZ treatment. In this study, we investigated the relationship between reticulocytosis and cerebral malaria (CM) in a murine model induced by PHZ administration before Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection. Mortality and parasitemia were checked daily. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-10 were quantified by ELISA. The expression of CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL5, and CXCR3 mRNAs was determined by real-time PCR. Brain sequestration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and populations of splenic Th1 CD4(+) T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were assessed by FACS. PHZ administration dramatically increased parasitemia from day 3 to day 5 post infection (p.i.) compared with the untreated control infected mice group; also, CM developed at day 5 p.i., compared with day 7 p.i. in untreated control infected mice, as well as significantly decreased blood brain barrier function (P < 0.001). PHZ administration during PbA infection significantly increased the expression of CXCL9 (P < 0.05) and VCAM-1 (P < 0.001) in the brain, increased the expression of CXCL10, CCL5 and CXCR3, and significantly increased the recruitment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) as well as CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells to the brain. In addition, PHZ administration significantly increased the numbers of IL-12-secreting DCs at days 3 and 5 p.i. compared to those of untreated control infected mice (P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively). Consequently, the activation of CD4(+) T cells, especially the expansion of the Th1 subset (P < 0.05), was significantly and dramatically enhanced and was accompanied by marked increases in the production of protein and/or mRNA of the Th1-type pro-inflammatory mediators, IFN-γ and TNF-α (P < 0.01 for both for protein; P < 0.05 for TNF-α mRNA). Our results suggest that, compared to healthy individuals, people suffering from reticulocytosis may be more susceptible to severe malaria infection in malaria endemic areas. This has implications for the most appropriate selection of treatment, which may also cause reticulocytosis in patients living in such areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.011
  • Minami Baba, Masanao Sato, Katsuya Kitoh, Yasuhiro Takashima
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    ABSTRACT: Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite, actively invade almost all types of nucleated cells. However, T. gondii tachyzoites preferentially infect particular types of animal tissue cells. The mechanism underlying the host cell preference of T. gondii is not yet known. In this study, we found that enzymatic removal of α2,3- but not α2,6-linked sialic acids on the surface of Vero cells decreased T. gondii tachyzoite adhesion or invasion to the treated cells. Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells express only α2,3-linked sialic acid, a genetically modified CHO cell line constructed by transfection with the α2,6-sialiltransferase gene contains subpopulations with a variety of expression patterns of α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids. When T. gondii tachyzoites were added to the modified CHO cells, the tachyzoites preferentially attached to cells belonging to a subpopulation of cells that highly expressed α2,3-linked sialic acids. Additionally, multiple regression analysis performed to analyse the relationship between the amount of α2,3-linked/α2,6-linked sialic acids and parasite-expressed fluorescence intensity suggested that more tachyzoites adhered to individual α2,3-linked sialic acid rich-cells than to α2,3-linked sialic acid-poor/null cells. The results of confocal laser microscopy confirmed this finding. These results indicate that the host cell preference of T. gondii was, at least partially, affected by the distribution pattern of α2,3-, but almost never α2,6-linked sialic acids on host cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.005
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    ABSTRACT: Calreticulin (CRT) regulates a wide array of cellular responses in physiological and pathological processes. A full-length cDNA-encoding CRT protein, namely AbCRT-1, was isolated from Aphelenchoides besseyi, an ectoparasitic plant nematode and the agent of white tip disease of rice. The deduced amino acid sequence of AbCRT-1 was highly homologous with other nematode CRTs, and showed the closest evolutionary relationship with BxCRT-1. In-situ hybridization showed that AbCRT-1 is specifically located in the oesophageal gland and gonads of A. besseyi, suggesting its potential role in parasitism and reproduction. Quantity real-time PCR analysis showed that AbCRT-1 is highly expressed in female nematodes but poorly expressed in eggs, juveniles, and male nematodes. Exposing the nematode to relatively low osmotic stress promotes the transcription of AbCRT-1 whereas extreme desiccation suppresses the transcription significantly. Nematodes in which AbCRT-1 mRNA level had been knocked down by soaking them in AbCRT-1 dsRNA solution distributed randomly and did not aggregate temporally, with a decreased capacity of food discernment. Thus the affected nematodes were markedly less fecund. These results demonstrate that AbCRT-1 is required in A. besseyi for responding to stress, foraging, and fertility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.009
