Experimental Parasitology (Exp Parasitol )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

Experimental Parasitology emphasizes modern approaches to parasitology, including molecular biology and immunology. The journal features original research papers on the physiological, metabolic, immunologic, biochemical, nutritional, and chemotherapeutic aspects of parasites and hostñparasite relationships.

  • Impact factor
    2.15
  • 5-year impact
    2.09
  • Cited half-life
    6.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.29
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.52
  • Website
    Experimental Parasitology website
  • Other titles
    Experimental parasitology (Online), Experimental parasitology, EP
  • ISSN
    1090-2449
  • OCLC
    36967750
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Jiang-Mei Gao, Si-Qi Yi, Ming-Shui Wu, Guo-Qing Geng, Ji-Long Shen, Fang-Li Lu, Geoff Hide, De-Hua Lai, Zhao-Rong Lun
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    ABSTRACT: Mouse models differ considerably from humans with regard to clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and, by comparison, the rat model is more representative of this disease in humans. In the present study, we found that different strains of adult and newborn rats (Lewis, Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Brown Norway and Fischer 344) exhibited remarkable variation in the number of brain cysts following inoculation with the T. gondii Prugniaud strain. In adult rats, large numbers of cysts (1231±165.6) were observed in Fischer 344, but none in the other four. This situation was different in newborn rats aged from 5 to 20 days old. All Fischer 344 and Brown Norway newborns were cyst-positive while cyst-positive infection in Sprague Dawley neonates ranged from 54.5% to 60% depending on their age at infection. In Wistar and Lewis rat neonates, however, cyst-positivity rates of 0% to 42.9% and 0% to 25% were found respectively. To investigate whether rat strain differences in infectivity could be related to inherent strain and genetic differences in the host immune response, we correlated our data with previously reported strain differences in iNOS/Arginase ratio in adult rats and found them to be linked. These results show that interactions between host genetic background and age of rat influence T. gondii infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014;
  • Dari F Da, Thomas S Churcher, Rakiswendé S Yerbanga, Bienvenue Yaméogo, Ibrahim Sangaré, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Robert E Sinden, Andrew M Blagborough, Anna Cohuet
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    ABSTRACT: The evaluation of transmission reducing interventions (TRI) to control malaria widely uses membrane feeding assays. In such assays, the intensity of Plasmodium infection in the vector might affect the measured efficacy of the candidates to block transmission. Gametocyte density in the host blood is a determinant of the infection success in the mosquito, however, uncertain estimates of parasite densities and intrinsic characteristics of the infected blood can induce variability. To reduce this variation, a feasible method is to dilute infectious blood samples. We describe the effect of diluting samples of Plasmodium-containing blood samples to allow accurate relative measures of gametocyte densities and their impact on mosquito infectivity and TRI efficacy. Natural Plasmodium falciparum samples were diluted to generate a wide range of parasite densities, and fed to Anopheles coluzzi mosquitoes. This was compared with parallel dilutions conducted on Plasmodium berghei infections. We examined how blood dilution influences the observed blocking activity of anti-Pbs28 monoclonal antibody using the P. berghei / Anopheles stephensi system. In the natural species combination P falciparum/An. coluzzii, blood dilution using heat-inactivated, infected blood as diluents, revealed positive near linear relationships, between gametocyte densities and oocyst loads in the range tested. A similar relationship was observed in the P. berghei / Anopheles stephensi system when using a similar dilution method. In contrast, diluting infected mice blood with fresh uninfected blood dramatically increases the infectiousness. This suggests that highly infected mice blood contains inhibitory factors or reduced blood moieties, which impede infection and may in turn, lead to misinterpretation when comparing individual TRI evaluation assays. In the lab system, the transmission blocking activity of an antibody specific for Pbs28 was confirmed to be density-dependent. This highlights the need to carefully interpret evaluations of TRI candidates, regarding gametocyte densities in the P.berghei / Anopheles stephensi system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase belongs to the class of pyridoxal-5-phosphate enzymes along with aspartate aminotransferase. To explore the function of residue(s) involved in binding of the carboxylate group of Tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) to L. donovani cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (LdcSHMT), the gene was cloned in pET-28(a) vector, overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. With the help of docking results of THF to the active site of protein, the key residues involved in interaction were identified. In an attempt to unravel the function of Arg265 residue involved in binding of the carboxylate group of THF, Arg-265 was mutated to Ala by site-directed mutagenesis. The Arg265Ala-LdcSHMT showed increased Km value (threefold) and decreased kcat/Km value (threefold) for H4-folate as compared with wild type enzyme. The wild and mutant enzymes exhibited similar Km and kcat/Km values for L-allo-threonine. Unlike the wild type enzyme, mutant failed to form characteristic quinonoid intermediate and was unable to carry out the exchange of α-proton from glycine in the presence of Tetrahydrofolate. These results suggested that Arg265 residue is required for the binding of Tetrahydrofolate and may be the base that abstracts α-proton from glycine, leading to formation of quinonoid intermediate in cytosolic SHMT of L. donovani. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify the effect of the treatment with A. satureioides essential oil (free and nanoencapsulated forms) and diminazene aceturate on hematological and biochemical variables in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi. The 56 rats were divided into seven groups with eight rats each. Groups A, C and D were composed by uninfected animals, and groups B, E, F and G were formed by infected rats with T. evansi. Rats from groups A and B were used as negative and positive control, respectively. Rats from the groups C and E were treated with A. satureioides essential oil, and groups D and F were treated with A. satureioides nanoencapsulated essential oil. Groups C, D, E and F received one dose of oil (1.5 mL kg(-1)) during five consecutive days orally. Group G was treated with diminazene aceturate (D.A.) in therapeutic dose (3.5 mg kg(-1)) in an only dose. The blood samples were collected on day 5 PI for analyses of hematological (erythrocytes and leukocytes count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and biochemical (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, urea and creatinine) variables. A. satureioides administered was able to maintain low parasitemia, mainly the nanoencapsulated form, on 5 days post infection. On the infected animals with T. evansi treated with A. satureioides essential oil (free and nanocapsules) the number of total leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes present was similar to uninfected rats, and different from infected and not-treated animals (leukocytosis). Treatment with A. satureioides in free form elevated levels of ALT and AST, demonstrating liver damage; however, treatment with nanoencapsulated form did not cause elevation of these enzymes. Finally, treatments inhibited the increase in creatinine levels caused by infection for T. evansi. In summary, the nanoencapsulated form showed better activity on the trypanosome; it did not cause liver toxicity and prevented renal damage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmania amazonensis undergoes apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) under heat shock conditions. We identified a potential role for inosine 5' monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in L. amazonensis PCD. Trypanosomatids do not have a "de novo" purine synthesis pathway, relying on the salvage pathway for survival. IMPDH, a key enzyme in the purine nucleotide pathway, is related to cell growth and apoptosis. Since guanine nucleotide depletion triggers cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in several organisms we analyzed the correlation between IMPDH and apoptosis-like death in L. amazonensis. The L. amazonensis IMPDH inhibition effect on PCD was evaluated through gene expression analysis, mitochondrial depolarization and detection of Annexin-V labeled parasites. We demonstrated a down-regulation of impdh expression under heat shock treatment, which mimics the natural mammalian host infection. Also, IMPDH inhibitors ribavirin and mycophenolic acid (MPA) prevented cell growth and generated an apoptosis-like phenotype in sub-populations of L. amazonensis promastigotes. Our results are in accordance with previous results showing that a subpopulation of parasites undergoes apoptosis-like cell death in the nutrient poor environment of the vector gut. Here, we suggest the involvement of purine metabolism in previously observed apoptosis-like cell death during Leishmania infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Babesia spp. are obligate protozoan parasites of red blood cells. Transmission to humans occurs through bites from infected ticks or blood transfusion. Infections with B. microti account for the majority of the reported cases of human babesiosis in the USA. A lower incidence is caused by the more recently described species B. duncani. The current gold standard for detection of Babesia is microscopic examination of blood