Experimental Parasitology (Exp Parasitol)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Experimental Parasitology emphasizes modern approaches to parasitology, including molecular biology and immunology. The journal features original research papers on the physiological, metabolic, immunologic, biochemical, nutritional, and chemotherapeutic aspects of parasites and hostñparasite relationships.

Current impact factor: 1.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.859
2012 Impact Factor 2.154
2011 Impact Factor 2.122
2010 Impact Factor 1.869
2009 Impact Factor 1.773
2008 Impact Factor 1.751

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.09
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.29
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.52
Website Experimental Parasitology website
Other titles Experimental parasitology (Online), Experimental parasitology, EP
ISSN 1090-2449
OCLC 36967750
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Theileria uilenbergi is a pathogen that causes ovine theileriosis. Prevention and control of theileriosis relies on its diagnosis at early stages of occurrence and requires understanding of proteins with antigenic properties from the pathogen. Despite its prevalence in China, only a few molecules with antigenic properties have been characterized from T. uilenbergi. In this study, we identified a cDNA named Tu88 by immunoscreening a T. uilenbergi merozoite cDNA library with T. uilenbergi-positive sera from infected sheep. Recombinant Tu88 (rTu88) expressed in bacteria reacted strongly with the positive sera of T. uilenbergi in western blot analysis indicating its potential as an antigen. Southern blot analysis showed that it is a single copy gene. Protein localization by immunostaining blood smears from an infected sheep demonstrated the presence of native Tu88 in merozoites. These findings suggest that Tu88 is a potential candidate antigen for the development of a sero-diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.03.003
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    ABSTRACT: The infection and development of a parasite may cause physiological, morphological and behavioral changes in its host. Changes in the locomotory activity of a host induced by their parasites may also influence the life-cycles of both host and parasite in the environment. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the locomotory activities of Biomphalaria glabrata before and after an experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni relating to the shedding of cercaria. In addition, the reproductive parameters of infected B. glabrata were analyzed during the prepatent and patent periods of the infection. The locomotory activity was recorded using an image analysis biomonitoring system based on a Videomex V®. Five parameters were analyzed: Distance travelled, Ambulatory time, Stereotypic time, Resting time and Average speed. The number of shed cercariae was counted twice at 45 and 52 days post-infection. The reproductive parameters of infected B. glabrata analyzed were the numbers of egg masses, eggs and hatched snails. All statistical analyses were performed using the R program. Of the 69 snails infected with S. mansoni, 33 (47.8%) shed cercariae ('positive') and 36 (52.2%) ('exposed') failed to exhibit any cercarial shedding prior to the end of the experiment. The locomotory activity of the all snails increased significantly after infection with S. mansoni. However, when the 'positive' and 'exposed' snails were compared, the former, shedding cercariae, were less motile. With regard to reproduction, 84.8 % (28/33) of the 'positive' and 27.7% (10/36) of the 'exposed' snails failed to lay egg masses during patent period. The number of cercariae individually shed by each 'positive' snail presented a positive relation with Stereotypic time and a negative relation with egg laying. Our findings highlight the way in which infection with S. mansoni affects the locomotory and the reproductive behavior of B. glabrata. The number of cercariae shed is directly associated with the reduction/interruption in egg-laying and with an increase in random movement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.03.004
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic analysis using experimentally induced mutations has been a most valuable tool in the analysis of various organisms. However, genetic analysis of endoparasitic organisms tends to be difficult because of the limited accessibility of the sexually reproducing adults, which are normally located within the host. Nematode of the genera Strogyloides and Parastrongyloides represent an exception to this because they can form facultative free-living sexually reproducing generations in between parasitic generations. Here we present a protocol for the chemical mutagenesis of Strongyloides ratti. Further we evaluate the feasibility of identifying the induced mutations by whole genome resequencing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.03.001
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we show here that perforin-like protein 1 (TgPLP1) is expressed in bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. An immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that TgPLP1 is expressed in Toxoplasma gondii-encysted and in vitro-induced bradyzoites, TgPLP1 is distributed in micronemes in a manner similar to its distribution in tachyzoites. To shed light on the function of TgPLP1 in bradyzoites, quantitative PCR revealed that the expression level of TgPLP1 gene decreased over time during differentiation into bradyzoites in vitro. This finding suggests that TgPLP1 may play a role in the rupture of tissue cysts or the maintenance of cyst structure, although the exact function of this gene in the bradyzoites is still unknown. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.02.005
