Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (Biochem Biophys Res Comm )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications is the premier international journal devoted to the very rapid dissemination (six weeks) of timely and significant experimental results in the diverse fields of biological research. Frequent publication (36 issues per year) ensures a steady stream of information. The development of the "Breakthroughs and Views" section brings the minireview format to the journal. In addition, the editors have expanded the journalís scope. Research Areas now include: Biochemistry Cell Biology; Developmental Biology; Immunology; Neurobiology; Biophysics; Molecular Biology; Plant Biology.

  • Impact factor
    2.28
  • 5-year impact
    2.50
  • Cited half-life
    8.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.40
  • Eigenfactor
    0.14
  • Article influence
    0.78
  • Website
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications website
  • Other titles
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications (Online), Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • ISSN
    1090-2104
  • OCLC
    35247010
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Yuan-Ping Pang
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    ABSTRACT: The 1-4 interaction scaling factors are used in AMBER forcefields to reduce the exaggeration of short-range repulsion caused by the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential and a nonpolarizable charge model and to obtain better agreements of small-molecule conformational energies with experimental data. However, the effects of these scaling factors on protein secondary structure conformations have not been investigated until now. This article reports the finding that the 1-4 interactions among the protein backbone atoms are more repulsive in the α-helix conformation than in two β-strand conformations. Therefore, the 1-4 interaction scaling factors of protein backbone torsions ϕ and ψ control the conformational equilibrium between α-helix and β-strand. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that reducing these ϕ and ψ scaling factors readily converts an α-helix conformation of AcO-(AAQAA)3-NH2 to a β-strand conformation, and the reverse occurs when increasing the ϕ and ψ scaling factors. These results suggest that the ϕ and ψ scaling factors can be used to generate the α-helix or β-strand conformation in situ and to control the propensities of a forcefield for secondary structure elements.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014; 106.
  • Fei Chen, Xiu-Zhen Chen, Li-Na Qin, Yong Tao, Zhi-Yang Dong
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    ABSTRACT: Trichoderma reesei is thought to be a promising recombinant host for the production and secretion of complex proteins due to its ability to secrete large amounts of proteins. In this study we identified a functional N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAGase) gene Nag1 in T. reesei. Nag1, a putative gene encoding a GH 20 family NAGase in T. reesei, was cloned and homologous overexpressed in the T. reesei RutC30ΔU3 with a strong cellobiohydrolase1 gene (cbh1) promoter. Nag1 was secreted in its active form and the highest expression level was around 499.85IU/ml. Nag1 has a molecular mass of 80kDa. The optimum pH and temperature were 4.0 and 60°C, respectively. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
  • Inae Kim, Jung Hur, Sunjoo Jeong
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    ABSTRACT: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
  • Gantulga Darambazar, Masanori Nakata, Takashi Okada, Lei Wang, EnXu Li, Atsumi Shinozaki, Megumi Motoshima, Masatomo Mori, Toshihiko Yada
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    ABSTRACT: An adipokine leptin plays a central role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis via acting on the hypothalamus. However, its downstream neuronal mechanism is not thoroughly understood. The neurons expressing nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2)-derived nesfatin-1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) have been implicated in feeding and energy homeostasis. The present study aimed to explore the role of PVN NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the leptin action, by using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding shRNA targeting NUCB2 (AAV-NUCB2-shRNA). Leptin directly interacted and increased cytosolic Ca(2+) in single neurons isolated from the PVN, predominantly in NUCB2/nesftin-1-immunoractive neurons. Treatment with leptin in vivo and in vitro markedly increased NUCB2 mRNA expression in the PVN. Peripheral and central injections of leptin failed to significantly inhibit food intake in mice receiving AAV-NUCB2These results indicate that PVN NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is directly targeted by leptin, and mediates its anorexigenic effect. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