smears. Recent PCR-based assays, including real-time PCR, have been developed for B. microti. On the other hand, molecular assays that detect and distinguish between B. microti and B. duncani infections are lacking. Closely related species of Babesia can be differentiated due to sequence variation within the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal RNAs. In the present study, we targeted the ITS regions of B. microti and B. duncani to develop sensitive and species-specific droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays. The assays were shown to discriminate B. microti from B. duncani and resulted in limits of detection of ~10 gene copies. Moreover, ddPCR for these species were useful in DNA extracted from blood of experimentally infected hamsters, detecting infections of low parasitemia that were negative by microscopic examination. In summary, we have developed sensitive and specific quantitative ddPCR assays for the detection of B. microti and B. duncani in blood. Our methods could be used as sensitive approaches to monitor the progression of parasitemia in rodent models of infection as well as serve as suitable molecular tests in blood screening. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric tissue-invading protozoan parasite that causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans. During tissue invasion, amoebic adhesion to host components is an important event for host cell death leading to successful invasion and infection. Among amoebic virulence factors, Gal/GalNAc lectin is known to be major adhesion factor to host cells. In this study, we investigated the role of amoebic secreted CP (Cysteine Proteases) in amoebic adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) protein using CP inhibitor and E. histolytica strains in which the endogenous inhibitor of cysteine protease (ICP) 1 gene was overexpressed (ICP1(+)) or repressed by antisense small RNA-mediated gene silencing (ICP1(-)). We found that pretreatment of wild-type amoebae with CP inhibitor E64, or thiol-group modifiers such as diamide and N-Ethylmaleimide resulted in a significant decrease in adhesion to laminin and collagen ECM proteins. Furthermore, ICP1(+) strain, with a reduction of secreted CP activity, exhibited reduced ability by 40 percent to adhere to laminin. In contrast, ICP1(-) strain, with an 1.9-fold increase of secreted CP activity, showed a two-fold increase in amoebic adherence to laminin compared to the control strain. In addition, total amount of secreted CP5 was decreased in ICP1(+) amoeba. Conversely, total amount of secreted CP1 and mature-form CP5 were increased in ICP1(-) amoeba. We also found that ICP1 was secreted into extracellular milieu. These results suggest that secreted CP activity by E. histolytica may be an important factor affecting adhesion to host proteins, and regulation of CP secretion by ICP plays a major role in pathogenesis. This study provides insight into the CP-mediated tissue pathogenesis in amoeba-invaded lesions during human amoebiasis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, Taenia crassiceps ORF strain cysticerci have been used instead of T. solium for in vitro studies. Up to date, the main criteria for the use of the murine cysticercosis model for drug efficacy evaluation have not been assessed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of two of the main variables related to the in vivo efficacy: the length of drug treatment and the starting time of treatment after experimental infection, using albendazole (ABZ) and praziquantel (PZQ) as test drugs. Additionally, the relationship between the number of cysts and the parasite weight was assessed. For the study, female BALB/c mice were experimentally infected with T. crassiceps cysts. Three different post-infection periods (10, 20 and 30 days) and 3 different lengths of treatment with ABZ or PZQ (10, 20 and 30 days) were selected. The efficacy of each treatment was evaluated by comparison with a control group. Our results show that for in vivo efficacy studies, the best time to start the drug treatment is 10 days post-infection and that a minimum of 20 days of treatment are required when ABZ or PZQ are used as positive control. Moreover, in this model the parasite weight can be used as a rapid tool to measure the in vivo drug activity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro model for Cryptosporidium baileyi was developed in chicken embryo.•The life cycle of C. baileyi was described by light and electron microscopy.•Time point and reproduction number of C. baileyi oocysts was clarified in allantoic fluid of chicken embryos.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014; 147.
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of PQ and LM resistance in Plasmodium berghei ANKA.•No polymorphisms in Pbcrt and Pbmdr1 genes.•High expression of ggcs, gst, and vcx1 genes associated with PQ and LM resistance.•Increased vp2 transcript associated with PQ resistance only.•High GSH levels and elevated GST enzyme activity in PQ and LM resistance.
    Experimental Parasitology 12/2014; 147.
