Experimental Parasitology (Exp Parasitol )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

Experimental Parasitology emphasizes modern approaches to parasitology, including molecular biology and immunology. The journal features original research papers on the physiological, metabolic, immunologic, biochemical, nutritional, and chemotherapeutic aspects of parasites and hostñparasite relationships.

  • Impact factor
    2.15
  • 5-year impact
    2.09
  • Cited half-life
    6.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.29
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.52
  • Website
    Experimental Parasitology website
  • Other titles
    Experimental parasitology (Online), Experimental parasitology, EP
  • ISSN
    1090-2449
  • OCLC
    36967750
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Voluntary deposit by author of pre-print allowed on Institutions open scholarly website and pre-print servers
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and publisher exists
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article gives an overview on the isolation and characterisation of endoparasitic fungi invading free-living amoebae (FLA), including the ones forming thalli inside their hosts such as Cochlonema euryblastum and also the predatory fungi which capture amoebae by adhesive hyphae. They trap, intrude, and exploite amoebal trophozoites such as Acaulopage spp. and Stylopage spp. Previous phylogenetic studies proved Cochlonema to be a member of the Zoopagales. The genetic investigation of Acaulopage tetraceros demonstrated its close relationship to Cochlonema. Co-cultivation of A. tetraceros with a number of FLA revealed a great prey spectrum of this amoebophageous fungus. In addition it was shown that solitary amoebal stages of slime moulds such as Dictyostelium sp. and Physarum sp. are also suited as welcome prey amoebae.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is the causal agent of bovine tritrichomonosis (BT), a venereal disease that causes significant economic losses in the bovine livestock industry. The structural organization of T. foetus presents a cell membrane, an undulating membrane which extends along the parasite, three anterior flagella and a recurrent posterior flagellum. The interaction between the superficial glycoconjugates of the parasite and the host cell is one of the most relevant pathogenic mechanisms. In the present study, we analyzed the saccharide pattern through lectincytochemistry of the cell membrane, undulating membrane, cytoplasm and flagella of 28 isolates of T. foetus. Lectins that labeled most of the isolates were WGA, Con-A, RCA-I, LCA, GS-II and PHA-E showing the presence of D-mannose, D-glucose, N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid. On the other hand, no labeling was observed in any of the structures with VVA, STA, LEA, Jacalin, GS-I, SJA, PHA-L, DSA, and weak labeling was observed with DBA, PNA, SBA and UEA I, showing therefore a low expression of N-acetylgalactosamine, L-fucose and galactose. In addition, GS II labeled in a granular pattern when lectincytochemistry was positive, whereas LCA strongly labeled the membranes and weakly the cytoplasms. The labeling variations observed among the isolates analyzed in the present work, could be related to differences in the pathogenic behavior of the isolates.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we analyze the leishmanicidal effects of epoxy-α-lapachone on Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Promasigotes and amastigotes (inhabiting human macrophages) from both species were assayed to verify the compound's activity over the distinct morphological stages. The incubation with epoxy-α-lapachone led to a significant decrease in the numbers of promastigotes from both species in the cultures, in a dose-and time-dependent fashion. The survival of amastigotes inhabiting human macrophages was also drastically affected by the compound, as shown by the variations in the endocytic index. Our results indicate that the epoxy-α-lapachone has an antiparasitic effect over Leishmania in both morphological stages and may potentially affect a range of species in two distinct subgenera of this parasite.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cats that live in areas where canine and human leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is endemic may become infected and may develop anti-Leishmania antibodies. In this study 50 clinically normal and 50 cats with cutaneous and/or systemic signs that lived in an endemic area and had been previously examined for infection by L. infantum using PCR in four different tissues were serologically tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania IgG (IFAT and ELISA) and IgM (IFAT). The aim was to compare the results of IFAT, ELISA and PCR and to investigate the possible associations between seropositivity to Leishmania spp and signalment, living conditions, season of sampling, health status of the cats, and seropositivity to other infectious agents. Low concentrations of anti-Leishmania IgG were detected by IFAT in 10% of the cats and by ELISA in 1%, whereas anti-Leishmania IgM were detected by IFAT in 1%. There was disagreement between the results of IFAT and ELISA for anti-Leishmania IgG (P=0.039) and between all serological tests and PCR (P<0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity of all serological tests, using PCR as the gold standard, was very low, but ELISA and IFAT for anti-Leishmania IgM had 100% specificity. The diagnostic sensitivity of all serological tests could not be improved by changing the cut-off values. Seropositivity for Leishmania spp was not associated with signalment, living conditions, season of sampling and health status of the cats or with seropositivity to feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline coronavirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella henselae. In conclusion, because of their low sensitivity and very high specificity two of the evaluated serological tests (ELISA for anti-Leishmania IgG and IFAT for anti-Leishmania IgM) may be useless as population screening tests but valuable for diagnosing feline infection by L. infantum.