  • Manabu Niwa, Yasushi Numaguchi, Masakazu Ishii, Tomomi Kuwahata, Megumi Kondo, Rei Shibata, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike, Toyoaki Murohara
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the adipose renin-angiotensin system contributes to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) has been identified a key regulator of GLUT4 transporter as well as angiotensin IV (AngIV) receptor (AT4R). Although AngII-AT1R axis appears as anorexigenic and as an effector of energy expenditure, the impact of AngIV-IRAP/AT4R axis on energy metabolism remains unknown. The aim was to determine the role of IRAP in energy metabolism in mice METHODS AND RESULTS: In adipocyte culture, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) expression levels were diminished in IRAP knockout (IRAP(-/-)) if compared with those of wild-type (C57Bl/6J, WT) mice. Mice were fed high-fat diet (32% fat) at age of 8 weeks. At the entry, body weight, body fat content, and parameters of saccharometabolism were similar between groups. However, IRAP(-/-) mice exhibited blunted body weight gain compared to that of WT mice, despite comparable food intake and physical activity. At 20 weeks of age, IRAP(-/-) mice had 25% lower body weight than WT mice. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests revealed that the glucose disposal and the hypoglycemic effect of insulin were pronounced in IRAP(-/-) mice after a high fat diet. Indirect calorimetry demonstrated that whole-body oxygen consumption rates were significantly higher in IRAP(-/-) mice by 18% with mild hyperthermia. Analysis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in IRAP(-/-) showed increased levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) at basal level and adaptive thermogenesis was not impaired. IRAP deficiency may leads to suppression of PAI-1 expression in adipocytes and upregulation of UCP-1-mediated thermogenesis in BAT and increased energy expenditure to prevent the development of obesity, and suggest a therapeutic potential of IRAP/AT4R blockade in diet-induced obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
  • Jang Hyun Choi, Young Joon Song, Hansol Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymes that mediate posttranslational modifications of histone and nonhistone proteins have been implicated in regulation of skeletal muscle differentiation. However, functions of histone demethylases that could counter the actions of H3-K9 specific histone methyltransferases remain still obscure. Here we present evidences that KDM4B histone demethylase regulates expression of myogenic regulators such as MyoD and thereby controls myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells. We demonstrate that expression of KDM4B gradually increases during myogenic differentiation and depletion of KDM4B using shRNA results in inhibition of differentiation in C2C12 myoblast cells, which is correlated with decreased expression of MyoD and myogenin. In addition, we find that KDM4B shRNA represses expression of MyoD promoter-driven luciferase reporter and exogenous expression of MyoD rescues myogenic potential in KDM4B-depleted myoblast cells. We further show that KDM4B interacts with MyoD, binds to MyoD and myogenin promoters in vivo, and finally, is involved in demethylation of tri-methylated H3-K9 on promoters of MyoD and myogenin. Taken together, our data suggest that KDM4B plays key roles in myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells, presumably by its function as a H3-K9 specific histone demethylase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
  • Tomoko Sakata, Kotaro Fujii, Mutsuhito Ohno, Makoto Kitabatake
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    ABSTRACT: Nonfunctional mutant ribosomal RNAs in 40S or 60S subunits are selectively degraded in eukaryotic cells (nonfunctional rRNA decay, NRD). We previously reported that NRD of 25S rRNA required cullin-E3 ligase Rtt101 and its associating factor Mms1, both of which are involved in DNA repair. Although Mms22, an accessory component of the E3 complex, was suggested to direct the E3 complex to DNA repair, the factor that directs the complex to 25S NRD currently remains unknown. We herein demonstrated that another accessory component, Crt10 was required for 25S NRD, but not for DNA repair, suggesting that this accessory component specifies the function of the E3 complex differently. We also further divided Crt10-containing E3 complexes into sub-complexes, one of which contained the Paf1 complex, a Pol-II binding complex that modulates the transcription of stress-related genes. Our results showed the convergence of multiple pathways for stresses that harm nucleic acids and provided a molecular framework for the substrate diversity of the complex. (159 words). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
  • Masahiro Yo, Asako Sakaue-Sawano, Shinichi Noda, Atsushi Miyawaki, Hiroyuki Miyoshi