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    ABSTRACT: The identity of the causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the endemic Jordanian Mid Jordan Valley (JMidJV) was investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) followed by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The geographical distribution of CL and the usefulness of ITS1 PCR in diagnosis of suspected CL in the study area were also addressed. Over the period from 2004 to 2009, 56 clinical isolates of Leishmania promastigotes and 185 lesion scrapings spotted on filter papers were obtained from suspected CL patients living in the JMidJV, which is divided into northern and southern districts. The majority (67.1%) of patients occurred in the populated eastern part of the southern district. Of the 185 suspected CL patients, 173 (93.5%) were confirmed positive using PCR. Leishmanial DNA was detected in 27 (90%) of 30 patients having clinically atypical lesions of CL and in 60 (92%) of 65 smear- and culture-negative cases having typical lesions of CL. The parasites in all of the 56 isolates and the 173 PCR-positive scrapings were classified as Leishmania major. In conclusion, PCR is useful in diagnosis of CL especially when smear and culture are negative. It is also recommended as a differential diagnostic tool of atypical lesions when CL is endemic. The identification of L. major as the causative species in such a considerable number of CL cases, representative of all minifoci of CL in the study area, shows that the JMidJV is a classic focus of L. major. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin (TcCyP19), a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, is a key molecule with diverse biological functions that include roles in molecular chaperoning, stress response, immune modulation, and signal transduction. In this respect, TcCyP19 could serve as a potential drug target in disease-causing parasites. Previous studies employing proteomics techniques have shown that the TcCyP19 isoform was more abundant in a benznidazole (BZ)-resistant Trypanosoma cruzi population than in its susceptible counterpart. In this study, TcCyP19 has been characterized in BZ-susceptible and BZ-resistant T. cruzi populations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear dichotomy between Cyphophilin A (CyPA) sequences from trypanosomatids and mammals. Sequencing analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of TcCyP19 were identical among the T. cruzi samples analyzed. Southern blot analysis showed that TcCyP19 is a single-copy gene, located in chromosomal bands varying in size from 0.68 to 2.2 Mb, depending on the strain of T. cruzi. Northern blot and qPCR indicated that the levels of TcCyP19 mRNA were twofold higher in drug-resistant T. cruzi populations than in their drug-susceptible counterparts. Similarly, as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis immunoblot, the expression of TcCyP19 protein was increased to the same degree in BZ-resistant T. cruzi populations. No differences in TcCyP19 mRNA and protein expression levels were observed between the susceptible and the naturally resistant T. cruzi strains analyzed. Taken together, these data indicate that cyclophilin TcCyP19 expression is up-regulated at both transcriptional and translational levels in T. cruzi populations that were in vitro-induced and in vivo-selected for resistance to BZ. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Copper is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms as an important catalytic co-factor for key enzymes. In higher eukaryotes intracellular copper is distributed by copper metallochaperones. Copper chelators such as neocuproine and tetrathiomolybdate inhibit Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic development, indicating a requirement for copper by the parasite. A screen of the P. falciparum genome database identified eight potential copper-requiring protein orthologs, including four candidate copper metallochaperones implicated in the delivery of copper to cytochrome-c oxidase. A P. falciparum Cox17 ortholog (PfCox17) was recombinantly expressed and the purified protein bound reduced copper in vitro. PfCox17 was localised to the parasite cytoplasm. Characterisation of plasmodial proteins involved in copper metabolism will help us understand the role of this essential microelement in plasmodial homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The interest in experimental studies on avian malaria caused by Plasmodium species has increased recently due to the need of direct information about host-parasite interactions. Numerous important issues (host susceptibility, development of infection, the resistance and tolerance to avian malaria) can be answered using experimental infections. However, specificity of genetically different lineages of malaria parasites and their isolates is largely unknown. This study reviews recent experimental studies and offers additional data about susceptibility of birds to several widespread cytochrome b (cyt b) lineages of Plasmodium species belonging to four subgenera. We exposed two domesticated avian hosts (canaries Serinus canaria and ducklings Anas platyrhynchos) and also 16 species of common wild European birds to malaria infections by intramuscular injection of infected blood and then tested them by microscopic examination and PCR-based methods. Our study confirms former field and experimental observations about low specificity and wide host-range of Plasmodium relictum (lineages SGS1 and GRW11) and P. circumflexum (lineage TURDUS1) belonging to the subgenera Haemamoeba and