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis is generally known to inhabit the genitourinary tract. However, several case reports with supporting molecular and immunological identifications have documented its occurrence in the respiratory tract of neonates and adults. In addition, the reports have documented that its occurrence is associated with respiratory failures. The medical significance or consequence of this association is unclear. Thus, to establish the possible outcome from the interaction of T. vaginalis with lung cells, the cytopathic effects of the parasites were evaluated using monolayer cultures of the human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. The possible effect of association of T. vaginalis with A549 epithelial cells was analyzed using phase-contrast, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), crystal-violet and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assays were conducted for cytotoxicity testing. The results demonstrate that T. vaginalis: (1) adheres to A549 epithelial cells, suggesting a density-dependent parasite-cell association; (2) adherence on A549 is through flagella, membrane and axostyle; (3) causes cell detachment and cytotoxicity (50%-72.4%) to A549 and this effect is a function of parasite density; and (4) induces apoptosis in A549 about 20% after 6 h of incubation. These observations indicate that T. vaginalis causes cytopathic effects on A549 cell. To date, this is the first report showing a possible interaction of T. vaginalis with the lung cells using A549 monolayer cultures. Further studies are recommended to completely elucidate this association.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular techniques were used to identify Fasciola species collected from Chiang Mai Thailand. Morphometrically, 65 stained and 45 fresh worms collected from cattle suggested the possible occurrence of both F.gigantica and F. hepatica. Twenty-two worms comprising 15 from cattle and 7 from human patients, were identified subsequently based on three genetic markers: mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). All of them presented the F. gigantica type in maternally inherited mitochondrial sequences (nad1 and cox1), with six types in each sequence (FgNDI-CM1 to FgNDI-CM6 and FgCOI-CM1 to FgCOI-CM6, respectively). Remarkably, the predominant nad1 type, FgNDI-CM6, was identical to that of aspermic Fasciola sp. formerly reported from Thailand, Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam, and Myanmar. ITS2 sequences were analyzed successfully in 20 worms. Fifteen worms showed the F. gigantica type and five (including one worm from a patient) had mixed ITS2 sequences of both F. gigantica and F. hepatica in the same worms, with additional heterogeneity within both ITS2 types. This study revealed the intermediate form of Fasciola coexisting with F. gigantica for the first time in Thailand.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The excretory/secretory (ES) proteins of schistosomes play important roles in modulating host immune systems and are regarded as potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an essential enzyme that is involved in disulfide bond formation and rearrangement. In the present study, SjPDI, a 52.8 kDa protein previously identified in a proteomics analysis as one of the ES proteins of Schistosoma japonicum, was cloned and characterized. Western blot analysis showed that recombinant SjPDI (rSjPDI) was recognized by serum from rabbits vaccinated with schistosome worm antigen. Worm protein extracts and ES protein extracts from S. japonicum could react with anti-rSjPDI mouse serum. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that SjPDI was expressed at all developmental stages tested, and a high expression level was detected in 42-day-old male worms. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that SjPDI was mainly distributed on the tegument and parenchyma of S. japonicum worms. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated that rSjPDI could induce a high level of rSjPDI-specific IgG antibodies. The biological activity of purified rSjPDI was confirmed by isomerization and antioxidative activity assays. The 35.32%, 26.19% reduction in the worm burden and 33.17%, 31.7% lower liver egg count were obtained in mice vaccinated with rSjPDI compared with the blank control group in two independent trials. Our preliminary results suggest that rSjPDI plays an important role in the development of the schistosome and is a potential vaccine candidate for schistosomiasis.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L. acidophilus (P106) and L. plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3±4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 µg and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L. acidophilus bacteriocin for five successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved that five doses of L. acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L. acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and on the activity of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) in rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. For this purpose, twenty rats were divided into four experimental groups with five animals each as follows: groups A and B were composed by healthy animals, while animals from the groups C and D were infected by T. evansi. Additionally, groups B and D received two subcutaneous doses of iron (60 mg kg(-1)) within an interval of five days. Blood samples were drawn on day 8 post infection in order to assess hematological and biochemical