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) technology utilizing the cell cycle-dependent proteolysis of ubiquitin oscillators enables visualization of cell cycle progression in living cells. The Fucci probe consists of two chimeric fluorescent proteins, FucciS/G2/M and FucciG1, which label the nuclei of cells in S/G2/M phase green and those in G1 phase red, respectively. In this study, we generated Fucci transgenic mice and analyzed transgene expression in hematopoietic cells using flow cytometry. The FucciS/G2/M-#474 and FucciG1-#639 mouse lines exhibited high-level transgene expression in most hematopoietic cell populations. The FucciG1-#610 line expressed the transgene at high levels predominantly in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population. Analysis of the HSC (CD34(-)KSL: CD34(-/low)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)lineage marker) population in the transgenic mice expressing both FucciS/G2/M and FucciG1 (#474/#610) confirmed that more than 95% of the cells were in G0/G1 phase, although the FucciG1(red) intensity was heterogeneous. An in vivo competitive repopulation assay revealed that repopulating activity resided largely in the FucciG1(red)(high) fraction of CD34(-)KSL cells. Thus, the CD34(-)KSL HSC population can be further purified on the basis of the Fucci intensity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
  • Xianghua Zhang, Hweon Park, Sung-Sik Han, Jung Woo Kim, Chang-Young Jang
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptors are activated by the hormone estrogen and they control cell growth by altering gene expression as a transcription factor. So far two estrogen receptors have been found: ERα and ERβ. Estrogen receptors are also implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, we found that ERα localized on the spindle and spindle poles at the metaphase during mitosis. Depletion of ERα generated unaligned chromosomes in metaphase cells and lagging chromosomes in anaphase cells in a transcription-independent manner. Furthermore, the levels of β-tubulin and γ-tubulin were reduced in ERα-depleted cells. Consistent with this, polymerization of microtubules in ERα-depleted cells and turnover rate of α/β-tubulin were decreased than in control cells. We suggest that ERα regulates chromosome alignment and spindle dynamics by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that miR-378a plays important roles in adipogenesis and obesity; however, the precise mechanisms of action remain unknown. Here, we found that miR-378a-3p expression is up-regulated in adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced obese mice, as well as during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Mir-378a-3p induced adipogenesis by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). Overexpression of miR-378a-3p or silencing MAPK1 reduced MAPK1 expression and enhanced adipogenesis, whereas blockage of endogenous miR-378a-3p had the opposite effect, suggesting that miR-378a-3p promotes the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by targeting MAPK1. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes a technical breakthrough in endolymphatic sac research, made possible by the use of the recently generated Prox1-GFP transgenic mouse model. Whole-mount imaging techniques through the decalcified temporal bone and three-dimensional observations of Prox1-GFP mouse tissue revealed the positive labeling of the endolymphatic sac in adult stage, and allowed, for the first time, the GFP-based identification of endolymphatic sac epithelial cells.Prox1 expression was observed in all parts of the endolymphatic sac epithelia. In intermediate portion of the endolymphatic sac, mitochondria-rich cells did not express Prox1, although ribosome-rich cells showed strong GFP labeling. The anatomical relationship between the endolymphatic sac and the surrounding vasculature was directly observed. In the endolymphatic sac, expression of Prox1 may suggest progenitor cell-like pluripotency or developmental similarity to systemic lymphatic vessels in other organs. This whole-mount imaging technique of the endolymphatic sac can be combined with other conventional histological, sectioning, and labeling techniques and will be very useful for future endolymphatic sac research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosal tissue. The interleukin-13 (IL-13) signaling pathway is of great importance in the pathogenesis of AR. However, how the signaling molecules in this pathway are regulated, particularly through microRNAs (miRNAs), remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory role and mechanism of miRNA-143 (miR-143) in IL-13-induced inflammatory cytokine and mucus production in nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from AR patients. Our results showed that forced expression of miR-143 significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), eotaxin and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) in IL-13-stimulated NECs. Moreover, we confirmed that miR-143 directly targeted and significantly suppressed IL-13 receptor α1 chain (IL13Rα1) gene expression. This study thus suggests that miR-143 regulation of IL-13-induced inflammatory cytokine and mucus production in NECs from AR patients probably partly depends on inhibition of IL13Rα1. Therefore, the IL13Rα1 signaling pathway may be a potential target for the prevention and treatment of AR by miR-143. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH+RR, and SAH+Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron-sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Perilipin coats lipid droplets in adipocytes and steroidogenic cells. Its major role is in the regulation of intracellular lipolysis in adipocytes. Our aim was to examine the association between common variants at the PLIN1 gene and central obesity in unrelated Chinese adults. A case-control study was carried out on 869 patients with central obesity and 869 age- and gender-matched individuals without central obesity. Two PLIN1 variants (rs6496589 and rs8179078) were genotyped by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. In addition, the association of the variant with central obesity was replicated in an independent population of 629 central obesity patients and 518 controls. Finally, the relationship between rs6496589 and enhancing lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages was assessed. PLIN1 rs6496589 allele frequencies and genotype frequencies of CG+GG in the patients' group were much lower than those in the control group. After adjustment for conventional risk factors using multiple logistical regression analysis, rs6496589G allele frequencies were significantly associated with a lower risk of central obesity (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59-0.86, P=0.001). These results were confirmed in an independent study. No association was found between PLIN1 rs8179078 and central obesity. Furthermore, in vitro assays revealed that homozygous rs6496589G alleles presented lower lipid droplet accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages, compared with non-carriers. The functional PLIN1 rs6496589 may influence the risk of central obesity through possible regulation of lipid storage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is considered to be the major one contributing to the process of development of endothelial dysfunction. Exposure to TNF-α induces the expression of a number of proinflammatory chemokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and adhesion molecules, including vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin, which mediate the interaction of invading monocytes with vascular endothelial cells. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a licensed clinical drug for treating patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). The effects of GA in vascular disease haven't shown before. In this study, we found that GA significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced binding of monocytes to endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we found that GA ameliorated the upregulation of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin induced by TNF-α. Notably, this process is mediated by inhibiting the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB. Our results also indicate that GA pretreatment attenuates the up-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS. These data suggest that GA might have a potential benefit in therapeutic endothelial dysfunction related diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) has been implicated in etiology of some types of cancer. Herein, inducible RNAi cell lines were established and cell morphology and motility were analyzed. The majority of Sep15-deficient cells (>95%) formed membrane blebs in a dynamic manner. Blebbing cells transformed cell morphology from a normal flat spindle shape to a spherical morphology. In blebbing cells, actin fibers moved to the cell periphery, covering and obscuring visualization of α-tubulin. Bleb formation was suppressed by the inhibitors of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), RhoA or myosin light chain (MLC), restoring blebbing cells to wild-type morphology. RhoA activation and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 was induced by Sep15 knockdown. Sep15-deficient cells were non-apoptotic, and displayed a distinct relative localization of F-actin and α-tubulin from typical apoptotic blebbing cells. Our data suggest that Sep15 in Chang liver cells regulates the pathway that antagonizes RhoA/ROCK/MLC-dependent non-apoptotic bleb formation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify candidate pathogenic autoantigens of Behçet's disease (BD) in pathogen-stimulated target cells. First, three cell lines were used as target cells to screen autoantibody. Second, selected target cells were simulated with pathogens. Third, western blotting was used for detecting the auto-antigens in cell extracts. Next, immunoprecipitation was performed and the amino-acid sequences of target antigens were analyzed by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF. Then, the potential target antigen was expressed, purified, and immunologically