Giovannolaia, respectively. However, the specificity of different lineages and isolates of the same parasite lineage differed between species of exposed hosts. Several tested Novyella lineages were species specific, with a few cases of successful development in experimentally exposed birds. The majority of reported cases of mortality and high parasitaemia were observed during parasite co-infections. Canaries were susceptible mainly for the species of Haemamoeba and Giovannolaia, but were refractory to the majority of Novyella isolates. Ducklings were susceptible to three malaria infections (SGS1, TURDUS1 and COLL4), but parasitaemia was light (<0.01%) and transient in all exposed birds. This study provides novel information about susceptibility of avian hosts to a wide array of malaria parasite lineages, outlining directions for future experimental research on various aspects of biology and epidemiology of avian malaria. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Multistep processes likely underlie cholangiocarcinogenesis induced by chronic infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. One process appears to be cellular proliferation of the host bile duct epithelia driven by excretory–secretory (ES) products of this pathogen. Specifically, the secreted growth factor Ov-GRN-1, a liver fluke granulin, is a prominent component of ES and a known driver of hyper-proliferation of cultured human and mouse cells in vitro. We show potent hyper-proliferation of human cholangiocytes induced by low nanomolar levels of recombinant Ov-GRN-1 and similar growth produced by low microgram concentrations of ES products and soluble lysates of the adult worm. To further explore the influence of Ov-GRN-1 on the flukes and the host cells, expression of Ov-grn-1 was repressed using RNA interference. Expression of Ov-grn-1 was suppressed by 95% by day 3 and by ~100% by day 7. Co-culture of Ov-grn-1 suppressed flukes with human cholangiocyte (H-69) or human cholangiocarcinoma (KKU-M214) cell lines retarded cell hyper-proliferation by 25% and 92%, respectively. Intriguingly, flukes in which expression of Ov-grn-1 was repressed were less viable in culture, suggesting that Ov-GRN-1 is an essential growth factor for survival of the adult stage of O. viverrini, at least in vitro. To summarize, specific knock down of Ov-grn-1 reduced in vitro survival and capacity of ES products to drive host cell proliferation. These findings may help to contribute to a deeper understanding of liver fluke induced cholangiocarcinogenesis.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ox40 ligand (Ox40L)–Ox40 pathway has been shown to enhance Th2 responses and play a role in pathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major. Using Ox40l−/− BALB/c mice we analyzed the role of this pathway in determining the outcome to CL caused by L. mexicana and compared to L. major. Contrary to our expectations, Ox40l−/− mice were highly susceptible to both L. major (LV39) and L. mexicana (M379) and developed large non-healing lesions containing parasites comparable to Ox40l+/+ BALB/c mice. Interestingly, upon in vitro stimulation with Leishmania antigen (LmAg), the lymph node cells from L. major infected Ox40l−/− mice produced significantly less IL-4 and IL-10 compared to Ox40l+/+ mice. L. mexicana infected Ox40l−/− and Ox40l+/+ mice did not show any difference in the production of IL-4 and IL-10. No difference was noted in the amount of Th1 cytokines IFN-ү and IL-12 produced by Ox40l−/− and Ox40l+/+ mice infected with either parasite. These results indicate that the Ox40L–Ox40 pathway promotes Th2 bias only in L. major infection but not L. mexicana infection and this pathway is not critical for susceptibility to CL.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The (−)α-bisabolol is a sesquiterpene alcohol found in essential oils of plants.•Antileishmanial activity of (−)α-bisabolol against L. amazonensis was evaluated.•The (−)α-bisabolol showed cytotoxic effects in vitro against L. amazonensis.•The (−)α-bisabolol at 8.07 µg/ml reduces in 50% the survival index of promastigotes.•The (−)α-bisabolol at 4.29 µg/ml reduces in 50% the survival index of amastigotes.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: T. gondii Glutathione Reductase (TgGR) plays important role during the survival of the parasite. In this investigation, immunological changes and protection efficiency of this protein delivered as a DNA vaccine (pTgGR) have been evaluated. Mice were immunized with pTgGR, followed by challenge with virulent T. gondii RH strain, 2 weeks after the booster immunization. Compared to the control groups pVAX1, PBS and Blank groups, the results showed that pTgGR stimulated specific humoral response defined by significant titers of total IgG, subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a, classes IgA and IgM, but not IgE. Analysis of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17 and TGF-β1 cytokines after immunization and compared with the control groups showed significant increments in pTgGR group. Additionally, T lymphocytes subpopulation CD4(+) T was positively recruited with significant percentage detected, while subset CD8(+) appeared not to be involved in response to this antigen. Vaccinated mice showed a significantly longer survival time, 15 days, in contrast with control groups which died within 8-10 days after challenge. These results demonstrated that TgGR could induce significant humoral and cell mediated responses leading to a considerable level of resistance against toxoplasmosis infection.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/2014;
  • Experimental Parasitology 11/2014;