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    ABSTRACT: The toxicity and emergence of resistance to available chemical drugs against visceral leishmaniasis is evoking to explore herbal treatment. One such attempt with the Neem is being reported here under. Current study is primarily focused to evaluate the anti-leishmanial effects of Neem leaf extracts. Among which, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) alone was found to exhibit leishmnicidal effect validated through cytotoxicity assay and estimated its IC50 to be 52.4µg/ml on the promastigote stage. Propidium iodide (PI) staining of dead cells substantiated the aforementioned activity. Carboxy fluorescein-diaceate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining of promastigotes has affirmed its anti-proliferation activity. The characteristic features such as DNA fragmentation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, increased sub G0/G1 phase parasites and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in EAF treated promastigotes indicate the apoptosis like death. In addition, the reduced parasite burden both in vitro (viz. ~45% in human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and ~50% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and in vivo (spleen and liver) provides the evidence for its anti-leishmanial activity on amastigote stage. The increase of ROS levels in THP-1 and nitric oxide (NO) production from J774.1 cell line (mouse macrophages) upon EAF treatment evidenced for oxidative killing of intracellular amastigotes. Active immunomodulatory activity at m-RNA level (viz. upregulation of Th1 cytokines, and downregulation of Th2 cytokines) both in vitro and in vivo was also shown to be exhibited by EAF. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of EAF revealed the presence of 14 compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.02.011
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase (TsNd) bound to intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), and the vaccination of mice with recombinant TsNd protein (rTsNd) produced a partial protective immunity against challenge infection in mice. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of TsNd gene was cloned into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1, and the recombinant TsNd DNA was transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain⊿cyaSL1344. Oral immunization of mice with TsNd/S. typhimurium elicited a significant local mucosal IgA response and a systemic Th1/Th2 immune response. Cytokine profiling also showed a significant increase in the Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, 10) responses in splenocytes of immunized mice upon stimulation with the rTsNd. The oral immunization of mice with TsNd/S. typhimurium displayed a statistically significant 73.32 % reduction in adult worm burden and a 49.5% reduction in muscle larvae after challenge with T. spiralis muscle larvae, compared with PBS control group. Our results demonstrated that TsNd DNA delivered by attenuated live S. typhimurium elicited a local IgA response and a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response, and produced a partial protection against T. spiralis infection in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; 153. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.02.008
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasitic protozoon which infects human and most warm-blooded animals. Almost one-third of the world's population is affected by life-threatening infection of T. gondii tachyzoites form. Slow growing, transmissible and encysted bradyzoites forms are composed after tachyzoites stage. Cellular and environmental stresses induce conversion of tachyzoites from bradyzoites and this condition is associated with Heat Shock Protein (Hsps) family. Hsp100 is a member of this protein family, and coordinates to disassemble protein aggregates with Hsp70 and Hsp40 in an ATP dependent manner. Several proteins are involved during this stage differentiation and Hsp100 may help them to be in their native soluble form to perform their function as observed in other organisms. For this purpose, Hsp100-Batu1 was isolated from T. gondii RH strain to characterize its biochemical properties in this current study. Hsp100 proteins play a role in survival and virulence of pathogens as shown in the literature. Therefore, manipulation of protein-protein interaction may perturb T. gondii infection and impair conversion to tachyzoites by inhibiting Hsp100 function. Therefore, results of this work present a potential route for vaccination or immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.02.007