confirmed. And finally, an ELISA kit was developed and clinically validated through the assessments of 456 clinical samples with BD. One antigen with a molecular weight of approximately 27-kDa was identified as heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). The reactivity of serum IgG against recombinant human HSP27 was detected in 52 of 91 BD patients (57%), 66 of 92 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (72%), 32 of 90 Sjogren syndrome (SS) patients (36%), 22 of 92 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (24%) and 0 of 91 healthy controls (HC). The reactivity of BD serum IgG antibodies against HSP27 was significantly higher than SLE (P<0.0001) SS (P<0.0001) and HC (P<0.0001). This study identified HSP27 as a candidate endothelial cell autoantigen of BD, which is interesting and probably worth further exploration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine regulatory peptides (NERP-1 and -2) are novel amidated peptides derived from VGF, a polypeptide secreted from neurons and endocrine cells through a regulated pathway. Dr. Nakazato Masamitsu reported that NERP-1 and -2 may have a local modulator function on the human endocrine system, and clearly showed expression of NERP-1 and -2 in human pancreas islets. Based on these data, we investigated the alteration of insulin secretion, insulin granule-related protein, and pancreas-specific transcription factors in response to NERPs expression. We confirmed the expression of NERP-1 and -2 in the pancreas of a human diabetes patient, in addition to diabetic animal models. When INS1 cells and primary rat islets were incubated with 10 nM NERPs for 3 days, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels were blunted by NERP-1 and -2. The number of insulin granules released from the readily releasable pool, which is associated with the first phase of glucose-stimulated insulin release, was decreased by NERP-1 and -2. Insulin granule-related proteins and mRNAs were down-regulated by NERP-2 treatment. NERP-2 decreased the expression of BETA2/NeuroD and insulin and controlled the nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation of FOXO1 and Pdx-1. We observed that NERP-2 levels were dramatically increased in diabetic pancreas. In conclusion, NERP-2 may play an important role in insulin secretion through the regulation of insulin secretory granules and β-cell transcription factors. In addition, NERP-2 expression is increased in diabetic conditions. Therefore, we suggest that NERPs may be potent endogenous suppressors of glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are widely distributed in different species and are well known for their inhibitory activities towards serine proteinases. Here, we report the functional characterization of Bombyx mori serpin16. Expression analysis showed that serpin16 was specifically expressed at high levels in the silk gland at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, homology modeling and multi-sequence alignment suggested that serpin16 had a canonical serpin fold, but it contained a unique reactive center loop, which was obviously shorter than that of typical serpins. Inhibitory activity analyses revealed that the target proteinase of serpin18 is a cysteine proteinase, rather than a serine proteinase. Furthermore, a Michaelis complex model of serpin16 with its target proteinase was constructed to explain the structural basis of how serpin16 recognizes the cysteine proteinase and its target specificity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and its activation is reported to suppress the progression of atherosclerosis. We have reported that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) activate PPARγ in macrophages. However, it is not yet known whether statins activate PPARγ in other vascular cells. In the present study, we investigated whether statins activate PPARγ in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) and thus mediate anti-atherosclerotic effects. Human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) and human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used in this study. Fluvastatin and pitavastatin activated PPARγ in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Statins induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Moreover, treatment with COX-2-siRNA abrogated statin-mediated PPARγ activation in HASMCs. Statins suppressed migration and proliferation of HASMCs, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in HASMCs. These effects of statins were abrogated by treatment with PPARγ-siRNA. Treatment with statins suppressed atherosclerotic lesion formation in Apoe(-/-) mice. In addition, transcriptional activity of PPARγ and CD36 expression were increased, and the expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α was decreased, in the aorta of statin-treated Apoe(-/-) mice. Statins mediate anti-atherogenic effects through PPARγ activation in SMCs. These effects of statins on SMCs may be beneficial for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014;