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria caused by the Plasmodium parasites continues to be an enormous global health problem owing to wide spread drug resistance of parasites to many of the available antimalarial drugs. Therefore, development of new classes of antimalarial agents is essential to effectively treat malaria. In this study, the efficacy of naturally occurring diterpenoids, dehydroabietylamine and abietic acid, and their synthetic derivatives was assessed for antimalarial activity. Dehydroabietylamine and its N-trifluoroacetyl, N-tribromoacetyl, N-benzoyl, and N-benzyl derivatives showed excellent activity against P. falciparum parasites with IC50 values of 0.36 to 2.6 µM. Interestingly, N-dehydroabietylbenzamide, showed potent antimalarial activity (IC50 0.36), and negligible cytotoxicity (IC50 >100 µM) to mammalian cells; thus, this compound can be an important antimalarial drug. In contrast, abietic acid was only marginally effective, exhibiting an IC50 value of ~82 µM. However, several carboxylic group-derivatives of abietic acid were moderately active with IC50 values of ~8.2 to ~13.3 µM. These results suggest that a detailed understanding of the structure-activity relationship of abietane diterpenoids might provide strategies to exploit this class of compounds for malaria treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.002
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    ABSTRACT: A subclass of eukaryotic proteins is subject to modification with fatty acids, the most common of which are palmitic and myristic acid. Protein acylation allows association with cellular membranes in the absence of transmembrane domains. Here we examine POMP39, a protein previously described to be present in the outer mitochondrial membrane proteome (POMP) of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. POMP39 lacks canonical transmembrane domains, but is likely both myristoylated and palmitoylated on its N-terminus. Interestingly, the protein is also dually localized on the surface of the mitochondrion as well as in the flagellum of both insect-stage and the bloodstream form of the parasites. Upon abolishing of global protein acylation or mutation of the myristoylation site POMP39 relocates to the cytosol. RNAi-mediated ablation of the protein neither causes a growth phenotype in insect-stage nor bloodstream form trypanosomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.006
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    ABSTRACT: Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba (FLA) that has been isolated or its DNA identified in soil, dust and water. It causes a fatal central nervous system infection in humans and animals. Although it is environmental as Acanthamoeba and Naegleria fowleri, the two other free-living amebae that also cause CNS infections in humans and other animals, Balamuthia does not feed on bacteria as the other FLA. In the laboratory, it can be grown on a variety of mammalian cell cultures. In this study we examined the ability of three different Balamuthia isolates to grow on several different human skin cell cultures including the WT/A keratinocyte cell cultures. A corneal isolate of Acanthamoeba castellanii was used for comparison. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.05.004
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    ABSTRACT: A new fluorometric method has been developed for measuring the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of Acanthamoeba cultures in microplates and for screening molecules with amoebicidal activity against this microorganism. The use of a biofunctional matrix (containing an oxygen-sensitive fluorogenic probe) attached to the microplate walls allowed continuous measurement of OCR in the medium, hence assessment of amoebic growth. The new OCR method applied to cell viability yielded a linear relationship and monitoring was much quicker than with indirect viability assays previously used. In addition, two drugs were tested in a cytotoxicity assay monitored by the new OCR viability test. With this procedure, the standard amoebicidal drug chlorhexidine digluconate showed an IC50 of 3.53 + 1.3 mg/l against A. polyphaga and 3.19 + 1.2 mg/l against A. castellanii, whereas a cationic dendrimer [G1Si(NMe3+)4] showed an IC50 of 6.42 + 1.3 mg/l against A. polyphaga. These data agree with previous studies conducted in our laboratory. Therefore, the new OCR method has proven powerful and quick for amoebicidal drug screening and is likely to be applied in biochemical studies concerning protozoa respiration and metabolism. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.04.025
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium parasites degrade hemoglobin producing reactive oxygen species as toxic byproducts which are detoxified by a series of antioxidant mechanisms. Quinoline compounds have demonstrated activity against hemoglobin degradation with 5,8-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]quinoline-2-carboxylic acid (TQCA) representing a recent compound inhibiting this process. Thus, this study was undertaken to determine the ability of TQCA to modify the oxidative status in Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes. After hemolysis, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and dehydrogenase enzymes as well as lipid peroxidation were investigated by spectrophotometry. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and the in vivo effects of TQCA were confirmed by a malaria murine model (Rane Test). The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) in infected cells was diminished by this compound compared to control infection in 75.1±3.5% and 26.5±0.3%, respectively, while that of GPx and GR was also lowered (p<0.05). As an adaptive response we appreciated a 2.3-fold increase of SOD activity compared to control infection. Lipid peroxidation and the saturated/unsaturated fatty acids ratio were also decreased by this quinoline derivate in 49.2±1.32% and 37±0.06%, respectively, protecting the cells from hemolysis caused by the infection. The in vitro results were in concordance with the potential in vivo activity of this compound in an established malaria murine model in which TQCA showed significant decrease in the parasitemia levels and increased the mean survival days of infected mice. In conclusion, the antioxidant defense represents a biochemical target for TQCA actions as a potent antimalarial whose effects were also confirmed in vivo. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.04.026