variables. Among the main results are: (1) animals from the group C showed reduced erythrogram (with tendency to anemia); however the same results were not observed for the group D; this might be a direct effect of free iron on trypanosomes which helped to reduce the parasitemia and the damage to erythrocytes caused by the infection; (2) iron supplementation was able to reduce NOx levels by inhibiting iNOS, and thus, providing an antioxidant action and, indirectly, reducing the ALT levels in the groups B and D; (3) increase FRAP levels in the group D; (4) reduce ADA activity in serum and erythrocytes in the group C; however, this supplementation (5) increased the protein oxidation in groups B and D, as well as group C (positive control). Therefore, iron showed antioxidant and oxidant effects on animals that received supplementation; and it maintained the activity of E-ADA stable in infected/supplemented animals.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Anisakis (Anisakidae) is one of the most important causes of helminth-induced allergic reactions and elicits clinical responses that include urticaria, rhinitis, bronco-constriction, cough, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. More than 13 reactive allergens have been identified in the serum of Anisakis allergy patients, but the allergenicity of only a few of these have been evaluated in vivo using a mouse model. To evaluate the allergenicity of two important allergens, Ani s 1 and Ani s 9, we induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model by repeated intranasal administration of the allergens. Both recombinant proteins (rAni s 1 and rAni s 9) elicited increased airway hyperresponsivity, airway infiltration by inflammatory cells (especially eosinophils), bronchial epithelial cell hyperplasia, all of which are characteristic of allergic airway inflammation. These allergens significantly increased the levels of Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-25) and Th17 related cytokines (IL-6 and IL-17) in both splenocytes and airway (except IL-17 in airway by rAni s 9). OVA-specific IgE and total IgE were increased in rAni s 1 and rAni s 9 treated mice as compared to controls treated with OVA alone. In addition, these two allergens induced gene expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-25 (initiators of the Th2 response), as well as CXCL1 (initiator of the Th17 response) in mouse lung epithelial cells. In conclusion, repeated intranasal treatments with rAni s 1 and rAni s 9 induced airway inflammation in mice by elevating of Th2 and Th17 responses in the lung.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites causing a wide clinical spectrum of diseases in humans. Analysis of a region of chromosome 6 from Leishmania major (Iribar et al., 2003) showed that the transcript of a putative L19 ribosomal protein (RPL19) was most abundant at the amastigote stage. We therefore decided to characterize L19 protein abundance throughout the lifecycle of Leishmania. Differential expression of the L19 gene during development has been observed for all Leishmania species studied to date (L. major, L. braziliensis, L. donovani, and L. amazonensis). Immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies against L. major RPL19 revealed that changes to L19 protein abundance follow a similar pattern in various species. The amount of L19 protein was higher in exponentially growing promastigotes than in stationary phase promastigotes. The L19 protein was barely detectable in amastigotes, despite the abundance of L19 transcripts observed in L. major at this stage. Immunofluorescence assays showed a granular, dispersed distribution of RPL19 throughout the cytoplasm. Subcellular fractionation confirmed the presence of the protein in the ribosomal fraction, but not in the cytosol of L. major. We generated a L. major transfectant bearing a plasmid-borne L19 gene. Overproduction of the L19 transcript and protein resulted in impaired growth of the transfectants in association with high polysome peaks. We also showed by metabolic labeling that L19 overexpressing clones display low rates of translation. These data suggest that L19 overexpression affects negatively translation elongation or termination. The lack of correlation between L19 transcript and protein abundances suggest that the translation of L19 is differentially controlled during development in the various species investigated.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Development of new generation of vaccines against leishmaniasis requires adjuvants to elicit the type and intensity of immune response needed for protection. The coupling of target-specific antibodies to the liposomal surface to create immunoliposomes has appeared as a promising way in achieving a liposome active targeting. In this study, immunoliposomes were prepared by grafting non-immune mouse IgG onto the liposomal surface. The influence of active targeted immunoliposomes on the type and intensity of generated immune response against Leishmania was then investigated and compared with that of liposomes and control groups which received either SLA or HEPES buffer alone. All formulations contained SLA and were used to immunize the mice in the left hind footpad 3 times in 3-week intervals. Evaluation of lesion development and parasite burden in the foot and spleen after challenge with L. major, evaluation of Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ), and titration of IgG isotypes were carried out to assess the type of generated immune response and the extent of protection. The results indicated that liposomes might be effective adjuvant systems to induce protection against L. major challenge in BALB/c mice, but stronger cell mediated immune responses were induced when immunoliposomes were utilized. Thus, immune modulation using immunoliposomes might be a practical approach to improve the immunization against L. major.