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg), administered as a pour-on, in comparison to an injectable formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), against R. (B.) microplus in naturally and experimentally infested cattle. Two studies were conducted with different tick strains, one with artificial infestations (Stall Test, using eight animals per group) and one with natural infestations (utilizing ten animals per group). In both studies, the animals were randomized, according to average tick counts performed on days -3, -2 and -1, into four groups: T01, negative control (saline solution); T02, pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg); T03: subcutaneous fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63mg/kg); and T04 subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Based on obtained results, and considering the utilized tick strains, it was possible to conclude that the pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) formulation demonstrated high acaricidal efficacy, with protection periods ranging from 49 to 77 days against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. On the other hand, for the injectable fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg) formulation, it was not possible to observe elevated anti-R. (B.) microplus effect on both artificial and experimental infestation studies. Results observed for this combination were similar or inferior to those obtained by subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Future studies with this formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), regarding pharmacokinetic and/or bioavailability profiles, or even studies analyzing both this active principles separately, are needed, seeking to better understand the effects of such combination against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; 153. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.02.004
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    ABSTRACT: The anti-plasmodium activity of angiotensin II and its analogs have been described in different plasmodium species. Here we synthesized angiotensin II Ala-scan analogs to verify peptide-parasite invasion preservation with residue replacements. The analogs were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) and tert-Butyloxycarbonyl (t-Boc) solid phase methods, purified by liquid chromatography and characterized by mass spectrometry. The results obtained in Plasmodium falciparum assays indicated that all analogs presented some influence in parasite invasion, except [Ala(4)]-Ang II (18% of anti-plasmodium activity) that was not statistically different from control. Although, [Ala(8)]-Ang II presented a lower biological activity (20%) it was statistically different from control. The most relevant finding was that [Ala(5)]-Ang II preserved activity (45%) relative to Ang II (47%). In the results of Plasmodium gallinaceum assays all analogs were not statistically different from control, except [Ala(6)]-Ang II, which was able to reduce the parasitemia about 49%. This approach provides insight for understanding the importance of each amino acid on the native Ang II sequence and provides a new direction for the design of potential chemotherapeutic agents without pressor activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.02.006
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    ABSTRACT: Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood–CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood–CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.02.002
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is unsatisfactory because only a few drugs, with serious side effects and poor efficacy, are available. As drug combination regimes often achieve greater therapeutic efficacy than monotherapies, here the trypanocidal activity of the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 in combination with current anti-HAT drugs using bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei was investigated. Isobolographic analysis was used to determine the interaction between cysteine protease inhibitors (K11777, CA-074Me and CAA0225) and anti-HAT drugs (suramin, pentamidine, melarsoprol and eflornithine). Bloodstream forms of T. brucei were incubated in culture medium containing cysteine protease inhibitors or anti-HAT drugs alone or in combination at a 1:1 fixed-dose ratio. After 48 h incubation, live cells were counted, the 50% growth inhibition values determined and combination indices calculated. The general cytotoxicity of drug combinations was evaluated with human leukemia HL-60 cells. Combinations of K11777 with suramin, pentamidine and melarsoprol showed antagonistic effects while with eflornithine a synergistic effect was observed. Whereas eflornithine antagonises with CA-074Me, an inhibitor inactivating the targeted TbCATL only under reducing conditions, it synergises with CAA0255, an inhibitor structurally related to CA-074Me which inactivates TbCATL independently of thiols. These findings indicate an essential role of thiols for the synergistc interaction between K11777 and eflornithine. Encouragingly, the K11777/eflornithine combination displayed higher trypanocidal than cytotoxic activity. The results of this study suggest that the combination of the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 and eflornithine display promising synergistic trypanocidal activity that warrants further investigation of the drug combination as possible alternative treatment of HAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; 151. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.01.016