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most significant parasite, due its importance in veterinary medicine and in public health, considered a food-borne pathogens, there is no available drug treatments to eliminate it from animal tissue, this reinforce the search for a vaccine against this parasite. This study was aimed to evaluate the dynamic of the distribution of T. gondii in tissues of female wistar rats and their milk, after the immunization by oral rote with irradiated tachyzoites. One week after pregnancy confirmation, rats was challenged by gavage with T. gondii bradyzoites, oocysts or tachyzoites of T. gondii. Forty-eight pregnant rats were grouped as follow: immunized and challenged with bradyzoites ☑BZ*); non-immunized and challenged with bradyzoites ☑BZ); immunized and challenged with oocysts ☑OC*); non-immunized and challenged with oocysts ☑OC); immunized and challenged with tachyzoites ☑TZ*); non-immunized and challenged with tachyzoites ☑TZ); only immunized ☑I); control group ☑C). After parturition, milk samples were collected for three weeks and then rats were sacrificed and the tissues and milk samples were researched for T. gondii parasite load determined by the quantitative PCR ☑qPCR). It was verified that the immunization with irradiated tachyzoites of T. gondii induced the reduction of parasitic load in muscle samples in rats challenged by bradyzoites and oocysts, although not enabled the development of sterile immunity. The detection of parasite DNA in milk was found throughout the lactation period, from immunized and non-immunized rats, however were not found differences in the parasite load caused by immunization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.04.023
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    ABSTRACT: An in vivo study in the laboratory rat model has been carried out to monitor changes to the tegument and gut of adult Fasciola hepatica following treatment with artesunate. Rats infected with the triclabendazole-resistant Oberon isolate were dosed orally with artesunate at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and flukes recovered 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-treatment (pt). The flukes were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscope examination. Changes to the external surface were limited to swelling and blebbing of the interspinal tegument. There was one exception, a specimen recovered 72 h pt, which had completely lost the syncytium over the posterior region of the fluke. Internal changes to the tegumental syncytium and cell bodies were more severe and were apparent from 48 h pt onwards. Increased numbers of secretory bodies were present in the apical region of the syncytium, the basal infolds were swollen and sloughing of the apical plasma membrane was seen at 96 h pt. In the cell bodies, there was swelling and vesiculation of the cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum (ger), swelling of the mitochondria and a decrease in secretory body production. Changes to the gastrodermal cells were evident from 24 h onwards. They comprised swelling and vesiculation of the ger cisternae, swelling and lysis of the mitochondria and accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and lipid droplets. The nuclei of the cells were karyopyknotic by 96 h pt. The gut was consistently more severely affected than the tegument at all time points pt, pointing to an oral route of uptake for artesunate. This study has provided information on the primary subcellular targets for drug action in the fluke. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.04.012
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the response of pompano fish (Trachinotus ovatus) to white spot disease, we used the protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans to infect live 450-g specimens at concentrations of 40,000 theronts/fish. We assessed the relative infection intensity (RII), serum immobilizing titer, and immunity-related enzyme activities (ACP, AKP, LZM), and assessed feeding, serum ion concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+) and K(+)) and blood biochemistry (ALT, AST, LDH) of pompano. The fish were then treated with a lethal dose of C. irritans (70,000 theronts/fish) and the number of deaths was recorded. We found that the relative infection intensities of the control group, group I, and group II were 0, 283.33±80.66, and 6.33±2.73. Poly-infection induced a significant increase in the serum immobilizing titer (853.33±295.60) of group II. In terms of the biochemical assessment, group II had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase contents than the other groups, and the lowest lysozyme activity (P<0.05), compared to higher activity in the control group and the highest level in group I. Only the fishes of group I had stopped feeding after treatment. The concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and Ca(2+) in blood serum did not differ significantly among the three groups, but K(+) concentration increased with the increasing infection frequency. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase in fish of group II were significantly higher than those of the other groups. Survival of the fish subjected to the lethal dose of C. irritans was 0, 0, and 100 in groups control, I, and II, respectively. In conclusions, based on the food intake of group II, along with the results of relative infection intensity, serum immobilizing titer, and survival, we speculate that the fish in that group acquired high protective immunity following poly-infection by C. irritans, experiencing limited harm for pompano. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.04.010
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been considered as an ideal alternative for light microscopy to detect malaria parasites especially in remote areas. The development and improvement of RDTs is an area of intensive research in the last decade. To date, few parasite proteins have been targeted in RDTs which are known to have certain deficiencies and made the researchers to look for other promising candidates to address this problem. Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (PfTPx-1) is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of the parasite and well conserved across Plasmodium species making this antigen a promising target for malaria diagnosis. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against PfTPx-1. The binding affinities of mAbs were measured. Several immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) were developed using different combination of mAbs. All mAbs showed promising affinities to be used for diagnosis. The sensitivities of ICTs were evaluated using recombinant PfTPx-1 whose results lead us to the preparation of 4 different ICTs. These tests showed positive reaction with P. falciparum in vitro culture supernatant indicating the release of PfTPx-1 during schizont rupture. Altogether, these findings suggest that PfTPx-1 is a promising biomarker to diagnose P. falciparum infection. However, the diagnostic performance of this antigen should be further validated using clinical samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.04.018
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    ABSTRACT: Following infection with the trematode helminth Schistosoma mansoni, CBA mice develop severe parasite egg-induced hepatic granulomatous inflammation as well as prominent CD4(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cell responses driven by dendritic cell (DC)-derived IL-1β and IL-23. By comparison, C57BL/6 mice develop mild hepatic immunopathology, egg stimulation of DCs does not result in IL-1β and IL-23 production, and Th17 cells fail to develop. To investigate the reasons for strain-specific differences in antigen presenting cell (APC) reactivity to eggs, we performed a comparative gene profiling analysis of normal bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and found that CBA DCs display markedly elevated expression of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). In particular, expression of CD209a, a murine homologue of human DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), was strikingly higher in CBA than BL/6 DCs. High CD209a surface expression was observed in various CBA splenic and granuloma APC subpopulations, however, only DCs, and not macrophages, B cells or neutrophils, were able to induce Th17 cell differentiation in response to schistosome eggs. Lentiviral gene silencing in CBA DCs, and over-expression in BL/6 DCs, demonstrated CD209a to be critical for egg-induced DC IL-1β and IL-23 production necessary for Th17 cell differentiation and expansion. These findings reveal a novel innate parasite-sensing mechanism promoting CD4(+) Th17 cells that mediate severe immunopathology in schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.04.006
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital toxoplasmosis may result in abortion, severe mental retardation and neurologic damage in the offspring. Placenta damage is considered as the key event in this disease. Here we show that maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii Wh3 isolate of genotype Chinese 1, that is predominantly prevalent in China, induced trophoblasts apoptosis of pregnant mouse. PCR array analysis of 84 key genes in the biogenesis and functions of mouse mitochondrion revealed that ten genes were up-regulated at least 2-fold in Wh3 infection group, compared with those in the control. The elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as the decreased glutathione (GSH), were observed in the infected mice. The mRNA levels of NADPH oxidase 1 and glutathione peroxidase 6 (GPx6) were significantly increased. The production of excessive ROS was NADPH oxidase-dependent, which contributed to mitochondrial structural damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in placentas, followed by the cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and finally resulted in apoptosis of trophoblasts. All the above-mentioned phenomena were inhibited by pretreatment with the antioxidant of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Taken together, we concluded that Wh3 infection during pregnancy may contribute to trophoblast apoptosis by oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of the downstream singaling pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.04.008