Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Publisher: International Society of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety; International Academy of Environmental Safety, Elsevier


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    Ecotoxicology and environmental safety (Online), Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, Environmental research., EES
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are noxious and carcinogenic pollutants that can be removed from water by using emerging, ecofriendly, phytofiltration technology that employs Micranthemum umbrosum. After culturing M. umbrosum for 7 days in a hydroponic experiment, accumulation of 1219±44.11µgAsg(-1) and 799.40±30.95µgCdg(-1) were observed in the leaves, from 1000µgAs L(-1) and 1000µgCdL(-1) of water, respectively. Plant and water samples were analyzed for assessing the As and Cd accumulations, translocations, phytotoxic effects, uptake mechanisms and kinetics, and for evaluating the potential of M. umbrosum in As and Cd phytofiltration. The uptake pattern was leaf>stem>root for both pollutants. The plant showed higher resistance to As than to that to Cd. Uptake of inorganic As species was much greater than that of organic As and was found at above the substrate concentration. However, Cd showed similar uptake pattern to that of inorganic As species, and the data was better fit to a non-linear than a linear model. Low molecular weight substances that have thiol group(s) may be responsible for the binding of As in plants whereas Cd showed a different mechanism to that of As. M. umbrosum showed good As phytofiltration capabilities without any phytotoxic effects, but it was found to be a moderate accumulator of Cd with some phytotoxic effect compare to some other previously studied plant.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2015; 112:193-200.
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    ABSTRACT: The crop plants (hemp, flax, sunflower, mustard) could growth on places contaminated by 2,4-DNT up to 1 mg/l.•Selected crop plants could be used for phytoremediation of nitroaromatic compounds.•Concentration 0.252 g/kg 2,4-DNT could have the positive effect on plant growth.•2 Amino-4 nitrocompounds and 4 amino-2 nitrocompounds was found as the products of phytotransformation of 2,4-DNT.•The phytotoxicity of both 2A-NT and 4A-NT was in low concentration (0–25 mg/l) significantly higher than that of the parent compound.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2015; 112.
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    ABSTRACT: We report cytotoxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) towards the Channel Catfish Ovary (CCO) cell line.•The cytotoxcity data have been subjected to quantitative structure–toxicity modeling.•The toxicity of ILs towards CCO was related to cationic shape and hydrophobicity parameters.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2015; 112.
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    ABSTRACT: B. calyciflorus distributing in the three lakes is a complex composed of two sibling species.•Sibling species I distributes in Lake Hui through successful dispersal and colonization.•Sibling species II has a lower intrinsic rate of population increase (r).•Fly ash effluent decreases algal food level and quality in Lake Hui.•Low r, food level and quality restrict the distribution of sibling species II in Lake Hui.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2015; 112.
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    ABSTRACT: Combination of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia increased heavy metal removal.•Heavy metal removal increased with retention time.•Removal of heavy metal increased with their initial concentration in wastewater.•Phragmites australis showed higher accumulative capacities for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2015; 112.
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    ABSTRACT: Activated carbon cloth is used for solid phase extraction of metal ions.•The important variables were optimized.•Matrix effects are investigated.•The method was satisfactorily applied to preconcentration of some metals in real samples.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2015; 112.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5–120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured–activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that differentflow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels–the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary significantly, the site selection is extremely important for proper design of river biomonitoring studies involving caging.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/2015; 112:153-160.
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    ABSTRACT: The second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum is an effective tool for the eradication of invasive rodents from islands and fenced sanctuaries, for biodiversity restoration. However, broadcast application of brodifacoum bait on islands may expose non-target wildlife in coastal marine environments to brodifacoum, with subsequent secondary exposure risk for humans if such marine wildlife is harvested for consumption. We report a case study of monitoring selected marine species following aerial application of brodifacoum bait in August 2011 to eradicate Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Ulva Island, New Zealand. Residual concentrations of brodifacoum were detected in 3 of 10 species of coastal fish or shellfish sampled 43–176 d after bait application commenced. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were found in liver, but not muscle tissue, of 2 of 24 samples of blue cod (0.026 and 0.092 µg/g; Parapercis colias) captured live then euthanized for tissue sampling. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were also found in whole-body samples of 4 of 24 mussels (range=0.001–0.022 µg/g, n=4; Mytilus edulis) and 4 of 24 limpets (range=0.001–0.016 µg/g, n=4; Cellana ornata). Measured residue concentrations in all three species were assessed as unlikely to have eventually caused mortality of the sampled individuals. We also conducted a literature review and determined that in eleven previous accounts of residue examination of coastal marine species following aerial applications of brodifacoum bait, including our results from Ulva Island, the overall rate of residue detection was 5.6% for marine invertebrates (11 of 196 samples tested) and 3.1% for fish (2 of 65 samples tested). Furthermore, our results from Ulva Island are the first known detection of brodifacoum residue in fish liver following an aerial application of brodifacoum bait. Although our findings confirm the potential for coastal marine wildlife to be exposed to brodifacoum following island rodent eradications using aerial bait application, the risk of mortality to exposed individual fish or shellfish appears very low. There is also a very low risk of adverse effects on humans that consume fish or shellfish containing residual concentrations in the ranges reported here. Furthermore, any brodifacoum residues that occur in marine wildlife decline to below detectable concentrations over a period of weeks. Thus potential human exposure to brodifacoum through consumption of marine wildlife containing residual brodifacoum could be minimized by defining ‘no take’ periods for harvest following bait application and regular monitoring to confirm the absence of detectable residues in relevant marine wildlife.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/2015; 113.
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    ABSTRACT: The study was conducted in pristine and historically contaminated soils.•The combined effects of temperature and copper were assessed•Copper stress alters the structure and diversity of bacterial communities.•The copper effect on soil bacterial communities is temperature-dependent.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/2015; 111.
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    ABSTRACT: Using Monte Carlo and bioaccessibility to assess the risk of washed fly ash reuse.•Washing process resulted in concentrated content and decreased bioaccessibility.•Effects of water-washing and acid-washing process on cancer risk are different.•The difference of washing process's influence on actual hazard index is uncertain.•Washing process cannot reduce the actual risk to acceptable level.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/2015; 111.
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    ABSTRACT: Roundup is the most widely used agricultural pesticide in the world•While it is generally non-toxic to mammals, it appears highly toxic to tadpoles•Here we show that sub-lethal exposure impairs tadpole anti-predator responses•The likely cause of impairment is the loss of function of alarm cues•This loss has negative ecological and survival consequences for amphibians
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/2015; 111.
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of metals in different organs and different species of animals for human consumption.•Estimated the intake of metals and metalloid through consumption.•Daily intake of toxic metals were low compared to the WHO tolerable daily intakes.•Target hazard quotients of toxic metals were higher for children compared to adults.•Contributions of chicken to toxic metal exposure in children could be significant.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/2015; 111.