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral assessment and activities of important enzymes involved in the phosphoryl transfer network in rat brains that were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Behavioral assessment (cognitive performance), pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and activities of adenylate kinase (AK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and creatine kinase (CK) in brain were evaluated at 5 and 15 days post-infection (PI). Here we demonstrate a cognitive impairment in the rats infected with T. evansi. At 5 and 15 days PI, a memory deficit and a depressant activity were demonstrated by an inhibition avoidance test and increase in the immobility time in a tail suspension test, respectively. On day 5 PI, a decrease in the CK activity and an increase in the AK activity were observed. On day 15 PI, an increase in the CK activity and a decrease in the AK activity were observed. Considering the importance of energy metabolism for brain functioning, it is possible that the changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the cerebral phosphotransfer network and an increase in the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF and IFN) may be involved at least in part in the cognitive impairment in infected rats with T. evansi.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.01.015
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    ABSTRACT: Full length cDNAs encoding phosphofructokinase (PFK) were cloned from Teladorsagia circumcincta (TcPFK) and Haemonchus contortus (HcPFK). TcPFK (2361 bp) and HcPFK (2367 bp) cDNA encoded 787 and 789 amino acid proteins respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences showed 98% similarity with each other and 70% with a Caenorhabditis elegans PFK. Substrate binding sites were completely conserved in both proteins. Soluble N-terminal His-tagged PFK proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21, purified and characterised. The recombinant TcPFK and HcPFK had very similar kinetic properties: the pH optima were pH 7.0, Km for fructose 6-phosphate was 0.50 ± 0.01 and 0.55 ± 0.01 mM respectively when higher (inhibiting concentration, 0.3 mM) ATP concentration was used and the curve was sigmoidal. The Vmax for TcPFK and HcPFK was 1110 ± 16 and 910 ± 10 nmoles min(-1) mg(-1) protein respectively. Lower ATP concentration (non-inhibiting, 0.01 mM) did not change the Vmax for TcPFK and HcPFK (890 ± 10 and 860 ± 12 nmoles min(-1) mg(-1) protein) but the substrate affinity doubled and Km for fructose 6-phosphate was 0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.25 ± 0.01 mM respectively. Recognition of TcPFK and HcPFK by mucosal and serum antibodies in nematode exposed animals demonstrate antigenicity and suggests involvement in the host response to nematode infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; 151. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.01.020
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    ABSTRACT: While a large number of laboratory methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples are now available, their efficacy for identifying asymptomatic cases of cryptosporidiosis is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine a reliable screening test for epidemiological studies in livestock. In addition, three molecular tests were compared to identify Cryptosporidium species responsible for the infection in cattle, sheep and horses. A variety of diagnostic tests including microscopic (Kinyoun's staining), immunological (Direct Fluorescence Antibody tests or DFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and molecular methods (nested PCR) were compared to assess their ability to detect Cryptosporidium in cattle, horse and sheep faecal samples. The results indicate that the sensitivity and specificity of each test is highly dependent on the input samples; while Kinyoun's and DFAT proved to be reliable screening tools for cattle samples, DFAT and PCR analysis (targeted at the 18S rRNA gene fragment) were more sensitive for screening sheep and horse samples. Finally different PCR primer sets targetedat the same region resulted in the preferential amplification of certain Cryptosporidium species when multiple species were present in the sample. Therefore, for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in the event of asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis, the combination of different 18S rRNA nested PCR primer sets is recommended for further epidemiological applications and also tracking the sources of infection.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.01.018
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    ABSTRACT: A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding Cu/Zn–superoxide dismutase was isolated from Fasciola gigantica that on nucleotide sequencing showed a close homology (98.9%) with Cu/Zn–superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the temperate liver fluke, F. hepatica. Expression of the gene was found in all the three developmental stages of the parasite viz. adult, newly excysted juvenile and metacercaria at transcriptional level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and at the protein level by Western blotting. F. gigantica Cu/Zn–SOD cDNA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme activity of the recombinant protein was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and this activity was inactivated by hydrogen peroxide but not by sodium azide, indicating that the recombinant protein is Cu/Zn–SOD. The enzyme activity was relatively stable at a broad pH range of pH 4.0–10.0. Native Cu/Zn–superoxide dismutase protein was detected in the somatic extract and excretory–secretory products of the adult F. gigantica by Western blotting. NBT–PAGE showed a single Cu/Zn–SOD present in the somatic extract while three SODs are released ex vivo by the adult parasite. The recombinant superoxide dismutase did not react with the serum from buffaloes infected with F. gigantica. The role of this enzyme in defense by the parasite against the host reactive oxygen species is discussed.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2015; 151-152. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.01.014