    Experimental Parasitology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that induces mucocutaneous and diffuse cutaneous lesions upon infection. An important component in treatment failure is the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. It is necessary to clarify the mechanism of resistance that occurs in these parasites to develop effective drugs for leishmaniasis treatment. Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were selected by gradually increasing concentrations of vinblastine and were maintained under continuous drug pressure (resistant cells). Vinblastine-resistant L. amazonensis proliferated similarly to control parasites. However, resistant cells showed changes in the cell shape, irregular flagella and a decrease in rhodamine 123 accumulation, which are factors associated with the development of resistance, suggesting the MDR phenotype. The Mg-dependent-ecto-ATPase, an enzyme located on cell surface of Leishmania parasites, is involved in the acquisition of purine and participates in the adhesion and infectivity process. We compared control and resistant L. amazonensis ecto-enzymatic activities. The control and resistant Leishmania ecto-ATPase activities were 16.0 ± 1.5 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7) cells and 40.0 ± 4.4 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7)cells, respectively. Interestingly, the activity of other ecto-enzymes present on the L. amazonensis cell surface, the ecto-5' and 3'-nucleotidases and ecto-phosphatase, did not increase. The level of ecto-ATPase modulation is related to the degree of resistance of the cell. Cells resistant to 10 μM and 60 μM of vinblastine have ecto-ATPase activities of 22.7 ± 0.4 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7) cells and 33.8 ± 0.8 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7)cells, respectively. In vivo experiments showed that both lesion size and parasite burden in mice infected with resistant parasites are greater than those of L. amazonensis control cells. Furthermore, our data established a relationship between the increase in ecto-ATPase activity and greater infectivity and severity of the disease caused by vinblastine-resistant L. amazonensis promastigotes. Taken together, these data suggest that ecto-enzymes could be potential therapeutic targets in the struggle against the spread of leishmaniasis, a neglected world-wide public health problem.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidiosis is prevalent in domesticated, caged, and wild birds. Cryptosporidium baileyi, an ascendant species of avian Cryptosporidium, is an important pathogen. It causes respiratory disease in chickens, especially chickens younger than 50 days. In this study, SEM, histological, semi-quantitative PCR, and nested PCR techniques were used to explore the impact of different inoculation routes on sites of C. baileyi infection in chickens. Results showed that inoculation with sporozoites or oocysts via the rectum was an effective means of causing infection. This may provide an important reference for the development of the transfection system of C. baileyi in chickens. Numerous endogenous stages of C. baileyi were observed in the bursas of Fabricius (BF) and cloacas of chickens inoculated with sporozoites or oocysts via the rectum, but no parasite was seen in the tracheas of any of these chickens. In chickens infected with oocysts via the crop, the number of parasites in the BF was approximately 23-fold more than in the trachea. All blood samples collected after inoculation were negative for C. baileyi. These data show that C. baileyi was not transferred by blood circulation between the BF and respiratory tract. Different routes of inoculation were here found to distinctly affect sites of parasitism in chickens. These findings may facilitate further understanding of the biology of C. baileyi and efforts to control avian cryptosporidiosis.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a protocol to inactivate Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) tachyzoites employing 1 minute of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. We show that this treatment completely inhibited parasite replication and cyst formation in vitro and in vivo but did not affect the induction of a robust IgG response in mice. We propose that our protocol can be used to study the contribution of the humoral immune response to rodent behavioral alterations following T. gondii infection.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma rangeli is a protozoan parasite of insects and mammals that is challenged by the constant action of reactive oxygen species, generated either by its own metabolism or through the host immune response. The aim of this work was to investigate whether T. rangeli is able to modify the redox state of its insect vector, Rhodnius prolixus, through the modulation of such antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and GPx present in the midgut of the insect. We verified that in R. prolixus fed with blood infected with T. rangeli there is an increase in SOD activity in the anterior and posterior midguts. However, the activities of enzymes related to hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxides metabolism, such as catalase and GPx, were decreased in relation to the insect control group, which was only fed blood. These changes in the redox state of the vector led to an increase in lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation levels in the anterior and posterior midgut tissues. We also verified that the addition of 1 mM GSH in the blood meal of the infected insects increased the proliferation of these parasites by 50%. These results suggest that there is an increase in oxidative stress in the insect gut during T. rangeli infection, and this condition could contribute to the control of the proliferation of these parasites.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2014;